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Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
Lec5 Dinophyceae
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Lec5 Dinophyceae

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The Dinoflagellates

The Dinoflagellates

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  • 1. BIO 14 YA June 29, 2013
  • 2. • Dinozoa or Pyrrophytes • 90% are marine plankton • ½ photosynthetic • Unicellular or in aggregations • symbiotic partners to sponges, corals, jellyfish and flatworms • primarily asexual, and reproduce by mitosis, only a few species have been found to reproduce sexually
  • 3. • Cell covering is called Amphiesma that often forms plates • Made up mainly of cellulose • Grouped into two: • Armored/thecate • Unarmored/athecate
  • 4. • Biflagellate • Longitudinal and transverse flagellum • Several thecal plates • Cingulum vs sulcus
  • 5. • Commonly in reddish – blood red – deep red in color • Different species gives different water color • Can discolor water when in bloom
  • 6. • Very diverse in size • Some have rigid walls others have none • Two types of dinoflagellates based on presence/absence of armor: armored and naked
  • 7. • Some species of dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax, Pyrodinium, Pyrocystis, Noctiluca) are luminescent • They emit flashes of light in response to mechanical disturbance of the water. The light is produced by an enzymatic reaction
  • 8. • Most of them are found in oceans (very few are freshwater). • Planktonic, few are benthic and some enter into symbiotic relationships. • Autotrophic-Heterotrophic forms. Parasites of invertebrates and fishes.
  • 9. • Late summer, upwelling causes a burst of dinoflagellates (up to 20 million/liter), • Humans are influenced by contracting CIGUATERA and then PSP or paralytic shellfish poisoning • Saxitoxin – 100,000 times more potent then cocaine • Gessnerium monilatum is the most common PSP producer in the N. Atlantic
  • 10. • SAXITOXIN (Alexandrium)-neurotoxin. • BREVETOXIN (Gymnodinium) • CIGUATOXIN (Gambierdiscus) – Ciguatera poisoning (eating contaminated fish) • OKADAIC ACID (Dinophysis)-causes DSP
  • 11. Triassic to Pleistocene dinoflagellate zonations are correlated with: 1. Cretaceous to Tertiary planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nanofossil zones 2. Jurassic and Cretaceous ammonite zones 3. An absolute time scale and sequence stratigraphy.
  • 12. • Dinoflagellate cysts were first found in late Triassic rocks • Diverse and abundant cysts increase in Md. Jurassic • Cysts still occur in present marine sedimentary rocks and some non- marine strata • Stephanelytron redcliffense a Late Jurassic dinoflagellate cyst Late Jurassic cyst Systematophora penicillata
  • 13. • This unique species of recent dinoflagellate is a “Fish Killer” • It produces a toxin which attacks the surface of fish • Once the toxin attacks the surface of the fish, P. piscicida feeds on the disaggregated and decomposing fish carcass
  • 14. • Some photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) are found in cells of many hosts like protozoa, clams, flatworms, jellyfish and corals.

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