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Chapter02  -- networking standards and the osi model
 

Chapter02 -- networking standards and the osi model

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Basic Networking Guide

Basic Networking Guide

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  • Thanks for sharing this. i also found some useful tutorial on computer networking at http and OSI model at http://www.netguidea.com/
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    Chapter02  -- networking standards and the osi model Chapter02 -- networking standards and the osi model Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2: Networking Standards and the OSI Model Network+ Guide to Networks
    • Objectives
      • Identify organizations that set standards for networking
      • Describe the purpose of the OSI Model and each of its layers
      • Explain specific functions belonging to each OSI Model layer
    • Objectives (continued)
      • Understand how two network nodes communicate through the OSI Model
      • Discuss the structure and purpose of data packets and frames
      • Describe the two types of addressing covered by the OSI Model
    • Networking Standards Organizations
      • Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications
        • ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is an organization composed of more than a thousand representatives from industry and government who together determine standards for the electronics industry and other fields, such as chemical and nuclear engineering, health and safety, and construction
    • Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
        • ANSI also represents the United States in setting international standards
        • EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance) is a trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across the United States
    • Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
        • TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) Focuses on standards for information technology, wireless, satellite, fiber optics, and telephone equipment
          • TIA/EIA alliance are its guidelines for how network cable should be installed in commercial buildings, known as the “TIA/EIA 568-B Series.”
        • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), or “I-triple-E,” is an international society composed of engineering professionals
          • IEEE goals are to promote development and education in the electrical engineering and computer science fields
      Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
        • ISO (International Organization for Standardization), headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, is a collection of standards and organizations representing 148 countries
          • ISO ’s goal is to establish international technological standards to facilitate global exchange of information and barrier-free trade
      Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
        • The ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is a specialized United Nations agency that regulates international telecommunications, including radio and TV frequencies, satellite and telephony specifications, networking infrastructure, and tariffs applied to global communications
      Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
    • Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
        • ISOC (Internet Society), founded in 1992, is a professional membership society that helps to establish technical standards for the Internet
          • ISOC oversees groups with specific missions, such as the IAB and IETF
    • Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
        • IAB (Internet Architecture Board) is a technical advisory group of researchers and technical professionals interested in overseeing the Internet’s design and management
        • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), the organization that sets standards for how systems communicate over the Internet—in particular, how protocols operate and interact
    • Networking Standards Organizations (continued)
        • IANA and ICANN
          • Every computer / host on a network must have a unique address
          • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) kept records of available and reserved IP addresses and determined how addresses were issued out
          • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), a private, nonprofit corporation and is now ultimately responsible for IP addressing and domain name management
    • The OSI Model
      • In the early 1980s, ISO began work on a universal set of specifications that would enable computer platforms across the world to communicate openly
      • This model, called the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model, divides network communications into seven layers:
    • The OSI Model (continued)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Application Layer
        • Separates data into protocol data units (PDUs)
          • Application layer PDUs progress down through OSI Model layers 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1
          • Data traverses the network until it reaches the second computer’s Physical layer
          • Transfer of information happens in milliseconds
    • The OSI Model (continued)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Application Layer
        • Does not include software applications, such as Microsoft Word or Netscape
        • Services communicate between software programs and lower-layer network services
        • File, print, message, database, and application services
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Application Layer
        • World Wide Web (WWW)
        • Email - SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol or the X.400)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Presentation Layer
        • Protocols at the Presentation layer accept Application layer data and format it
        • Serves as a translator and are the standards which are involved in multimedia
        • Presentation layer protocols perform the coding, compression and also manage data encryption and decryption
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Session Layer
        • Protocols in the Session layer coordinate and maintain communications between two nodes
        • Session refers to a connection for ongoing data exchange between two parties
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Session Layer (continued)
        • Session layer’s functions are establishing and keeping alive the communications link for the duration of the session
          • Keep the communication secure
          • Synchronizing the dialog between the two nodes
          • Determining whether communications have been cut off, and, if so, figuring out where to restart transmission and terminating communications
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Transport Layer
        • Protocols in the Transport layer accept data from the Session layer and manage end to-end delivery
        • Ensures that the data is transferred from point A to point B reliably, in the correct sequence, and without errors
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Transport Layer (continued)
        • Without Transport layer services, data could not be verified or interpreted by its recipient
        • Handles flow control
        • Some Transport layer protocols take steps to ensure that data arrives exactly as it was sent.
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Transport Layer (continued)
        • Such protocols are known as connection-oriented,
        • TCP is one example of a connection-oriented protocol
          • Three Step Process
            • Request (Client sends)
            • Acknowledgment (ACK)
            • Client Acknowledgement (ACK)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Transport Layer (continued)
        • Checksum: method of error checking
        • Connectionless protocols
        • Process is known as segmentation
          • Necessary for data units to match a network’s maximum transmission unit (MTU)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Transport Layer (continued)
        • Reassembly
        • Sequencing
          • Identifying segments that belong to the same group
    • The OSI Model (continued)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Network Layer
        • Primary function of protocols at the Network layer
          • Translate network addresses
          • Decide how to route data
        • Network layer addresses
          • Also called logical addresses or virtual addresses
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Network Layer (continued)
        • Routers belong in the Network layer
        • Perform Fragmentation
    • The OSI Model (continued)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Data Link Layer
        • Primary function of protocols is to divide data into distinct frames that can then be transmitted by the Physical layer
        • IEEE has divided the Data Link layer into two sublayers
          • Logical Link Control (LLC)
          • Media Access Control (MAC)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
    • The OSI Model (continued)
      • Physical Layer
        • Lowest, or first, layer of the OSI Model
        • Protocols at the Physical layer
          • Accept frames from the Data Link layer
          • Generate voltage so as to transmit signals
          • Receiving data detect voltage and accept signals
          • Pass on to the Data Link layer
    • Applying The OSI Model
    • Applying The OSI Model (continued)
      • Communication Between Two Systems
        • At each layer of the OSI Model, some information is added to the original data
    • Applying The OSI Model (continued)
    • Applying The OSI Model (continued)
      • Frame Specifications
        • Two major categories of frame types
          • Ethernet
            • developed at Xerox in the early 1970s
          • Token Ring
            • developed by IBM in the 1980s
    • IEEE Networking Specifications
      • “ Project 802”
        • Effort to standardize physical and logical elements of a network
          • Frame types and addressing
          • Connectivity,
          • Networking media,
          • Error checking algorithms,
          • Encryption,
    • IEEE Networking Specifications (continued)
      • “ Project 802” (continued)
          • Emerging technologies,
          • And more
        • Can be applied to the layers of the OSI Model
    • IEEE Networking Specifications (continued)
    • Chapter Summary
      • Standards are documented agreements containing precise criteria
      • Significant standards organizations
        • ANSI, EIA/TIA, IEEE, ISO, ITU, ISOC, IANA, and ICANN
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Excellent model for understanding communications
      • Protocols in the Application layer, the seventh layer of the OSI Model, enable software programs to negotiate
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Protocols in the Presentation layer, the sixth OSI Model layer, serve as translators between the application and the network
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Protocols in the Session layer, the fifth OSI Model layer,
        • coordinate and maintain links between two devices
        • synchronize dialog
      • Primary function of protocols in the Transport layer, the fourth OSI Model layer, is to oversee end-to-end data delivery
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Protocols in the Network layer, the third OSI Model layer, manage logical addressing and determine routes
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Network layer addresses, also called logical or virtual addresses, are assigned to devices through operating system software
      • Primary function of protocols at the Data Link layer, the second layer of the OSI Model, is to organize data they receive from the Network layer into frames
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Data Link layer is subdivided into the Logical Link Control and MAC sublayers
        • LLC sublayer ensures a common interface
        • MAC sublayer is responsible for adding physical address data to frames
      • Protocols at the Physical layer generate and detect voltage
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Protocols at the Physical layer generate and detect voltage
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Data request from a software program is received by the Application layer protocols and is transferred down through the layers of the OSI Model until it reaches the Physical layer
      • Data frames are small blocks of data with control, addressing, and handling information attached to them
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • Data request from a software program is received by the Application layer protocols and is transferred down through the layers of the OSI Model until it reaches the Physical layer
      • Data frames are small blocks of data with control, addressing, and handling information attached to them
    • Chapter Summary (continued)
      • In addition to frame types and addressing schemes, the IEEE Networking Specifications apply to connectivity, networking media, error checking algorithms, encryption, emerging technologies, and more
      • Significant 802 standards are: 802.3, which describes Ethernet; 802.5, which describes Token Ring; and 802.11, which describes wireless networking