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Vegetables in agroforestry systems
 

Vegetables in agroforestry systems

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A summary of recent esearch by AVRDC - The World vegetable Center on growing vegetables in agroforestry systems in the Philippines

A summary of recent esearch by AVRDC - The World vegetable Center on growing vegetables in agroforestry systems in the Philippines

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    Vegetables in agroforestry systems Vegetables in agroforestry systems Presentation Transcript

    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org AVRDC-WVC Thursday Seminar, 12 June 2008 Can Vegetables Be More Productive Under Tree-Based Systems? Photo by Mandy Lin Manuel C. Palada, Ph.D. Crop & Ecosystem Management Specialist07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Outline • Overview of the SANREM CRSP Vegetable Agroforestry Project (VAF) • Early studies on VAF • Tree-vegetable crop interface/interactions • Performance of AVRDC-WVC vegetable varieties under VAF • Other results from the Philippines, Indonesia and Vietnam • Summary • VAF TMPEGS Team07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (SANREM CRSP) Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production in Southeast Asian Watersheds (2005-2009)07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Strong Partnership De La Salle UPLB NCA&T Don Bosco UC Berkeley07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center AVRDC – WVC SANREM Team Manny Palada Mubarik Ali Liwayway Engle Greg Luther Flordeliza Faustino07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Problem Statement Communities in many forest and vegetable producing watersheds in Southeast Asia are suffering from poverty, and forest, soil and water resources degradation07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org VEGETABLE AGROFORESTRY PROJECT SITES Nghia Trung, Budang District, Binh Phuoc Province Vietnam May 11, 200607-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org VEGETABLE AGROFORESTRY PROJECT SITES Nanggung, Indonesia May 3, 200607-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org VEGETABLE AGROFORESTRY PROJECT SITES Lantapan, Philippines May 24, 200807-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org VIETNAM Binh Phouc Province VAF: Cacao, cashew, coffee, bananas, timber trees, vegetables07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Indonesia Nanggung Sub-District Near Jakarta07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Indonesia VAF: Bananas, vegetables, mix trees07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Philippines Lantapan, Bukidnon Island of Mindanao VAF: alley cropping, vegetables, bananas, timber trees07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Problem Statement Communities in many forest and vegetable producing watersheds in Southeast Asia are suffering from poverty, and forest, soil and water resources degradation07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Response TMPEGS “TeaMPEGS”07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org SANREM CRSP VAF TMPEGS07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vegetable Agroforestry Systems in Southeast Asian Watersheds TMPEGS Stands for our TeaM’s Philosophy07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org PEGS • A peg is a pin forming a projection that may be used as a support TMPEGS Philosophy: “We are ‘PEGS’ supporting small scale farmers both women and men”07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org TMPEGS echnology ‘complementarity’07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org TMPEGS arketing ‘value chain’07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org TMPEGS olicy ‘incentives’07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org TMPEGS nvironmental & conomic-social impact ‘it works’07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org TMPEGS ender ‘equity’07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org TMPEGS caling-up ‘contagiousness’07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Conceptual Framework Technology Baseline studies Vegetables Complementary agroforestry systems Trees Environmental and Socio-Economic Marketing Impacts Policy Gender Stakeholders mainly Small Scale Scaling-up Farmers both Women and Men Predominant flow Feedback flow07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Overall hypothesis In intensive vegetable production system in the uplands, monoculture systems are not sustainable, but integrating trees is feasible and offers better prospects.07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Alley Cropping Vegetable Agroforestry (VAF) systems is inevitably the most appropriate technology for the uplands to enhance the productivity, profitability and protective functions of vegetable production system in a sustainable manner, while reducing production risks and environmental hazards of vegetable production system.07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vegetable Agroforestry Systems in Southeast Asian Watersheds Early Studies on Vegetable Agroforestry Systems • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Nigeria (1985-90) • University of the U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Croix (1991-2001) • Center for Subtropical Agroforestry, University of Florida (2002-2005)07-2007 XYZ
    • IITA, Nigeria No alley No alley With alley With alley No alley With alleyAlley cropping Leucaena with leafy Chinese cabbage (Pai-tsai) Chen, Y.S., B.T. Kang and F.E. Caveness. 1989. Alley cropping vegetable crops with Leucaena in Southern Nigeria. HortScience 24(5):839-940.
    • IITA, Nigeria Alley cropping with amaranthus, celosia, tomato and okraTreatments: Alley (+Fertilizer) Palada, M.C., B.T. Kang and S.L. Claassen. Alley (-Fertilizer) 1992. Effect of alley cropping Leucaena No Alley (+Fertilizer) leucocephala and fertilizer on yield of No Alley (-Fertilizer) vegetable crops. Agroforestry Systems 19:139-147.Leucaena hedgerows: 4 mAlley width: 4 m
    • St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Pruning hedgerows Pruning applied as mulch Hedgerow intercropping pigeonpea with bell pepperPalada, M.C., S.M.A. Crossman and C.D. Collingwood. 1992. Effectof pigeonpea hedgerows on soil water and yield of intercroppedpepper. Proc. Caribbean Food Crops Soc. 28:517-532.
    • St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Alley cropping Moringa with medicinal plants and culinary herbsPalada, M.C., B.N. Becker, J.M. Mitchell and P.K.R. Nair. 2003. Cultivation ofmedicinal plants in alley cropping system with Moringa oleifera in the VirginIslands. Pp. 60-76 In: Y.N. Clement and C.E. Seaforth (eds). Proc. 6th Int’lWorkshop on Herbal Medicines for the Caribbean. Univ. of the West Indies,St. Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago.
    • St. Croix, U.S. Virgin IslandsRao, M.R., M.C. Palada and B.N. Becker. 2004. Medicinal and aromatic plantsin agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems 61:107-122.Palada, M.C., J.M. Mitchell, B.N. Becker and P.K.R. Nair. 2005. The integrationof medicinal plants and culinary herbs in agroforestry systems for theCaribbean: A study in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Acta Hort. 676:147-153.
    • Hedgerow intecropping eggplant and sweet corn with Leucana, Gliricia, Moringa and Pigeonpea. Palada, M.C., J.J. O’Donnell, S.M.A. Crossman and J.A. Kowalski. 1994. Influence of four hedgerow species on yield of sweet corn and eggplant in an alley cropping system. Agron. Abst. 1994:7.
    • Maize in Moringa hedgerowsMaize in Leucaena hedgerows
    • St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands No hedgerow plot 5m Morinda hedgerows Hedgerow/alley plot 1m Row 2Row 3 Hot pepper Row 4 Row 1Palada, M.C., B.N. Becker and J.M. Mitchell. 2004. Growth and yield of hotpepper in hedgerow intecropping with Morinda (Morinda citrifolia L.) duringearly establishment. Proc. Caribbean Food Crops Soc. 40:22-28.
    • Photo by Mandy LinPalada, M.C., S.M.A. Crossman and J.J. O’Donnell. 2004. Integratinghigh value horticultural crops into agroforestry systems in the tropicswith focus on alley cropping. Proc. Symp. On Celebrating MinorityProfessionals in Forestry and Natural Resources Conservation. FloridaA&M Univ. Tallahassee, Florida.
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org TMPEGS Technology objective: Develop economically viable and ecologically- sound vegetable-agroforestry (VAF) systems07-2007 XYZ
    • Evolution of the AF system in Southern Philippines (Mindanao) (hedgerow intercropping)1970-90: 1990-2000: NVS – 2000- present:Pruned hedgerow Natural Veg. Strips commercial treesPositiveControl soil erosionProvide organic fertilizer Positive Very cheap to establish Control soil erosion ? Potentials:Fodder for animalNegative effectively Productivity/ProfitabilityLabor intensive Negative SustainabilityCompetes with crops: Diversityspace, growth resources, No economic benefitslabor, etc Environmental services
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Environmental services Effect of different hedgerowsoil loss.. Reduction of types on soil loss =============================== Hedgerow systems Soil loss (Mg ha-1) ----------------------------------------------------- Grasses 2.20 c Forage legumes 9.80 c Shrubs 5.70 c Trees 6.50 c Contour cultivation 40.0 b Traditional cultivation 350.0 a (up & down the slope) Tolerable rate 12.0 ============================================= Rainfall: 3000 mm annually “The greatest immediate impact of timber hedgerow system is reducing soil loss about 55 times than traditional up and down the slope cultivation thus making soil nutrients that will become available to the food crops”.07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Relative yield of maize over six cropping periods as influenced by different timber tree species as hedgerows spaced at 8m x 3m Yield of control07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vegetable Agroforestry Systems in Southeast Asian Watersheds Tree-Crop Interaction in Hedgerow Intercropping07-2007 XYZ
    • Schematic diagram of tree-crop interaction in hedgerow intercropping system N 2 - fixation C0 2 - fixation Net benefit = 2T+ (Y2-2Y1)-2D where: T = value of tree products (inc above and below C stocks, N2 fixation) Y1 = yield loss Y2 = yield gain D = value of displaced crop reduction of negative effects through silvicultural management Y2 + Yield of control (monocropping Y1 Y1 systems) - - tree-crop nutrient transfer through pruning leaching of nutrients to lower depths 0 - 100 cm depth D and roots and nodules turn-over. + Safety-net zone > 100 cm depthuptake from safety- net zone(nutrient pumping below root + = fertility, micro-climae, erosion control, nutrient pumping, safety- net, tree biomass and soil C stockszone of annual crops) - = competition: light, water nutrient
    • Schematic diagram of tree-crop interaction under parkland system N 2 - fixation Scenario 1. Competition C0 2 - fixation - Tree is competitive +0 - 100 cm depth - > 100 cm depth + uptake of H20, nutrients leaching of nutrient
    • Scenario 2. Com plem entary + + Net benefit = T + (Y 2 - D)
    • Schematic diagram of tree-crop interaction under boundary planting system Y = T + (Y2 - Y1) - D + Y2 Y1 -0 - 100 cm depth> 100 cm depth
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vegetable Agroforestry System Research Goal: Tree-vegetable integration on farm with minimal negative interaction but optimal positive interaction, thus increasing productivity, economic profitability, nutrient use efficiency and environmental services07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Tree integration on intensive vegetable based systems with minimal negative interaction Approaches: • Tree-vegetable matching • Tree management • Crop management07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Methodology 1. Assessment of existing VAF systems covering 21 farms, 2 AF systems, 6 tree species, 8 vegetables, 4 aspects. Data collected were tree parameters (stem diameter, tree height, canopy height and width), spatial performance of vegetables (height, stem diameter, crown width, biomass), spatial light transmission (fish eye photography/quantum light meter) 2. Focus group discussion with 15 VAF farmers on various ways of integrating trees on vegetable farms and their practices and experiences on tree and vegetable management addressing tree-vegetable competition and complementarity 3. Evaluation of 5 commercial, 20 indigenous, and 5 tree vegetables under tree-based system.07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Eucalyptus- tomato interaction under boundary planting system T omato height Average 150 height at 140 neutral 130 zone 120 110 100 height (cm) 90 80 70 60 50 C ompetition C omplementarity Neutral 40 30 20 10 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 D istance from the tree (m)07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Three zones of tree-crop interaction in vegetable agroforestry systems White bean yield under Maesopsis eminii hedge trees 20 Competition zone Complementarity zone Neutral zone 15 Average yield Beans (g/plt) 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 M. eminii hedge Distance from the tree (m)07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Net complementarity as a simple tool in assessing appropriate tree-vegetable integration • Net complementarity = degree of complementarity-degree of competitiveness • Degree of complementarity = relative yield (at complementary zone) -1 x distance of influence (0= no complementarity) • Degree of competitiveness = 1- relative yield (at competition zone) x distance of influence (0= no competition) • Relative yield at complementarity zone = yield at complementarity zone divided by yield at neutral zone • Relative yield at competition zone = yield at competition zone divided by yield at neutral zone07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Influence of timber tree species on VAF net complementarity under farmer management (tree-vegetable matching) Tree species Net complementarity Acacia mangium -0.23 Eucalyptus robusta 0.48 Eucalyptus torillana -0.30 Gmelina arborea -0.85 Maesopsis emini -1.6707-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Influence of vegetable crops on net complementarity under farmers management (tree-vegetable matching) Vegetables Net complementarity index Bell pepper 0.14 Brocolli -7.54 Cabbage 0.98 Cauliflower 0.44 Chinese cabbage 0.57 Tomato -0.48 White beans -1.67 Maize -1.5507-2007 XYZ
    • Influence of aspects on VAF net complementarityNorth North (vegetable on south side) South (vegetable on north side) West (vegetable on east side) East (vegetable on west side)
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Influence of aspects on net complementarity under farmer’s crop management Aspects Net complementarity East (vegetable on west side) -2.09 West (vegetable on east side) - 0.54 North (vegetable on south side) -1.06 South (vegetable on north side) -1.7407-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Relationship between tree height (m) and net complementarity 20 y = 0.3034x + 12.696 18 R 2 = 0.14 16 14 eig t ) ree h h (m 12 10 8 T 6 4 2 0 (10.00) (5.00) - 5.00 10.00 Net complementarity07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Re lationship be twe e n proportion of canopy le ft afte r pruning v s ne t comple me ntarity 120 Proportion of canopy left (%) y = 2.0991x + 62.359 100 R 2 = 0.03 80 60 40 20 0 (10.00) (5.00) - 5.00 10.00 Net complementarity07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Relationship between tree canopy width and net complementarity 900 800 700 idth (cm) 600 500 y = -14.254x + 560.37 Canopy w R 2 = 0.08 400 300 200 100 0 (10.00) (5.00) - 5.00 10.00 Net complementarity07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vegetable-tree matching• Evaluation of 5 commercial, 20 indigenous (from AVRDC GRSU), and 5 tree vegetables under tree- based system involving leafy, fruit and root vegetables.• Vegetables were planted 2 rows perpendicular to the 6-year old Eucalytus torillana tree row 25 cm from tree trunk.• Vegetable entries were arranged in RCB design replicated 3 times.• Vegetables were harvested spatially row by row.• Zones of interaction were calculated in each plot.07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Promising vegetables at competition zone (4.5 ±1.2 m from tree hedge) Adaptability Type Species Scientific name Variety index Leafy Amaranthus (5) Amaranthus caudatus TOT 2272 0.80 a Jute (4) Corchorus olitorius TOT 4721 0.53 c Cabbage Brassica oleracea Resest crown 0.73 ab Chinese cabbage Brassica rapa Blues 0.63 b Fruit Eggplant (3) Solanum melongena S00- 633 0.67 b Bellpepper Capsicum annuum 9950-5197 0.80 a Okra Abelmoschos esculentus 0.60 b Tomato Lycopersicon esculentumWVCT-1 0.73 ab Climbing Alugbati (3) Basella alba TOT 5274 0.73 ab Yardlong bean (3) Vigna unguiculata TVO 2074 0.40 d Tree (4) Malunggay M oringa oleifera local 0.57 bc Chinese malunggay Sauropus androgynous local 0.80 a Root Carrots Daucus carota local 0.80 a In a column, means having a common letters are not significantly different by by Tukeys test at 5% level Adaptability index = Yield at competition zone (Y1) / yield at neutral zone (Y0) Where: 1 = adapted07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Promising vegetables at complementarity zone (from 5 – 15 (±2) m from tree hedge) Complementarity Type Species Scientific name Variety index Leafy Amaranthus (5) Amaranthus caudatus TOT 2272 Taiwan 2.10 Jute (4) Corchorus olitorius TOT 6667 2.70 Cabbage Brassica oleracea Resest crown 1.33 Chinese cabbage Brassica rapa Blues 1.60 Fruit Eggplant (3) Solanum melongena S00- 633 1.50 Bellpepper Capsicum annuum 9950-5197 1.57 Okra Abelmoschos esculentus 1.57 Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum WVCT-1 1.33 Climbing Alugbati (3) Basella alba TOT 5274 1.87 Yardlong bean (3) Vigna unguiculata TVO 2141 Philippines 2.27 Tree Malunggay (4) Moringa oleifera local 1.43 Chinese malunggay Sauropus androgynous local 1.17 Katuray Sesbania grandiflora local 3.37 Root Carrots Daucus carota local 1.57 Complementarity index = Yield at complementarity (Y2) / yield at neutral zone (Y0) Where: 1= no complementarity effect07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Net complementarity indices of selected vegetables planted perpendicular to the tree line (researcher-managed) Net complementarity Type Species Scientific name Variety index abc Leafy Amaranthus (5) Amaranthus caudatus TOT 2272 1.30 a Jute (4) Corchorus olitorius TOT 6667 2.40 bc Cabbage Brassica oleracea Resest crown 0.60 bc Chinese cabbage Brassica rapa Blues 0.97 abc Fruit Eggplant (3) Solanum melongena S00- 168 1.27 c Bellpepper Capsicum annuum 9950-5197 0.50 bc Okra Abelmoschos esculentus 0.97 bc Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum WVCT-1 0.67 abc Climbing Alugbati (3) Basella alba TOT 1578 1.13 ab Yardlong bean (3) Vigna unguiculata TVO 2141 1.97 bc Tree (3) Malunggay Moringa oleifera local 0.83 abc Alikway Sauropus androgynous local 1.03 a Katuray Sesbania grandiflora local 3.10 bc Root Carrots Daucus carota local 0.77 In a column, means having a common letters are not significantly different by Tukeys test at 5% level Net complementarity index = Y2-Y1 Where: 0 = no benefit07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vegetable Agroforestry Systems in Southeast Asian Watersheds INDONESIA •Effect of shading on yields of vegetables under mixed- tree species07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Indonesia – mixed tree species07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Indonesia – mixed tree species07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Adaptation of vegetables under different shading regimes in multi-storey agroforestry system in Indonesia. Increase in yield over no shade Vegetables Medium light (%) Amaranth spp 180 Kangkong 90 Eggplant 71 Chili 9 Tomato 5 Note: Under heavy shade (Low light: 32-174*1000 lux), the growth and yield of 10 vegetables evaluated were negatively affected. (Medium light: 43-540*1000 lux). Adapted from Manurong et al 2008. Can vegetables be productive under tree shade management in West Java?07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vegetable Agroforestry Systems in Southeast Asian Watersheds VIETNAM •Shading effect on yield of vegetables •Termite Biocontrol on Cacao Seedlings: Vetiver Grass Application07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vietnam - Cashew07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vietnam: Cashew - Vegetables07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vietnam: Cashew - Vegetables 1. Amaranth, kangkong, okra, and bitter gourd achieved highest yield under full sun light condition 2. Mustard and French bean have highest yield under medium light condition 3. Average yield of cashew trees located between two vegetable rows was recorded to be 17% more than average yield without vegetables planted.07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Biocontrol of Termite in Cacao Trees Vetiver grass Termite damage on cacao tree07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Percent mortality in cacao seedlings due to termite damage as influenced by biocontrol methods Treatment Site 1 Site 2 Mortality (%) Mortality (%) Manure 39 70 Farmer’s Practice 0 70 (Chemical) Manure + Lime 17 70 Manure + Vetiver 0 33 grass compost + Vetiver plants07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Vegetable Agroforestry Systems in Southeast Asian Watersheds PHILIPPINES •Vegetable variety trials •Drip irrigation •Minimum tillage – cover crop07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Tomato Variety Trial07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Tomato Variety Trial07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Evaluation of Indigenous Vegetables07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Indigenous Vegetables07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Indigenous Vegetables07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Indigenous Vegetables07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Conventional Vegetables07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Medicinal Trees07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Medicinal Trees07-2007 XYZ
    • Vegetable farmers performingevaluation of the performance ofdifferent tomato superior linesagainst tomato leaf curl virus undertree based system during thefarmers’ field day at Claveria,Misamis Oriental, Philippines. Thesetomato lines were provided byAVRDC.
    • AVRDC tomatoes and eggplants evaluated under tree based system wereshown to vegetable farmers during farmers’ field day at Lantapan, Bukidon,Philippines.
    • Farmers posed at the experimental billboard after evaluating different tomato lines whichare resistant to tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) during the farmers field at Claveria,Misamis Oriental, Philippines
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Henry Binahon Outstanding Agroforestry Farmer07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Binahon Farm Model Vegetable Agroforestry Farm07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Drip irrigation07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Miniumum tillage with cover crop Perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi)07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Taiwan AVRDC-WVC Vegetable Agroforestry Research Field ( Established in 2005)07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Tropical Fruit Trees Species Common name Anona reticulata Bullock’s Heart Rollinia mucosa Biriba Baccaurea ramiflora Mafai Tamarindus indica* Tamarind Artocarpus heterophyllus* Jackfruit Eugenia brasiliensis Brasil cherry Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Psidium littorale Raddi Strawberry guava Syzygium samarangense* Nam Pheung Honey Chrysophyllum caimito* Star Apple Pouteria campechiana* Canistel Pouteria caimito Radlk* Abiu07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Pouteria camechiana - Canistel07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Pouteria caimito - Abiu07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Chrysophyllum caimito – Star Apple07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Artocarpus heterophyllus – Jack Fruit07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Tamarindus indica - Tamarind07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Syzygium samarengense – Wax Apple07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Sequential cropping of vegetable crops07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Sequential cropping of vegetable crops07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Question Can Vegetables Be More Productive Under Tree-Based Systems?07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Answer Of course, the answer is YES!07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Summary and Recommendations Can Vegetables Be More Productive Under Tree Based Systems? Yes! 3 ways of improving economic viability of vegetable agroforestry systems 1. Reduce competition between trees and vegetables (Y1) by: • - Using vegetables that have high adaptability indices, adapted to low light environment, at competition zone (up to 4.5m from tree line) • - Using trees which are less competitive - Employing tree root pruning and root barrier (chili yield was significantly higher in with root barrier treatment)07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org 3 ways of improving economic viability of vegetable agroforestry systems 2. Increase tree-vegetable complementarity (Y2) -Using vegetables with high complementarity response indices at complementarity zone (4.6 – 15 m away from the tree line) - Employing appropriate pruning regime, leaving 40- 60% of the tree canopy- favorable for both trees and crops - Using optimum tree lines/hedges spacing, 25-30 meters apart and 3 meters between trees, having approximately 110- 130 trees per hectare 3. Use valuable trees (T) - Premium timber trees (indigenous species) - Adapted fruit trees (Taiwan) - Rubber trees07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Acknowledgement This study was funded and supported by the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources Management – Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM-CRSP) under U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org TMPEGS VAF Collaborators • Agustin Mercado, Jr. - World Agroforestry entre • Caroline Duque World Agroforestry Centre • Manuel Palada – World Vegetable Centre • Liwayway Engle - World Vegetable Centre • Flordeliza Faustino - World Vegetable Centre • Gregory Luther - World Vegetable Centre • Gerhard Manurong - World Agroforestry Centre • James Roshetko - World Agroforestry Centre • Bambang Purwoko - Bogor Agricultural University • Anas Susila - Bogor Agricultural University • Try Van My - Nong Lam University, Vietnam • Manuel Reyes - North Carolina A&T State University07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Thank you for joining us! SANREM CRSP VAF TMPEGS07-2007 XYZ
    • vegetables + development Vegetable Research Development Through www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org Photo by Mandy Lin07-2007 XYZ