Chapter02  -- networking standards and the osi model
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Chapter02 -- networking standards and the osi model

on

  • 4,995 views

Basic Networking Guide

Basic Networking Guide

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,995
Views on SlideShare
4,995
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
222
Comments
1

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Thanks for sharing this. i also found some useful tutorial on computer networking at http and OSI model at http://www.netguidea.com/
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Chapter02 -- networking standards and the osi model Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 2: Networking Standards and the OSI Model Network+ Guide to Networks
  • 2. Objectives
    • Identify organizations that set standards for networking
    • Describe the purpose of the OSI Model and each of its layers
    • Explain specific functions belonging to each OSI Model layer
  • 3. Objectives (continued)
    • Understand how two network nodes communicate through the OSI Model
    • Discuss the structure and purpose of data packets and frames
    • Describe the two types of addressing covered by the OSI Model
  • 4. Networking Standards Organizations
    • Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications
      • ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is an organization composed of more than a thousand representatives from industry and government who together determine standards for the electronics industry and other fields, such as chemical and nuclear engineering, health and safety, and construction
  • 5. Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
      • ANSI also represents the United States in setting international standards
      • EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance) is a trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across the United States
  • 6. Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
      • TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) Focuses on standards for information technology, wireless, satellite, fiber optics, and telephone equipment
        • TIA/EIA alliance are its guidelines for how network cable should be installed in commercial buildings, known as the “TIA/EIA 568-B Series.”
  • 7.
      • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), or “I-triple-E,” is an international society composed of engineering professionals
        • IEEE goals are to promote development and education in the electrical engineering and computer science fields
    Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
  • 8.
      • ISO (International Organization for Standardization), headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, is a collection of standards and organizations representing 148 countries
        • ISO ’s goal is to establish international technological standards to facilitate global exchange of information and barrier-free trade
    Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
  • 9.
      • The ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is a specialized United Nations agency that regulates international telecommunications, including radio and TV frequencies, satellite and telephony specifications, networking infrastructure, and tariffs applied to global communications
    Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
  • 10. Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
      • ISOC (Internet Society), founded in 1992, is a professional membership society that helps to establish technical standards for the Internet
        • ISOC oversees groups with specific missions, such as the IAB and IETF
  • 11. Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
      • IAB (Internet Architecture Board) is a technical advisory group of researchers and technical professionals interested in overseeing the Internet’s design and management
      • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), the organization that sets standards for how systems communicate over the Internet—in particular, how protocols operate and interact
  • 12. Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
      • IANA and ICANN
        • Every computer / host on a network must have a unique address
        • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) kept records of available and reserved IP addresses and determined how addresses were issued out
        • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), a private, nonprofit corporation and is now ultimately responsible for IP addressing and domain name management
  • 13. The OSI Model
    • In the early 1980s, ISO began work on a universal set of specifications that would enable computer platforms across the world to communicate openly
    • This model, called the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model, divides network communications into seven layers:
  • 14. The OSI Model (continued)
  • 15. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Application Layer
      • Separates data into protocol data units (PDUs)
        • Application layer PDUs progress down through OSI Model layers 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1
        • Data traverses the network until it reaches the second computer’s Physical layer
        • Transfer of information happens in milliseconds
  • 16. The OSI Model (continued)
  • 17. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Application Layer
      • Does not include software applications, such as Microsoft Word or Netscape
      • Services communicate between software programs and lower-layer network services
      • File, print, message, database, and application services
  • 18. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Application Layer
      • World Wide Web (WWW)
      • Email - SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol or the X.400)
  • 19. The OSI Model (continued)
  • 20. The OSI Model (continued)
  • 21. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Presentation Layer
      • Protocols at the Presentation layer accept Application layer data and format it
      • Serves as a translator and are the standards which are involved in multimedia
      • Presentation layer protocols perform the coding, compression and also manage data encryption and decryption
  • 22. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Session Layer
      • Protocols in the Session layer coordinate and maintain communications between two nodes
      • Session refers to a connection for ongoing data exchange between two parties
  • 23. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Session Layer (continued)
      • Session layer’s functions are establishing and keeping alive the communications link for the duration of the session
        • Keep the communication secure
        • Synchronizing the dialog between the two nodes
        • Determining whether communications have been cut off, and, if so, figuring out where to restart transmission and terminating communications
  • 24. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Transport Layer
      • Protocols in the Transport layer accept data from the Session layer and manage end to-end delivery
      • Ensures that the data is transferred from point A to point B reliably, in the correct sequence, and without errors
  • 25. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Transport Layer (continued)
      • Without Transport layer services, data could not be verified or interpreted by its recipient
      • Handles flow control
      • Some Transport layer protocols take steps to ensure that data arrives exactly as it was sent.
  • 26. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Transport Layer (continued)
      • Such protocols are known as connection-oriented,
      • TCP is one example of a connection-oriented protocol
        • Three Step Process
          • Request (Client sends)
          • Acknowledgment (ACK)
          • Client Acknowledgement (ACK)
  • 27. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Transport Layer (continued)
      • Checksum: method of error checking
      • Connectionless protocols
      • Process is known as segmentation
        • Necessary for data units to match a network’s maximum transmission unit (MTU)
  • 28. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Transport Layer (continued)
      • Reassembly
      • Sequencing
        • Identifying segments that belong to the same group
  • 29. The OSI Model (continued)
  • 30. The OSI Model (continued)
  • 31. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Network Layer
      • Primary function of protocols at the Network layer
        • Translate network addresses
        • Decide how to route data
      • Network layer addresses
        • Also called logical addresses or virtual addresses
  • 32. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Network Layer (continued)
      • Routers belong in the Network layer
      • Perform Fragmentation
  • 33. The OSI Model (continued)
  • 34. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Data Link Layer
      • Primary function of protocols is to divide data into distinct frames that can then be transmitted by the Physical layer
      • IEEE has divided the Data Link layer into two sublayers
        • Logical Link Control (LLC)
        • Media Access Control (MAC)
  • 35. The OSI Model (continued)
  • 36. The OSI Model (continued)
    • Physical Layer
      • Lowest, or first, layer of the OSI Model
      • Protocols at the Physical layer
        • Accept frames from the Data Link layer
        • Generate voltage so as to transmit signals
        • Receiving data detect voltage and accept signals
        • Pass on to the Data Link layer
  • 37. Applying The OSI Model
  • 38. Applying The OSI Model (continued)
    • Communication Between Two Systems
      • At each layer of the OSI Model, some information is added to the original data
  • 39. Applying The OSI Model (continued)
  • 40. Applying The OSI Model (continued)
    • Frame Specifications
      • Two major categories of frame types
        • Ethernet
          • developed at Xerox in the early 1970s
        • Token Ring
          • developed by IBM in the 1980s
  • 41. IEEE Networking Specifications
    • “ Project 802”
      • Effort to standardize physical and logical elements of a network
        • Frame types and addressing
        • Connectivity,
        • Networking media,
        • Error checking algorithms,
        • Encryption,
  • 42. IEEE Networking Specifications (continued)
    • “ Project 802” (continued)
        • Emerging technologies,
        • And more
      • Can be applied to the layers of the OSI Model
  • 43. IEEE Networking Specifications (continued)
  • 44. Chapter Summary
    • Standards are documented agreements containing precise criteria
    • Significant standards organizations
      • ANSI, EIA/TIA, IEEE, ISO, ITU, ISOC, IANA, and ICANN
  • 45. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Excellent model for understanding communications
    • Protocols in the Application layer, the seventh layer of the OSI Model, enable software programs to negotiate
  • 46. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Protocols in the Presentation layer, the sixth OSI Model layer, serve as translators between the application and the network
  • 47. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Protocols in the Session layer, the fifth OSI Model layer,
      • coordinate and maintain links between two devices
      • synchronize dialog
    • Primary function of protocols in the Transport layer, the fourth OSI Model layer, is to oversee end-to-end data delivery
  • 48. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Protocols in the Network layer, the third OSI Model layer, manage logical addressing and determine routes
  • 49. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Network layer addresses, also called logical or virtual addresses, are assigned to devices through operating system software
    • Primary function of protocols at the Data Link layer, the second layer of the OSI Model, is to organize data they receive from the Network layer into frames
  • 50. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Data Link layer is subdivided into the Logical Link Control and MAC sublayers
      • LLC sublayer ensures a common interface
      • MAC sublayer is responsible for adding physical address data to frames
    • Protocols at the Physical layer generate and detect voltage
  • 51. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Protocols at the Physical layer generate and detect voltage
  • 52. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Data request from a software program is received by the Application layer protocols and is transferred down through the layers of the OSI Model until it reaches the Physical layer
    • Data frames are small blocks of data with control, addressing, and handling information attached to them
  • 53. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • Data request from a software program is received by the Application layer protocols and is transferred down through the layers of the OSI Model until it reaches the Physical layer
    • Data frames are small blocks of data with control, addressing, and handling information attached to them
  • 54. Chapter Summary (continued)
    • In addition to frame types and addressing schemes, the IEEE Networking Specifications apply to connectivity, networking media, error checking algorithms, encryption, emerging technologies, and more
    • Significant 802 standards are: 802.3, which describes Ethernet; 802.5, which describes Token Ring; and 802.11, which describes wireless networking