Chapter03      Creating And  Managing  User  Accounts
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Chapter03      Creating And  Managing  User  Accounts Chapter03 Creating And Managing User Accounts Presentation Transcript

  • Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Chapter 3: Creating and Managing User Accounts
  • Objectives
    • Understand the purpose of user accounts
    • Understand the user authentication process
    • Understand and configure local, roaming, and mandatory user profiles
    • Configure and modify user accounts using different methods
    • Troubleshoot user account and authentication problems
  • Introduction to User Accounts
    • A user account is an Active Directory object
    • Represents information that defines a user with access to network (first name, last name, password, etc.)
    • Required for anyone using resources on network
    • Assists in administration and security
    • Must follow organizational standards
  • User Account Properties
    • Primary tool for creating and managing accounts is Active Directory Users and Computers
    • Active Directory is extensible so additional tabs may be added to property pages
    • Major account properties that can be set include:
      • General
      • Address
      • Account
      • Profile
      • Sessions
  • Activity 3-1: Reviewing User Account Properties
    • Objective is to review properties of user accounts through main tabs of Active Directory Users and Computers
    • Start  Administrative Tools  Active Directory Users and Computers  Users  AdminXX account  Properties
    • Explore tabs and values as directed
  • The Account Tab of Properties
  • User Authentication
    • The process by which a user’s identity is validated
    • Used to grant or deny access to network resources
    • From a client operating system
      • Name, password, resource required
    • In Active Directory environment
      • Domain controller authenticates
    • In a workgroup
      • Local SAM database authenticates
  • Authentication Methods
    • Two main processes
      • Interactive authentication
        • User account information is supplied at log on
      • Network authentication
        • User’s credentials are confirmed for network access
  • Interactive Authentication
    • The process by which a user provides a user name and password for authentication
    • For domain logon, credentials compared to centralized Active Directory database
    • For local logon, credentials compared to local SAM database
    • In domain environments, users normally don’t have local accounts
  • Network Authentication
    • The process by which a network service confirms the identify of a user
    • For a user who logs on to domain, network authentication is transparent
      • Credentials from interactive authentication valid for network resources
    • A user who logs on to local computer will be prompted to log on to network resource separately
  • Authentication Protocols
    • Windows Server 2003 supports two main authentication protocols:
      • Kerberos version 5 (Kerberos v5)
      • NT LAN Manager (NTLM)
    • Kerberos v5 is primary protocol for Active Directory environments but is not supported on all client systems
    • NTLM is primary protocol for older Microsoft operating systems
  • Kerberos v5
    • Primary authentication protocol used in Active Directory domain environments
    • Supported by Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003
    • Protocol followed:
      • Log on request passed to Key Distribution Center (KDC), a Windows Server 2003 domain controller
      • KDC authenticates user and, if valid, issues a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) to client system
  • Kerberos v5 (continued)
      • When client requests a network resource, it presents the TGT to KDC
      • KDC issues a service ticket to client
      • Client presents service ticket to host server for network resource
    • Every domain controller in Active Directory environment holds role of KDC
    • Not all clients follow this protocol
  • NTLM
    • A challenge-response protocol
    • Used with operating systems running Windows NT 4.0 or earlier or with Windows 2000 or Server 2003 when necessary
    • Protocol followed:
      • User logs in, client calculates cryptographic hash of password
      • Client sends user name to domain controller
  • NTLM (continued)
      • Domain controller generates random challenge and sends it to client
      • Client encrypts challenge with hash of password and sends to domain controller
      • Domain controller calculates expected value to be returned from client and compares to actual value
    • After successful authentication, domain controller generates a token for user for network access
  • User Profiles
    • A collection of settings specific to a particular user
    • Stored locally by default
      • Do not follow user logging on to different computers
    • Can create a roaming profile
      • Does follow user logging on to different computers
    • Administrator can create a mandatory profile
      • User cannot alter it
  • User Profile Folders and Contents
  • Local Profiles
    • New profiles are created from Default User profile folder
    • User can change local profile and changes are stored uniquely to that user
    • Administrator can manage various elements of profile
      • Change Type
      • Delete
      • Copy To
  • Activity 3-2: Testing Local Profile Settings
    • Objective is to configure and test a local user profile
    • Start  Administrative Tools  Active Directory Users and Computers  Users  New  User
    • Follow directions to create a new user profile
    • Explore and configure properties
    • Test by logging in as new user
  • Roaming Profiles
    • Roaming profiles
      • Allow a profile to be stored on a central server and follow the user
      • Provide advantage of a single centralized location (helpful for backup)
    • Configured from Profiles page of Active Directory Users and Computers
    • Changing a profile from local to roaming requires care – should copy first
  • Activity 3-3: Configuring and Testing a Roaming Profile
    • Objective: To configure and test a roaming user profile
    • Create a shared folder, copy a local profile to folder, and configure properties of user account to use roaming folder
    • Follow directions in book to create, configure, and test the new roaming profile
  • Mandatory Profiles
    • Local and roaming profiles allow users to make permanent changes
    • Mandatory profiles allow changes only for a single session
    • Local and roaming profiles can both be configured as mandatory
      • ntuser.dat  ntuser.man
  • Activity 3-4: Configuring a Mandatory Profile
    • Objective: To configure and test a mandatory user profile
    • Start  My Computer
    • Follow directions to make previously created test profile mandatory by renaming file
    • Test that no permanent changes can be made by user
  • Creating and Managing User Accounts
    • Standard tool is Active Directory Users and Computers
    • Also a number of command line tools and utilities
  • Active Directory Users and Computers
    • Available from Administrative Tools menu
    • Can be added to a Microsoft Management Console
    • Can be run from command line (dsa.msc)
    • Graphical tool
      • Can add, modify, move, delete, search for user accounts
    • Can configure multiple objects simultaneously
  • Activity 3-5: Creating User Accounts Using Active Directory Users and Computers
    • Objective: Use Active Directory Users and Computers to create user accounts
    • Start  Administrative Tools  Active Directory Users and Computers
    • Follow directions to create a number of new user accounts
  • User Account Templates
    • A user account that is pre-configured with common settings
    • Can be copied to create new user accounts with pre-defined settings
    • New account is then configured with detailed individual settings
  • Activity 3-6: Creating a User Account Template
    • Objective: Create a user account template and use the template to create a new user account
    • Start  Administrative Tools  Active Directory Users and Computers
    • Create a new user account template
    • Use a variable that will automatically populate the profile path with the name of user account
    • Follow directions to create and explore a new user account from template
  • Command Line Utilities
    • Some administrators prefer working from command line
    • Can be used to automate creation or management of accounts more flexibly
  • DSADD
    • Allows object types to be added to directory
      • Computer accounts, contacts, quotas, OUs, users, etc.
    • Syntax for user account is
      • DSADD USER distinguished-name switches
    • Switches include
      • -pwd (password), -memberof, -email, -profile, -disabled
  • Activity 3-7: Creating User Accounts Using DSADD
    • Objective: Use the DSADD USER command to create new user accounts
    • Start  Run
    • Follow directions to enter DSADD command
    • Check using Active Directory Computers and Users
    • Enter new DSADD command and again check results
  • DSMOD
    • Allows object types to be modified from the command line
      • Computer accounts, users, quotas, OUs, servers, etc.
    • Syntax for modifying user account is
      • DSMOD USER distinguished-name + switches +
    • Can modify multiple accounts simultaneously
  • Activity 3-8: Modifying User Accounts Using DSMOD
    • Objective is to modify existing user account properties using the DSMOD USER command
    • Start  Run
    • Follow directions to enter DSMOD command for a single user
    • Check using Active Directory Comp. and Users
    • Enter new DSMOD command for multiple users
    • Check results using Active Directory
  • DSQUERY
    • Allows various object types to be queried from command line
    • Supports wildcard (*)
    • Output can be redirected to another command (piped)
    • Example: return all user accounts that have not changed passwords in 14 days
      • dsquery user domainroot –name * -stalepwd 14
  • DSMOVE
    • Allows various object types to be moved from current location to a new location
    • Allows various object types to be renamed
    • Only moves within the same domain (otherwise use MOVETREE)
    • Example: to move a user account into a marketing OU
      • dsmove " cn=Paul Kohut,cn=users,dc=domain01, dc=dovercorp,dc=net " –newparent " ou=marketing, dc=domain01,dc=dovercorp,dc=net "
  • DSRM
    • Allows objects to be deleted from directory
    • Can delete single object or entire subtree
    • Has a confirm option that can be overridden
    • Example: to delete the Marketing OU and all its contained objects without a confirm prompt:
      • dsrm –subtree –noprompt –c " ou=marketing, dc=domain01,dc=dovercorp,dc=net "
  • Bulk Import and Export
    • Allows an organization to import existing stores of data rather than recreating from scratch
    • Allows an organization to export data that is already structured in Active Directory to secondary databases
    • Two command line utilities for import and export
      • CSVDE
      • LDIFDE
  • CSVDE
    • Command-line tool to bulk export and import Active Directory data to and from comma-separated value (CSV) files
    • CSV files can be created/edited using text-based editors
    • Example:
      • csvde –f output.csv
  • LDIFDE
    • Command-line tool to bulk export and import Active Directory data to and from LDIF files
      • LDAP Interchange Format
      • Industry standard for information in LDAP directories
      • Each attribute/value on a separate line with blank lines between objects
    • Can be read in text-based editors
    • Common uses: extending AD schemas, importing bulk data to populate AD, manipulating user and group objects
  • Activity 3-9: Exporting Active Directory Users Using LDIFDE
    • Objective is to export Active Directory user accounts using LDIFDE
    • Start  Run
    • Follow directions to enter LDIFDE command
    • Check exported results using Notepad editor
  • Troubleshooting User Account and Authentication Issues
    • Normally creating and configuring user accounts is straightforward
    • Issues do arise related to
      • Configuration of account
      • Policy settings
  • Account Policies
    • Authentication-related policy settings
      • Configured in Account Policies node of Group Policy objects at domain level
      • Account lockout, passwords, Kerberos
    • Default Domain Policy
      • Accessed from Active Directory Computers and Users
      • Configures policies for all domain users
  • Password Policy
    • Configuration settings
      • Password history and reuse
      • Maximum password age
      • Minimum password age
      • Minimum password length
      • Complexity requirements
      • Encryption policy
  • Account Lockout Settings
    • Configuration settings
      • Account lockout duration
      • Account lockout threshold
      • Reset account lockout counter after
  • Kerberos Policy
    • Configuration settings
      • Enforce user logon restrictions
      • Maximum lifetime for service ticket
      • Maximum lifetime for user ticket
      • Maximum lifetime for user ticket renewal
      • Maximum tolerance for computer clock synchronization
  • Auditing Authentication
    • Audit account logon event
      • Configured in Group Policy object linked to Domain Controllers OU (Default Domain Controllers Policy)
    • Default is to log only successful logons
    • Event viewable in Security log (use Event Viewer)
    • Can choose to edit failed logons
      • May be helpful for troubleshooting
      • Codes provide information about type of failure
  • Resolving Logon Issues
    • Some common logon issues (and fixes)
      • Incorrect user name or password (administrative reset)
      • Account lockout (manual unlock)
      • Account disabled (administrative enable)
      • Logon hour restrictions (check account restrictions)
      • Workstation restrictions (check account restrictions)
      • Domain controllers (check configured DNS settings)
      • Client time settings (check client clock synchronization)
  • Resolving Logon Issues (continued)
    • Down-level client issues (install Active Directory Client Extensions)
    • UPN logon issues (check Global Catalog server)
    • Unable to log on locally (set policy on local server)
    • Remote access logon issues (check access on Dial-up properties)
    • Terminal services logon issues (check allow logon to terminal server permission)
  • Summary
    • A user account is an object stored in Active Directory
      • Information that defines user and access to network
    • Primary tools to create and manage user accounts
      • Active Directory Users and Computers
      • Command line utilities (DSADD, DSMOD, DSQUERY, DSMOVE, DSRM)
    • Two main authentication processes
      • Interactive authentication
      • Network authentication
  • Summary (continued)
    • Two main authentication protocols
      • Kerberos v5, NTLM
    • User profiles used to configure and customize desktop environment
      • Local, roaming, mandatory
    • Utilities for bulk importing and exporting user data to and from Active Directory
      • LDIFDE and CSVDE