Wasay Waseem KabirFinal Year MBBS, Deccan College of Medical Sciences
NUTRITIONNutrition , also callednourishment , is the provision, tocells and organisms , of thematerials necessary in the formof food to support life.Our food is made up of essential, natural complex chemical
--50-60% of total energy intake. Carbohydrates are divided intoSimple carbohydrates e.g. monosaccharide and disaccharides such as glucose and fructose in fruits, vegetables, sucrose in sugar, lactose in milk.Complex Carbohydrates e.g. oligosaccharides & polysaccharides such as starch in cereals.
Proteins are second most abundant substance in the body after water. They are required for growth and synthesis of tissues in the body, and as alternate source of energy for the body. Proteins are made of 20 different kinds of amino acids. Proteins provide 4 kcal energy/gm.
25-30% of energy intake should be from fat. Acts as major structural element of cell membranes, carriers of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K, precursors offer biosynthesis of prostaglandins and hormones. Fats in diet or human body are in the form of triglycerides, phospholipids & cholesterol
RECOMMENDED DIETARYALLOWANCES A range of acceptable or safe intake levels have been established for almost all the important nutrients, which are recognized as “RDA”. RDAs are formulated based on the current knowledge of nutritional requirements of diff age & sex groups depending on anthropometry. A simple way of calculating energy requirements is as follows:-For children with normal body weights, the energy requirements are :- 100 Kcal/Kg for the first 10 kg, Between 10-20 kg, the requirement is 1000kcal+50 kcal/kg added for wt about 10 kg. For wt more than 20 kg 20 kcal/kg is added to 1500 kcal to estimate the requirements.
BREAST FEEDING: An infant should be exclusively breast fed till 6 months of age” During this age, additional food or fluid is not required as breast milk is nutritionally complete for the child’s growth and development and it protects from infections and strengthens immune system.
COMPLEMENTARY DIET: Complementary feeding is started at 6 months of age while continuing breast feeding. Complementary feeding refers to food which complements breast milk and ensures that the child continues to have enough energy , protein and other nutrients to grow normally. Breast feeding is encouraged up to 2 years of age in addition to normal food.BALANCED DIET: Balanced diet is defined as nutritionally adequate and appropriate; it provides all the nutrients in required amounts in proper proportions. A combination of carbohydrate rich food, a protein source and fat should be used to make nutritionally adequate complementary food or feed. This diet should contain 55-60% cal from carbohydrates, 10-12% proteins & 25-30% fats.
Foods are conventionally grouped as: Cereals, millets and pulses. Vegetables& fruits. Milk and milk products Egg, meat, fish. Oils and fats.
IMNCI FOOD BOXAGE FOOD Up to 6 Breast feed as often as the child months wants, at least 8 times in 24 hrs. Do not give any other foods or fluids not even water. 6-12 Breast feed as often as the child months wants. 1 katori serving at a time of: mashed roti/ bread / biscuit mixed in sweetened undiluted milk OR Mashed boiled /fried potatoes 3 times a day.
AGE FOOD 12 Breast feed as often as the child months- 2 wants. yrs. Offer food from the family pot. Give at least1 ½ katori serving at a time 5 times a day. Mashed roti/ rice/ bread mixed in thick dal with added ghee/ oil OR khichri with added ghee and cooked vegetables also in the servings. 2yrs and Give family food as 3 meals each older day. also, twice daily, give nutritious food between meals such as: banana/