Chapter02      Managing  Hardware  Devices
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  • 1. Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Chapter 2: Managing Hardware Devices
  • 2. Objectives
    • Understand the importance of managing hardware
    • Understand the purpose of device drivers
    • Configure hardware resource settings and resolve resource setting conflicts
  • 3. Objectives (continued)
    • Configure driver signing options
    • Optimize server processor and memory usage
    • Create and configure hardware profiles
    • Configure server power options
  • 4. Introduction to Managing Hardware
    • Managing and maintaining hardware is a primary responsibility of a network administrator
    • A wide variety of internal and external hardware components available
    • Key concepts to be discussed
      • Hardware compatibility
      • Device drivers
      • Device Manager
  • 5. Hardware Compatibility
    • Server hardware must meet minimum system requirements for Windows Server 2003
    • Microsoft maintains information about compatible hardware
      • Previous Windows versions: Hardware Compatibility List
      • Windows Server 2003: Windows Server Catalog
  • 6. Windows Server Catalog Web Site
  • 7. Understanding Device Drivers
    • A device driver is a software interface between an operating system and a hardware device
    • Generally want to use the specific recommended driver for a device
      • Affects stability and performance
    • Driver updates are frequent and usually available from manufacturer
    • Driver signing is used to verify that a driver has been tested
  • 8. Device Manager
    • Primary tool for managing device drivers
    • Allows administrator to view and modify hardware device properties
    • Should be used soon after Windows Server 2003 installation to verify device detection and functioning
    • Accessible from Control Panel or Computer Management tool
  • 9. Accessing Device Manager
    • Control Panel  System  Hardware Tab
    • Computer Management  System Tools  Device Manager
  • 10. Device Manager (continued)
    • Displays non-functioning devices
      • Yellow exclamation point
    • Displays manually disabled devices
      • Red x
    • Allows you to update drivers
      • Download driver and install through Device Manager
      • Use Hardware Update Wizard
  • 11. The Hardware Update Wizard
  • 12. Activity 2-1: Exploring Device Manager
    • Objective is to explore the use of Device Manager
      • View properties of existing hardware
      • Explore different views of information
    • Start  My Computer  Properties  Hardware Tab  Device Manager
    • Follow directions in book to complete exercise
  • 13. Adding New Devices
    • Two main categories of devices
      • Plug and Play
      • Legacy
    • Plug and Play devices typically installed and configured automatically
    • Legacy devices typically configured manually
  • 14. Plug and Play Devices
    • Windows Server 2003 is Plug and Play compliant
    • New hardware is usually Plug and Play
    • Installed devices detected automatically
    • Detected devices configured automatically
      • May need to locate or update device driver
  • 15. Activity 2-2: Installing a Plug and Play Hardware Device
    • Objective:
      • Uninstall device using Device Manager
      • Reinstall using Add Hardware Wizard
    • Start  Run, type devmgmt.msc
      • New method for accessing device manager
    • Follow instructions in book to complete uninstall
    • Check uninstall completed
    • Reinstall using Add Hardware Wizard
  • 16. Legacy Devices
    • Many older devices not Plug and Play
    • Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus devices not Plug and Play
    • May or may not be detected by Windows Server 2003
    • Typically must be configured manually
    • Add Hardware Wizard used to install and/or configure
  • 17. Hardware Resource Settings
    • Four main types of resources
      • Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels
      • Input/Output (I/O) ranges
      • Memory address ranges
      • Interrupt request (IRQ) lines
    • Resource settings configured from Resources tab of properties of hardware device in Device Manager
  • 18. Hardware Resource Settings (continued)
    • Manually configured resource settings may have conflicts
    • Resource conflicts can cause device malfunction
    • Conflicts determined using Device Manager
      • Resources tab for a device
  • 19. Resources Tab for Network Adapter Card
    • Conflict list 
  • 20. Direct Memory Access Channels
    • Allow hardware devices to access system memory (RAM) directly
    • Information transfer bypasses CPU
    • Common devices
      • Hard and floppy disk controllers
      • Sound cards
      • CD-ROM drives
    • DMA channel used by a device can be determined from Device Manager
  • 21. Input/Output Ranges
    • Small dedicated memory areas
    • Allocated specifically for data transfer between computer and hardware device
    • Type of device dictates size of memory area
    • I/O ports can be determined from Device Manager
  • 22. Interrupt Request Lines
    • Used to gain attention of the system processor to handle some event
    • Traditionally, each device had dedicated line
    • Trend is toward sharing lines, Windows Server 2003 supports sharing among some Plug and Play devices
    • IRQ lines can be viewed and managed from Device Manager
  • 23. Memory Addresses
    • Used for communication between a hardware device and the operating system
    • Devices configured with dedicated, unique memory address ranges
    • Windows Server 2003 will automatically allocate memory addresses for Plug and Play devices
    • For legacy devices, address ranges usually specified in documentation
  • 24. Activity 2-3: Viewing Resource Settings Using Device Manager
    • Objective is to use Device Manager to explore hardware resource settings
    • Open Device Manager in one of the ways described in earlier activities
    • Observe the resources on a display adapter, keyboard, and communications port
    • Configure settings and observe properties on communications port according to explanation in book
  • 25. Troubleshooting Resource Setting Conflicts
    • Manual configuration of devices can lead to resource conflicts (overlaps and duplication of assignments)
    • Two methods for checking for resource conflicts
      • Resources tab in properties of device using Device Manager
      • System Information tool
        • To open, type msinfo32.exe in Run command
  • 26. Troubleshooting Resource Setting Conflicts (continued)
    • System Information tool
      • Reporting rather configuration
      • Hardware Resources section displays summary info
      • Conflicts display conflicts
      • Forced Hardware allows identification of manually configured devices
      • Components displays resource settings plus driver info
      • Problem Devices shows devices with known problems
  • 27. Viewing Problem Devices using the System Information tool
  • 28. Configuring Device Driver Signing
    • Every built-in driver in Windows Server 2003 is digitally signed by Microsoft
    • Signing ensures compatibility, quality, authenticity, verified to work with hardware
    • Three possible driver signing verification options
      • Ignore: install any driver whether signed or not
      • Warn: show warning if attempt is made to install unsigned driver
      • Block: don’t allow installation of unsigned driver
  • 29. Configuring Driver Signing Options
  • 30. Activity 2-4: Configuring Driver Signing Options
    • Objective is to explore and configure settings for device drivers using Device Manager
    • Start  My Computer  Properties  Hardware tab  Driver Signing
    • Explore help topics on driver signing
    • Complete assignment to explore and configure settings using Device Manager
  • 31. Activity 2-5: Using the File Signature Verification Utility
    • Objective is to use the File Signature Verification utility to ensure that all installed system files and device drivers have been digitally signed
    • Start  Run  sigverif.exe  Advanced  Logging
    • Scan files and log results following directions
    • View log
  • 32. Advanced File Signature Verification Settings
  • 33. Roll Back Driver Feature
    • Common for vendors to release new or updated drivers for hardware devices
      • Fix known issues, take advantage of updated features
    • Driver updates sometimes result in system stability problems
    • When update causes problems, roll back allows going back to a previous version
  • 34. Activity 2-6: Using the Roll Back Driver Feature
    • Objective is to use Roll Back Driver feature to return to a previous version of a device driver
    • Start  My Computer  Properties  Hardware  Device Manager
    • Follow directions to change to a new driver and then roll back to previous driver for display adapter
  • 35. The Driver Tab in the Properties of a Display Adapter
  • 36. Configuring Processor and Memory Settings
    • Three basic areas to configure for optimal performance
      • Processor scheduling and memory usage
      • Virtual memory
      • Memory for network performance
  • 37. Processor Scheduling
    • Allows you to configure how processor resources are allocated to programs
    • Default is Background services (all running applications receive equal processor time)
    • Can set to Programs (foreground application receives priority processor time)
  • 38. Processor Scheduling (continued)
    • Memory usage options used to configure amount of system memory allocated to executing programs versus other server functions
    • Default is System cache option
      • Computer is acting as network server
      • Running programs that require considerable memory
    • Programs option
      • Computer is acting as workstation
      • Running programs at console
  • 39. Virtual Memory
    • Disk storage used to expand RAM capacity
    • Slower than RAM
    • Uses paging technique
      • Blocks (pages) of information moved from RAM to virtual memory on disk
      • On Pentium, pages are 4KB
      • Paged out when not in use, reloaded into RAM when needed
  • 40. Virtual Memory (continued)
    • Area allocated is called paging file
    • Default amount allocated when operating system installed but should be tuned by administrator
    • Name of paging file is pagefile.sys
    • Location of paging file important
    • Two important parameters: initial and maximum size
  • 41. Activity 2-7: Viewing and Configuring Virtual Memory Settings
    • Objective is to explore and configure virtual memory settings
    • Move the paging file to a new drive
    • Start  My Computer  Properties  Advanced tab
    • Follow instructions to move the paging file
  • 42. Memory for Network Performance
    • Memory used for both server functions and network connectivity functions
    • Server functions use RAM and memory
    • Network connectivity uses only memory
    • If performance is poor, may need to tune network memory parameters
  • 43. Configuring Server Memory for Network Optimization
  • 44. Hardware Profiles
    • Set of instructions defining which devices to start and drivers to load when computer starts
    • Profile 1 created when Windows Server 2003 installed, every device enabled
    • Portable computers change set of hardware device available at different times
    • Can create additional profiles to match situation
  • 45. Activity 2-8: Creating a Hardware Profile
    • Objective is to create a new hardware profile for a set of hardware devices
    • Start  My Computer  Properties  Hardware tab  Hardware Profiles
    • Follow directions to create a new profile with no CD-ROM drive or floppy drive
    • Test that devices are disabled when using new profile
  • 46. Configuring Power Options
    • Default power scheme is Always On (monitor off after 20 minutes, hard disks never off)
      • Can select other predefined schemes or create custom scheme
    • Standby mode
      • Components shut down and memory is not written to disk (if power goes out, memory information is lost)
      • Power supply and CPU remain active
  • 47. Configuring Power Options (continued)
    • Hibernate mode
      • Memory contents saved before shutting down disks
      • Can restart with previous applications running
    • Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
      • Battery backup device
      • Best fault-tolerance method to prevent damage with power loss
      • Can only sustain power for a limited time
  • 48. Activity 2-9: Defining a Power Scheme
    • Objective is to configure a new power scheme
    • Start  Control Panel  Power Options
    • Follow directions to create a power scheme to supplied specifications
    • Also explore configuring UPS (uninterruptible power supply) to provide battery backup for critical equipment
  • 49. Summary
    • Device drivers
      • Driver signing
      • Driver roll back
    • Device Manager tool
      • Primary tool for device management
    • Plug and play versus legacy devices
      • Installation and configuration
  • 50. Summary (continued)
    • Hardware Resource Settings
      • Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels
      • Input/Output (I/O) ranges
      • Memory address ranges
      • Interrupt request (IRQ) lines
    • Processor Scheduling and Memory Usage
      • Virtual memory
      • Network memory
    • Hardware Profiles
    • Power Options