General mining and underground induction


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Induction for new employees joining African Underground Mining Services - a complete transformation of a previously Australian centric communication into a Ghana specific communication

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General mining and underground induction

  3. 3. AUMS – OUR OBJECTIVESWe will provide you with the knowledge and skills so thatyou can work in a safe and responsible manner.All employees have access to training. We want to helpyou become competent in your work.Our aim is to return you home healthy with no injury.AUMS BELIEVES ALL TASKS CAN BE DONE SAFELY, AT WORKAND AT HOME, 24 HOURS A DAY 7 DAYS A WEEK. 3
  4. 4. LEGISLATION – GHANA MINES ACTAUMS operates under Ghanaian law.Breaking the law means AUMS as a company, as well asindividuals can be prosecuted, fined and even jailed.In terms of the law, health and safety representatives areelected by the workforce. They are the spokespersons forall health and safety issues. 4
  5. 5. DUTY OF EMPLOYERSAs far as possible provide and maintain a workingenvironment in which employees are not exposed tohazards. This means that the company must have :Safe plant, equipment, PPE and safe working proceduresMethods of consultation and co operationInform, instruct, train and supervise in the safe use,handling, storage, transport and disposal of plant andsubstances 5
  6. 6. DUTY OF EMPLOYEESDuty of Employees - 1To take reasonable care for yoursafety and the safety of others. 6
  7. 7. DUTY OF EMPLOYEESDuty of Employees - 2Come to work in a fit state 7
  9. 9. FITNESS FOR WORKFactors that affect fitness for work• Lack of sleep and fatigue• Stress (work, marital, financial)• Alcohol and hangovers• Drugs and prescription medication• Illness and injury• Working hours 9
  10. 10. ALCOHOL AND DRUGS 10
  11. 11. ALCOHOL AND DRUGS• All AUMS employees and Contractors have random alcohol and drug tests. Every employee must have a breath test before work• Any blood alcohol reading above 0.00% is regarded as a positive result. In other words, the limit is NIL 11
  12. 12. SMOKINGSmoking is not permitted• In any vehicle• Inside any enclosed area• In offices, chop houses and buildings 12
  13. 13. SMOKINGSmoking is not permitted• Underground• Within 10m of explosives and 30m of a re fuelling station• Where signs, laws or company rules prohibit smoking 13
  14. 14. WORKING SAFELYOVERVIEW• Incident and Accident Reporting• Injury Reporting and Workers Compensation• Risk Management and Hazard Identification• JSA training• Fire Safety• Personal Protective Equipment• Mobile Equipment and Vehicles 14
  15. 15. WORKING SAFELY• Isolation and Tagging• Electrical Safety• Chemicals and Hazardous Substances• Manual Handling• Maintenance Operations• Working At Heights 15
  16. 16. INCIDENT AND ACCIDENT REPORTING ALL accidents, incidents and near misses must be reported, no matter how minor. • Near Hit • Equipment damage • Fire • Injury • EnvironmentalYou help us when you report incidentsIf we know about it, we can deal with it 16
  17. 17. INCIDENT AND ACCIDENT REPORTING INJURIES All injuries, no matter how minor, must be reported to your supervisor by no later than the end of the shift. The injury must be recorded on an Incident Report Form (IRF).Failure to report an injury couldstop you from receiving workerscompensation 17
  19. 19. INJURIES AND TREATMENTPROCEDURE WHEN YOU HAVE AN INJURY• Report to your Supervisor.• Report to the safety office and then follow up with International SOS or the site medical centre.• If further medical treatment is required, transport will be provided to closest medical facility or return home for treatment. 19
  20. 20. EMERGENCY RESPONSEIn an emergency refer to the site specific process for raisingthe alarm. Do not disturb the scene of a serious accidentunless required to render first aid 20
  21. 21. EMERGENCY RESPONSEGive this information: Name, location, type of incident,number of casualties and state of casualties. Stay on phone orin contact. 21
  22. 22. COMMUNICATIONAUMS communicates information in many ways such as safety meetings 22
  23. 23. COMMUNICATIONAUMS communicates information in many ways such as Safety Time Out 23
  24. 24. COMMUNICATIONAUMS communicates information in many ways such as notice boards 24
  25. 25. HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONWhat is a Hazard?“Anything that has the potential to cause harm, injury or illness to personnel, damage to equipment or the environment”. 25
  32. 32. HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONWild animals are dangerous –a hazardous environment andvery risky for people What makes it safe? The vehicle? The game guides? A firearm? 32
  33. 33. HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONThe relationship between hazard and risk :• Hazards have the POTENTIAL to cause harm• A hazard will not harm if there is no activity• Activity needs to be exposed to the hazard to become risky, and high exposure to hazards mean more chance of getting hurt, low exposure means less chance of getting hurt• The level of control over risk determines the likelihood getting hurt by a hazard. High control level equals lower risk of getting hurt. 33
  34. 34. HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONExamples of low / high levels of exposure to hazards andthe related risks :• Potassium Dichromate is a highly toxic chemical. It is used in breathalisers. However, it is sealed in a tube, and does not come into contact with the person. Therefore although it is a highly hazardous substance, it does not present any risk to anybody. Example of high control.• Flour is a very low toxic substance. Many years of high exposure (as a baker) to airborne flour could lead to asthma. Low control over this hazard means high risk. 34
  35. 35. RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROLConsists of 3 parts:1. Identification2. Assessment of Risk3. Controls to reduce risk• This can be also be remembered by acronym of SAM - Spot the hazard, Assess the risk and Make the change. 35
  38. 38. RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROLAUMS uses formal and informal methods of identifyingand reporting hazards in the workplace.• Verbal reporting• Pre start checks on equipment• Safe Workplace Inspection Checklists (SWIC)• Job Safety Analysis (JSA)• Workplace inspections• Incident / Accident Report Forms 38
  39. 39. RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROLSWICA Safe Workplace Inspection Checklist(SWIC) must be completed wheneveryou enter a new work area.All employees shall complete at least oneper shift. 39
  42. 42. RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL • If it is safe, fix or remove a hazard as soon as possible. • If you are unable to remove or fix the hazard, you have a responsibility to: – report it to your Supervisor immediately. – barricade or isolate the hazard. – make sure that others are aware of the hazard 42
  43. 43. RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL Scenario for assessing risk :Two trucks travelling at speed on a haul road arrive at an intersection. (No controls in place). What is the consequence and likelihood? 43
  44. 44. RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROLConsequence - fatalitiesLikelihood - very likely to happenNeed to reduce the risk by putting controls in place 44
  45. 45. RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL• After implementing controls, reassess level of risk to determine if it is acceptable. Aim is for As Low as Reasonably Practicable ALARP• If risk is unacceptable, Do Not perform task, notify supervisor.Reassess risk of vehicle incident?• Have you reduced the consequence and likelihood of the incident? 45
  46. 46. CONTROLLING RISKS – THE JSAWhat is a JSA ?A method to identify hazards with a job so that controls canbe used to reduce the risk or potential for injury and loss 46
  47. 47. CONTROLLING RISKS – THE JSAWhen is a JSA required? – New job or unfamiliar task. – New equipment, machinery or procedures. – Unusual conditions – Infrequent operation – Previous incidents have occurred both safety and environmental. – Whenever a concern is raised about a task. 47
  48. 48. CONTROLLING RISKS – THE JSAWho should be involved in doing a JSA?• Everyone who is required to do the task where there is significant risk• Supervisor• Safety and training officer or safety rep• Trades personnel 48
  49. 49. CONTROLLING RISKS – THE JSA3 STEPS1. Break the job down into steps2. Identify hazards3. Implement Controls 49
  50. 50. JSA Work Sheet Activity 3 Flat tyre on a LV.JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS WORKSHEET JOB: PAGE: 1 OFFACILITY/SITE: TrainingDEPARTMENT:SUPERVISOR: Your Name SignatureTEAM MEMBERS: Todays DateDATE:Required Additional Personal Protective Equipment:List associated Safe Work Procedures / Safe Work Guidelines:Step Describe Job Step Potential Hazards Hazard Management / ControlNo. List the natural steps of the job (List WHAT is What can happen at each step? Use the following checklist. Describe how defined hazards can be managed, controlled or removed. to be done, NOT HOW it is to be done). Can employee be struck by / caught on / contacted by / struck Consider elimination / substitution, engineering controls, administrative against / contacted with / trapped in / exposed to / caught controls, personal protective equipment. between / have same level or different level fall / strain / overexert?1 Pull over & shut down Hit by another car, Losing control Indicate, check mirrors and look. Slow down gradually 2 Get equipment out and set up Park off highway, Hazard lights, Warning triangles. Hit by another vehicle, back strain, abrasions . Correct lifting technique,, wear gloves 3 Loosen wheel nuts & Jack up Fall off jack, Back strain Caught under, Slip / Chock wheels, Hand brake, In gear, Correct jack / the car Trip placement, Hard level ground, Tyre under pillar, Correct lifting 4 Tech Remove and replace tyre Same as step 3 +, wire protruding from tyre. Same as step 3 & wear gloves. 5 Lower Car & tighten wheel Same as step 3 Same as step 3 but lower the car slowly and steadily nuts keeping body parts away from underneath the car 6 Pack up equipment Same as step 2 Same as step 2 7 Same as step 1 Same as step 1 but speed up gradually. Pull back out onto highway
  51. 51. FIRE SAFETYAlways identify the location, typeand condition of the portable fireextinguishers in your work area It is important to keep extinguishers unobstructed for emergency use 51
  52. 52. FIRE SAFETYDRY CHEMICAL POWDER - red with a white bandUse on live electrical equipmentUse onwood, paper, oil, kerosene, petrol, textiles, acetylene, and LPG All heavy vehicles have AFFF systems installed. They will suppress a fire that starts in the engine compartment, and is activated by the operator 52
  53. 53. FIRE SAFETYCheck the Gauge Check the pin is in place.Check the Check the handleInspection tag trigger mechanism Check the hose Check the cylinder 53
  54. 54. FIRE SAFETYUse the PASS method when you are extinguishing a fire 54
  55. 55. FIRE SAFETYWhen attempting to extinguish a fire you should always:Stand upwind of the fireStand up hill of the fireStay down lowAim at the base of fire 55
  56. 56. FIRE SAFETYPREVENTION IS ALWAYS BETTER THAN THE CUREBe aware of your surroundings when doing hot work Keep combustible chemicals and materials away from possible ignition sources. 56
  57. 57. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTPersonal Protective Equipment(PPE) is anything worn on yourperson to protect you fromhazards which may cause harm,injury or illness. 57
  58. 58. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTYou have a responsibility toinspect your PPE before youuse it, as well as maintain andwear the proper PPE all thetime. 58
  59. 59. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be worn wherever:• Signage indicates• You are instructed to do so by your supervisor• A procedure outlines it‘s use. 59
  60. 60. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be worn wherever:• A hazard identification process has highlighted the need.• You determine it is required to prevent harm or injury. 60
  61. 61. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTReflective high visibility PPE is required atnight and in some areas such asworkshops.You are issued with long sleeved shirts,long trousers or overalls 61
  62. 62. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTThe most important safety measure underground is to bevisible. Make sure that your reflective strip on your coverallsis as bright as possible. Change worn out, old PPE for new PPE 62
  63. 63. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT EYE PROTECTION Glasses Goggles Face shield Welding shield / Oxy goggles 63
  64. 64. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTOnly clear safety glasses are allowed in workshop andunderground areas 64
  65. 65. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTTinted safety glasses are allowed in open spaces. If youare not sure about the correct PPE ask your supervisor 65
  66. 66. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Hard hats are mandatory underground 66
  67. 67. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Ear and hearing protection Wear ear plugs and ear muffsaccording to signage as well aswork with very high noise levels 67
  68. 68. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Respiratory protection : dust and particle masksRespiratory canister type masks 68
  69. 69. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTGloves are used for manual handling• Rubber – short and long• Canvas• Leather• Welding• Heat resistant• Chemical resistant 69
  70. 70. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTHand and wrist injuries are themost common, accounting for onein three workplace injuries.Injuries range from being relativelyminor to very severe, most commonlyinvolving the fingers, with open woundsthe most common injury type andamputation the most severe injury type. 70
  71. 71. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Safety bootsLeather steel capped, or rubber steel cappedExamine your boots each time you usethem, look for:tread wear, holes or puncturescondition of the lacesCondition of the insoles 71
  72. 72. MOBILE EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLESNo one is allowed to operateequipment unless they aretrained, and have AUMS tickets Employees are responsible for their own licenses. Make sure they are up to date because you need them for your job 72
  73. 73. MOBILE EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES Pre start checks must be done 73
  74. 74. MOBILE EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLESNever leave your vehicle while you are re fuelling 74
  75. 75. MOBILE EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLESDrive according to theconditions of the roadDistance between vehicles isminimum 30 metresAlways use reverse parking 75
  77. 77. MOBILE EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES Do not operate mobile equipment without a fire extinguisher and fire suppression systemWhen mounting and dismountingvehicles always face the machineand maintain 3 points of contactwith steps and hand holds. 77
  78. 78. ISOLATION AND TAGGINGYou isolate to stop :• A motor from switching on (or off)• A substance such as liquid, gas or powder getting in or out• Two hazardous substances mixing 78
  79. 79. ISOLATION AND TAGGINGYou isolate to :• Allow maintenance or inspection• Take a piece of plant out of service for a certain time• Change a process• Make sure that even isolated plant cannot be started by mistake somewhere else• Stop the chance of human error or mechanical failure 79
  80. 80. ISOLATION AND TAGGING Isolation of equipment will make sure:• That it will not start while you are working on it• All persons working on the machine are protected• Damage to the equipment is prevented. 80
  81. 81. ISOLATION AND TAGGING Isolation points can be :• battery isolator switches• air or water system gate/shut off valves• electrical switches or any other physical means of ensuring personnel can not turn on the energy source. 81
  82. 82. ISOLATION AND TAGGING A tag is put on an isolation point to warn other people not to change the state of the isolation point 82
  83. 83. ISOLATION AND TAGGINGAUMS uses four basic types of tags• Out of Service• Personal Danger• Commissioning and Testing• Information 83
  84. 84. ISOLATION AND TAGGING ISOLATION AND TAGGING OUT OF SERVICEThese tags are used to preventdefective equipment beingstarted, operated or used which mayresult in injury to personnel or furtherequipment damage. 84
  85. 85. ISOLATION AND TAGGING PERSONAL DANGERA Personal Danger tag provides protectionfor personnel working on equipment.No person shall de-isolate, operate anyswitch or valve whilst a personal dangertag is in place.The only person who can place or removethis tag is the person whose nameappears on the tag. 85
  86. 86. ISOLATION AND TAGGING COMMISSIONING AND TESTINGThis tag gives an employee exclusivecontrol over the plant operation.It is used during commissioning,calibration, testing, inspection andmaintenance when equipment isrequired to be in operating mode. 86
  87. 87. ISOLATION AND TAGGING ISOLATION AND TAGGINGINFORMATION TAGSThese tags are used to pass oninformation which may reduceinefficiencies, doubling up or constantreporting. 87
  88. 88. ISOLATION AND TAGGING Equipment must be isolated and tagged with an OUT OF SERVICE tag at each isolation point 88
  89. 89. ISOLATION AND TAGGINGSwitches and valvesmust be switched tothe isolated positionand tagged by anauthorised person 89
  90. 90. ISOLATION AND TAGGINGEach person workingon the equipmentmust have a PERSONALDANGER tag at eachisolation point 90
  91. 91. ISOLATION AND TAGGINGISOLATION AND TAGGINGBefore starting work, test the isolation. Discharge anyenergy that MIGHT be stored in the system.Each person must remove his or her own PersonalDanger Tag at the completion of the job or prior toleaving the work site.If the task is incomplete, the Out of Service tag remainson the isolation point.Always communicate isolation conditions with yoursupervisor and the supervisor of the next crew comingon shift. 91
  92. 92. ISOLATION AND TAGGING ELECTRICAL SAFETYOnly licensed electricians arepermitted to carry out electricalrepairs and access equipment andinstallationsAll fixed and portable electrical equipmentmust have a valid electrical inspection tagattached before useFaulty equipment must be taggedout of service and reported 92
  93. 93. ISOLATION AND TAGGING ELECTRICAL SAFETYBefore any work is started on electrically drivenplant and machinery, the electricity must beisolated and tagged at the primary source. 93
  94. 94. CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCESBe familiar with the properties of hazardous substancesKnow the risks of handling them and take precautions 94
  95. 95. CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCESMaterial Safety Data SheetsRefer to theMSDS forinformation on :safehandling, storageand disposal, firstaid PPE andtoxicity 95
  96. 96. MANUAL HANDLING 96
  97. 97. MANUAL HANDLINGManual handling is any activity requiring a person to lift,lower, push, carry, throw, move or restrain an object.85% of workplace injuries are caused through manualhandling activities and the back is the most affectedbody part. 97
  98. 98. MANUAL HANDLINGDetermine the best technique (half squat) checkbalance, avoid bending your back, twisting or reachingPlan – before you lift, assistance required?Bend knees - keep your back straightSecure gripKeep the load close to the body – minimise stress, centralisethe centre of gravity and face the direction you are moving 98
  99. 99. GOOD HOUSEKEEPINGGood housekeeping means a tidyworkshop and working areas 99
  100. 100. GOOD HOUSEKEEPINGStore tools and equipment away when not in use 100
  101. 101. GOOD HOUSEKEEPINGClean up spills immediately. Put all rubbish in designated bins 101
  102. 102. GOOD HOUSEKEEPINGMaintain good housekeeping by:Guarding or barricade any unsafe area.Storing flammable materials in approvedcabinets and storage areas. 102
  103. 103. GOOD HOUSEKEEPINGGood housekeeping happens underground. Clean up yourwork area. Take your rubbish out with you at the end of shift 103
  104. 104. MAINTENANCE OPERATIONSOnly qualified and authorisedpersonnel are permitted to domaintenance repairs onmachinery, vehicles and mobileequipment An Out of Service tag or Personal Danger tag must be attached before any maintenance work can commence 104
  105. 105. MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS Only trained and authorised personnel are permitted to use portable tools. Check that it is in good working order. Check the current inspection tag. Wear the proper PPE 105
  106. 106. WORKING AT HEIGHTSUse an approved full bodyharness and shock absorbinglanyard or a fall restraint deviceattached to a fixed anchor point 106
  107. 107. WORKING AT HEIGHTSInspect the condition ofthe equipment before use 107
  108. 108. WORKING AT HEIGHTSFall restraint must be used when you are working on : Elevated work platforms and man baskets 108
  109. 109. WORKING AT HEIGHTSFall restraint must be used when you are working near : open holes and manways 109
  110. 110. WORKING AT HEIGHTS The Karabiner must be attached to a fixed anchor point 110
  111. 111. WORKING AT HEIGHTSThe miners belt is nota full body harness andcannot be used for fallrestraint 111
  113. 113. OBJECTIVEOur underground operations have additional hazardscompared to surface operations.This Underground Induction gives you information andinstruction for safer working practices underground. Followthe induction closely to further protect yourself and worksafe.OUR AIM IS TO RETURN YOU HOME IN THE SAMECONDITION YOU ARRIVED IN - HEALTHY WITH NO INJURY. 113
  114. 114. UNDERGROUND MINING OVERVIEW 1 General Safety Rules 2 Additional PPE for Underground 3 Tag Board 4 Communication 5 Signs and Barricades 6 Ground Awareness / Support 7 Ventilation 8 Mine Gases 9 Mobile Equipment 10 Underground Fires & Evacuation 11 Explosives 12 Operational Hazards 114
  115. 115. UNDERGROUND MINING OVERVIEW The underground environment has nipper key terminology used to describe actions, locations and machinery. tramming bogger charging backs portal Shift supervisor 115
  116. 116. UNDERGROUND MINING OVERVIEW1 You must comply with all safety instructions and safety signage.2 Do not enter barricaded or unventilated area’s of the mine.3 PPE must be worn as designated by signage, task procedures or verbal instruction from your supervisor.4 No person is to operate any equipment, tooling, mobile equipment or vehicle unless trained and authorised.5 Only authorised licensed electricians are permitted to carry out electrical repairs and installations. 116
  117. 117. UNDERGROUND MINING OVERVIEW 6 You are not permitted in any area where explosives are stored, handled or used unless trained and authorised. 7 Report any hazard or unsafe condition which you are unable to rectify yourself. 8 Report all injuries and incidents as soon as possible after the incident to your supervisor. 9 You are not permitted to go under “unsupported” ground. 117
  118. 118. EXTRA PPE UNDERGROUND Your cap lamp is the most important underground PPE item. Make sure that it works 118
  119. 119. EXTRA PPE UNDERGROUND Your cap lamp helps to keep you safe undergroundYou must have your caplamp with you all the timewhile you are underground 119
  120. 120. EXTRA PPE UNDERGROUNDA closed circuit oxygen re breather unit used when airunderground is filled with smoke and fumes 120
  121. 121. EXTRA PPE UNDERGROUNDYou must have a watch with youevery time you go underground.It is part of your PPE. Carry spare tags with you so they can be used immediately on equipment that you identify as a hazard or when you work on energised equipment. 121
  122. 122. EXTRA PPE UNDERGROUNDGloves are an important partof your PPE underground.Carry a pair of gloves all thetime and make sure they arethe correct gloves for the job. 122
  123. 123. PERSONNEL TAG BOARDThe personal tag board is used to monitor which personnelare underground at any given time 123
  124. 124. PERSONNEL TAG BOARDYou must:TAG ON - when going underground andTAG OFF - when leaving the mine 124
  125. 125. COMMUNICATIONS Cap Lamp Signals To gain a person’sattention flick the cap lamp beamaround and over them 125
  126. 126. COMMUNICATIONS OK STOP REVERSECome towards me Do not come Get out ADVANCE NO ENTRY GO BACK 126
  127. 127. COMMUNICATIONSHand signals are used when voice communication is notpossible. It is recommended that the following hand signals be used 127
  128. 128. COMMUNICATIONS GO THERE UP GO THERE DOWNFinger moves Flat hand held in a circular out 90 degrees motion from the body 128
  129. 129. COMMUNICATIONSGuidelines for hand signals Task overview Agree on signals Any confusion - STOP Only one signaller Loss of visual contact STOP Use a Spotter 129
  130. 130. COMMUNICATIONSUnderground radio systemThe leaky feeder system is used forunderground radio communicationsYou must be within sight of the cablefor good reception and transmitting 130
  131. 131. SIGNS AND BARRICADES Signs and barricades are used stop people going into dangerous areas. 131
  132. 132. GROUND AWARENESSEvery underground worker must inspect the workplace beforestarting any taskChecks must be done for ventilation, ground condition andpotential hazards 132
  133. 133. GROUND AWARENESSWe have two methods of ground control Mesh – used with rock bolts to provide additional support 133
  134. 134. GROUND AWARENESS Shotcrete – spray on fibrecrete, supported by boltsShotcrete – spray on fibrecrete used with rock bolts 134
  135. 135. GROUND AWARENESS Scaling is the method of removing loose rock that has the potential to injure personnel or damage machinery. It is a hazardous task and is performed by trained personnel. 135
  136. 136. PROHIBITED UNDERGROUND AREASUnless specifically authorizedby your supervisor, you mustnever enter No Entry areas 136
  137. 137. VENTILATIONPrimary VentilationThe primary ventilation system draws air into the mine andexhausts air back to the surface.This provides the main travel ways of the mine with fresh aircirculation 137
  138. 138. VENTILATION Secondary ventilation fans supply air from the main travel ways to the work area 138
  139. 139. VENTILATIONAirborne hazardsDust from drilling, blasting and loader work 139
  140. 140. VENTILATION Airborne hazardsBlasting consumes available oxygen andcontaminates the air with toxic gases 140
  141. 141. VENTILATIONAirborne hazardsDiesel fumes from machinery 141
  142. 142. MINE GASESMine gases come from detonating explosives as well asexhaust from diesel engines. Exposure of rock to air alsogenerates gases underground.ExamplesCarbon Monoxide Carbon DioxideNitrous Oxides Sulphur DioxideMethane Hydrogen Sulphide 142
  143. 143. MINE GASESOxygen depletion is a hazardous condition underground.If it is not managed properly it can result in a fatality.Oxygen depletion is caused by:• Displacement of oxygen by other mine gasses• Diesel engines running excessively underground• Underground firesGood ventilation is the key to avoiding oxygen depletion. 143
  144. 144. MINE GASESMINE GASES Gas monitoring • If you suspect gas in an area, do not enter. Notify your Supervisor so that a test can be conducted. • Some activities require continuous gas detection. Your Supervisor will instruct you to do so if required. 144
  145. 145. MINE GASES Fuming• Fuming is a term used to describe when a person has been exposed to concentrations of mine gases that have the potential to cause ill health.• The symptoms of fuming can be delayed. if you suspect fuming then tell your supervisor and thesafety department 145
  146. 146. HEAVY VEHICLES UNDERGROUND Heavy vehicles underground are a special hazard to workersIf you areThey areto big, they take up most of the space on foot. unable verymove out of thespots where the driver cannot see you. and have blind declinethen signal to the driverwith your cap lamp andhe will stop to let youpass. Always move to aplace where the drivercan see you 146
  147. 147. HEAVY VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDAlways be aware of blind spots. The driver cannot see you inthose areas. 147
  148. 148. HEAVY VEHICLES UNDERGROUND Always be in a position where the driver can see you 148
  149. 149. HEAVY VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDMove to a safe position whenyou see and hear the heavyvehicle coming toward you 149
  150. 150. ALL VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDIf you are unable to move outof the way then signal to thedriver with your cap lamp andhe will stop to let you pass.Always move to a place wherethe driver can see you 150
  151. 151. ALL VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDUse the standard signals when starting and moving vehicles START ONE HORN BLAST REVERSE FORWARD THREE HORN BLASTS TWO HORN BLASTS 151
  152. 152. ALL VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDPre-operation checksConduct a steering and brake testbefore entering the decline 152
  153. 153. LIGHT VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDAll vehicles left unattended underground must be parkedatParking to prevent a runaway. an angle 153
  154. 154. LIGHT VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDAngle the wheels away from the wall when facing up the slope Park in first gear facing up the slope 154
  155. 155. LIGHT VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDSwitch off the engine and apply the park brakeLeave the flashing light on Parking Rules Put chocks under the wheel to stop the vehicle moving 155
  156. 156. LIGHT VEHICLES UNDERGROUNDWhen the vehicle is facing down the slope turnthe wheels toward the wall. Engage reverse gear 156
  157. 157. HEAVY VEHICLES UNDERGROUND Rules for ALL vehiclesSeatbelts must be worn at all times. 157
  158. 158. HEAVY VEHICLES UNDERGROUND Rules for ALL vehiclesExcept for the driver, no other person is allowed to ridein any heavy vehicle unless they are wearing a seatbelt. 158
  159. 159. HEAVY VEHICLES UNDERGROUND Rules for ALL vehiclesMaximum speed limit underground for all vehicles is 25 kph 159
  160. 160. ALL VEHICLES UNDERGROUND Rules for ALL vehiclesMinimum distance between ALL vehicles no less than 30 mThis rule applies to underground as well as surface vehicles 160
  161. 161. ALL VEHICLES UNDERGROUND Rules for ALL vehiclesLight vehicles must give way to heavy vehicles –on the surface as well as underground. 161
  162. 162. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATIONPortable fire equipmentDry chemical powderextinguishers are fitted toall mobile equipment andfixed plant underground 162
  163. 163. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATIONPortable fire equipmentDry chemical powderextinguishers are fitted to allrefuge chambers underground 163
  164. 164. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATIONActivation point Heavy underground equipment is fitted with fire suppression systems 164
  165. 165. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATIONPortable fire equipmentYou must know the locationand check the condition of allextinguishers in your area 165
  166. 166. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATIONIf a fire occurs on avehicle you must:• stop the vehicle• park clear of main travel ways (if possible)• shut down the vehicle• activate the AFFF system ifthere is a fire in the engineor use portable extinguisher 166
  167. 167. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATION Tyre FiresTyre fires are caused by dragging brakes or running on flattyres.If a tyre fire occurs, immediately park up, shut down, raiseemergency call, move to clean air or put on the self rescuer 167
  168. 168. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATION• Use a dry chemical powder extinguisher if there isELECTRICALFIRES electrical equipment located near the fire. any live• Do not use water on fires near electrical equipment or in areas where there may be live wires. 168
  169. 169. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATION Out of Control FiresIf you are unable to safety extinguish the fire, you must: – Evacuate the area – Notify all personnel in the immediate area to evacuate – Raise the alarm by following the site emergency protocol 169
  170. 170. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATIONWhen you are aware of anemergency through a verbalwarning, radio message, orstench gas release, make yourway out of the mine.If you cannot get out of themine, make your way to thenearest fresh air base, intakerise or refuge chamber. 170
  171. 171. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATION If fumes are present and your breathing is affected, put the self rescuer on immediately. 171
  172. 172. UNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATIONUNDERGROUND FIRES AND EVACUATIONWhen you reach the fresh air baseor intake rise, do not remove theself rescuer until the air quality andpurity has been established as safe. You must not leave a refuge chamber until you have been given the all clear by Mine Rescue Team or Supervisor 172
  173. 173. EXPLOSIVES EXPLOSIVESAll persons workingaround explosives(including handling,transport and storage)must work under thedirection of the Blastman.No person is allowed to handleor transport explosives unlessthey have completed the appropriate training andhave management authorisation. 173
  174. 174. EXPLOSIVESExplosives MagazinesExplosives are stored in purpose built magazinesDo not enter any explosive magazine unless authorisedNo smoking or naked flames within 10m of a magazine 174
  175. 175. EXPLOSIVESFIRING TIMES: END OF SHIFT DAY SHIFT 6:00pm to 6:30pm NIGHT SHIFT 6:00am to 6:30amNOTE: Mid-shift firing time fits in with surface blasting.Current Surface blasting time is 1:00pm to 1:30pmUnderground mid-shift firing time 12:30pm to 1:00pm. 175
  176. 176. EXPLOSIVESOnce explosives have been fired you must allow time forthe dust and fumes to escape the underground workings. You are not permitted to enter underground until the all clear has been given 176
  177. 177. OPERATIONAL HAZARDSCompressed AirBefore you work on a compressed air line,make sure that:supply has been isolatedisolation valve is tagged line has been bledNever point the hose at other people or use it to cleanyourself down 177
  178. 178. OPERATIONAL HAZARDSWater and air linesCan be under high pressure so before carrying out workon water lines or air lines, they must be:• isolated• tagged• drainedCheck that the couplings and safety clips are secure 178
  179. 179. OPERATIONAL HAZARDSElectric Jumbo Drilling SafetyWarning signs must be in full view.Vehicles must never drive over jumbo trailing cables orpump cables. 179