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Fs Ch 7

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• Alphonse Bertillon: Anthropometry/Father of criminal identification. In 1892 Francis Galton published his classic textbook Finger Prints . At Galton’s insistence, the British government adopted fingerprinting as a supplement to the Bertillon system. The next step was the creation of classification systems capable of filing many thousands of prints in a logical and searchable sequence.
• Dr Juan Vucetich (Arentina): Classification system still used in most Spanish-speaking countries. First to solve a homicide (1892) using a single fingerprint. Sir Edward Henry (Great Britain): Devised another classification system using the fingerprint pattern and ridge counts. Henry system used in English-speaking countries to this day. The Henry system uses a formula to assign numerical values to types of print patterns. Fingerprints are then filed under that numeric system.
• 1850’s: Prisons began photographing inmates for ID purposes. 1880’s: Gained popularity after Kodak camera developed. Allan Pinkerton: Detective Agency-Rogues Gallery. NYPD Detective Thomas Byrnes: Developed NYPD gallery. “ mug” shots
• In 1903, Will West/William West incident. Fingerprinting clearly distinguished them. After the Will West incident NY Civil Service began fingerprinting applicants (1901). 1904 World’s Fair: Scotland Yard introduces fingerprinting to US Police Forces
• Fingerprints: Reproduction of friction skin ridges found on the palm side of the fingers and thumbs. The basic principles: 1. Uniqueness: individual characteristic; no two fingers possess identical ridge characteristics 2. Permanence: fingerprints remain unchanged 3. Patterns: general ridge patterns that permit them to be systematically classified.
• Mathematically, the probability for the existence of two identical fingerprint patterns in the world’s population is extremely small. Besides theoretical calculations, of the millions upon millions of individuals who have had their prints classified, no two fingerprints have been found to be identical. The individuality of a fingerprint is not determined by its general shape or pattern, but by the careful study of its ridge characteristics, known as minutiae. It is the identity, number, and relative location of these minutiae that imparts individuality to a fingerprint. There are as many as 150 minutiae on the average finger.
• Points? How many required for ID in US Courts? After a three year study, it was determined that “no valid basis exists for requiring a predetermined minimum number of friction ridge characters which must be present in two impressions in order to establish positive identification.” Sufficient number of friction ridge details present for conclusion 100%
• Conclusions: -Subject made the print -Subject could not have made the print -Print had insufficient detail to be evaluated In a judicial proceeding, an expert must demonstrate a point-by-point comparison in order to prove the identity of an individual.
• Epidermis: outer layer of the skin Dermis: inner layer of the skin. Dermal papillae: layer of cells between the epidermis and dermis/determines form and pattern of the ridges on the surface of the skin. Develops in the fetus and remains unchanged throughout life. Each skin ridge is populated with pores leading to sweat glands from which perspiration is deposited on the skin. Once the finger touches a surface, perspiration, along with oils that may have been picked up by touching the hairy portions of the body, is transferred onto that surface, leaving the finger’s ridge pattern (a fingerprint).
• ARCHES: Least common type of pattern Only 5% of all patterns 2 subcategories: a. Plain b. Tented
• Latent prints deposited on hard and nonabsorbent surfaces (e.g., glass, mirror, tile, and painted wood) are preferably developed by the application of a powder; whereas prints on porous surfaces (e.g., papers, cardboard, and cloth) generally require treatment with a chemical. Examiners use various chemical methods to visualize latent prints on porous surfaces, such as iodine fuming, ninhydrin, and Physical Developer. Super Glue ® fuming develops latent prints on nonporous surfaces, such as metals, electrical tape, leather, and plastic bags. Development occurs when fumes from the glue adhere to the print, usually producing a white latent print
• A devise called the Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging System (RUVIS) can aid in the detecting of latent fingerprints, without chemicals or powder. Once located, the crime scene investigator can develop the print in the most appropriate fashion. Powders, available in a variety of colors, can be applied with a brush or magnetic wand, and adhere to perspiration and/or body oils of the print. Iodine fuming involves heating iodine crystals that cause vapors which combine with latent prints to make them visible. Iodine prints are not permanent and will fade, making it necessary to photograph the prints immediately.
• Ninhydrin reacts chemically with trace amounts of amino acids present in latent prints to produce a purple-blue color. Physical Developer is a silver nitrate-based reagent used to develop prints when other chemical methods are ineffective. Super Glue ® is approximately 98 to 99 percent cyanoacrylate ester, a chemical that actually interacts with and visualizes a latent fingerprint. Super Glue fuming can be accomplished by using either a fuming chamber (for up to six hours) or a handheld wand that heats a small cartridge containing cyanoacrylate.
• The high sensitivity of fluorescence serves as the underlying principle of many of the new chemical techniques used to visualize latent fingerprints. Fingerprints are treated with chemicals that would induce fluorescence when exposed to lasers, or high-intensity light sources (“alternate light sources”) such as quartz halogen, xenon arc, or indium arc light sources. Once the latent print has been visualized, it must be permanently preserved for future comparison and for possible use as court evidence. A photograph must be taken before any further attempts at preservation are made.
• If the object is small enough to be transported without destroying the print, it should be preserved in its entirety. Prints on large immovable objects that have been developed with a powder can best be preserved by “lifting” with a broad adhesive tape. Then, the tape is placed on a properly labeled card that provides a good background contrast with the powder.
• Digital imaging is the process by which a picture is converted into a digital computer file. With the help of digital imaging software, fingerprints, which are often not in perfect condition, can now be enhanced for the most accurate and comprehensive analysis. An important and useful tool, especially for fingerprint identification, is the compare function that places two images side by side and allows the examiner to chart the common features on both images simultaneously.
• The heart of AFIS technology is the ability of a computer to scan and digitally encode fingerprints so that they can be subject to high-speed computer processing. 1999 by FBI AFIS aids in classifying and retrieving fingerprints by converting the image of a fingerprint into digital minutiae that contain data showing ridges at their points of termination (ridge endings) and their branching into two ridges (bifurcations). When the search is complete (a computer can make thousands of comparisons per second), the computer produces a list of file prints that must be examined by a trained fingerprint expert.
• Fs Ch 7

1. 1. Fingerprints Chapter 7
2. 2. History <ul><li>Alphonse Bertillon: </li></ul><ul><li>-anthropometry/father of criminal identification </li></ul><ul><li>1892 Francis Galton published classic textbook Finger Prints </li></ul><ul><li>-British government adopted fingerprinting as a supplement to Bertillon system </li></ul><ul><li>-classification systems needed to file thousands of prints in logical/searchable sequence </li></ul>
3. 3. History <ul><li>Dr Juan Vucetich (Arentina): </li></ul><ul><li>-classification system </li></ul><ul><li>-used in most Spanish-speaking countries </li></ul><ul><li>-1892 single f/p solved homicide </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Edward Henry (UK): </li></ul><ul><li>-classification system using the fingerprint pattern/ridge counts </li></ul><ul><li>-Henry system used in English-speaking countries </li></ul><ul><li>-uses a formula to assign numerical values to types of print patterns </li></ul><ul><li>-filed under that numeric system </li></ul>
4. 4. History <ul><li>1850’s: </li></ul><ul><li>-photographing inmates for ID purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Allan Pinkerton: </li></ul><ul><li>-rogues gallery </li></ul><ul><li>NYPD Detective Thomas Byrnes: </li></ul><ul><li>-NYPD gallery </li></ul><ul><li>-“mug” shots </li></ul>
5. 5. History <ul><li>Will West/William West (1903) </li></ul><ul><li>-Leavenworth prison </li></ul><ul><li>-2 inmates/same name/same anthropometrical measurements </li></ul><ul><li>-fingerprints distinguished them </li></ul><ul><li>1904 World’s Fair: </li></ul><ul><li>-Scotland Yard introduces fingerprinting to US Police </li></ul>
6. 6. Mug shots <ul><li>NYPD: original collection of mug shots </li></ul>
7. 7. Mug shots <ul><li>Collection of mug shots </li></ul>
8. 8. Mug Shots <ul><li>John Dillinger </li></ul>
9. 9. Mug Shots <ul><li>Alphonse Capone </li></ul>
10. 10. Mug Shots <ul><li>James Brown </li></ul>
11. 11. Mug Shots <ul><li>Nick Nolte </li></ul>
12. 12. <ul><li>What are fingerprints? </li></ul><ul><li>Friction ridge skin pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Found on fingers, palms, toes, soles of feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of ridges (hills) and furrows (valleys) </li></ul>Black = Ridges White = Valleys Fingerprints
13. 13. <ul><li>What are fingerprints? </li></ul><ul><li>Develop in early embryonic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern based on genetics, detail somewhat random </li></ul><ul><li>Identical twins do not have identical fingerprints </li></ul>Fingerprints
14. 14. There are 3 types of fingerprints <ul><li>Visible – left by dirt, grease, blood, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not need processing </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints
15. 15. There are 3 types of fingerprints <ul><li>Impression – indentation in soft material (butter, putty, tar, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not need processing </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints
16. 16. There are 3 types of fingerprints <ul><li>Latent – requires processing to make visible and suitable for analysis </li></ul>Fingerprints
17. 17. What are the invisible components? Multiple sweat glands secrete onto fingers, palms, etc. Sweat contains: <ul><ul><li>Inorganic ions (Na + , Cl - ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins, amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis
18. 18. Visible prints
19. 19. Fingerprint Principles <ul><li>Fingerprints: </li></ul><ul><li>-reproduction of friction skin ridges found on the palm side of the fingers/thumbs </li></ul><ul><li>3 principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence: </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns: </li></ul>
20. 20. Principle One <ul><li>Millions of fingerprint comparisons: </li></ul><ul><li>-no two fingerprints have been found to be identical </li></ul><ul><li>-identification is based on ridge characteristics (minutiae) </li></ul><ul><li>-identity/number/relative location of minutiae </li></ul><ul><li>-imparts individuality to a fingerprint </li></ul><ul><li>-as many as 150 minutiae on the average finger </li></ul>
21. 21. Principle One <ul><li>Points? How many required for ID in US Courts? </li></ul><ul><li>-“no valid basis exists for requiring a predetermined minimum number of friction ridge characters which must be present in two impressions in order to establish positive identification” </li></ul><ul><li>-sufficient number of friction ridge details present for conclusion 100% </li></ul>
22. 22. Principle One <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>-Subject made the print </li></ul><ul><li>-Subject could not have made the print </li></ul><ul><li>-Print had insufficient detail to be evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>In a judicial proceeding, an expert must demonstrate a point-by-point comparison in order to prove the identity of an individual. </li></ul>
23. 23. Principle Two <ul><li>Epidermis: </li></ul><ul><li>-outer layer of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis: </li></ul><ul><li>-inner layer of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Dermal papillae: </li></ul><ul><li>-layer of cells between the epidermis and dermis/determines form and pattern of the ridges on the surface of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>-develops in the fetus/remains unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>-skin ridge is populated with pores leading to sweat glands from which perspiration is deposited on the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>-finger touches a surface, </li></ul><ul><li>-perspiration transferred onto that surface, leaving the finger’s ridge pattern (a fingerprint). </li></ul>
24. 24. Principle Three <ul><li>Fingerprints classified based on patterns: </li></ul><ul><li>Loop: </li></ul><ul><li>-60 % </li></ul>
25. 25. Principle Three <ul><li>Whorls: </li></ul><ul><li>35% </li></ul>
26. 26. Whorls <ul><li>Double Loop Whorl </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental Whorl </li></ul>
27. 27. Principle Three <ul><li>ARCHES: </li></ul><ul><li>Least common type of pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5% of all patterns </li></ul><ul><li>2 subcategories: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Plain </li></ul><ul><li>b. Tented </li></ul>
28. 28. Arches <ul><li>Plain </li></ul><ul><li>Tented </li></ul>
29. 29. Developing Prints <ul><li>Latent prints hard/nonabsorbent surfaces (substrates):powder </li></ul><ul><li>Latent prints on porous surfaces: chemical </li></ul>
30. 30. Detecting Prints <ul><li>Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging System (RUVIS): </li></ul><ul><li>-no chemicals or powder. </li></ul><ul><li>Powders: </li></ul><ul><li>-variety of colors </li></ul><ul><li>-brush/magnetic wand </li></ul><ul><li>-adhere to perspiration and/or body oils </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine fuming: </li></ul><ul><li>-heating iodine crystals release vapors </li></ul><ul><li>- not permanent and will fade </li></ul>
31. 31. Detecting Prints <ul><li>Ninhydrin: </li></ul><ul><li>-reacts to amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>-produce a purple-blue color </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Developer : </li></ul><ul><li>-reagent used when other chemical methods are ineffective. </li></ul><ul><li>Super Glue ®: </li></ul><ul><li>- cyanoacrylate ester </li></ul><ul><li>-fuming chamber (for up to six hours) </li></ul><ul><li>-handheld wand </li></ul>
32. 32. Developing Prints <ul><li>Fluorescence: </li></ul><ul><li>-prints treated with chemicals that induce fluorescence when exposed to lasers/high-intensity light sources </li></ul><ul><li>-permanently preserve comparison/court evidence </li></ul><ul><li>-photographs must be taken before attempts at lifting </li></ul>
33. 33. Physical Development: Dusting <ul><li>Apply powder to latent print or area. </li></ul><ul><li>Powder adheres to print. </li></ul>Brush and Powder Fingerprints > Analysis
34. 34. Physical Development: Dusting <ul><li>Apply powder to latent print or area. </li></ul><ul><li>Powder adheres to print. </li></ul>Magnetic Brush and Powder Fingerprints > Analysis
35. 35. Powder <ul><li>Latent print developed with powder </li></ul>
36. 36. Powder <ul><li>Print in dust: </li></ul><ul><li>Left-actual print </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-developed with powder </li></ul><ul><li>Right-photographed </li></ul>
37. 37. Powder <ul><li>Shell casing </li></ul>
38. 38. Chemical Development: <ul><li>Iodine Fuming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine sublimes (solid -> gas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine reacts with lipid components; becomes trapped in the print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuming wand or chamber </li></ul></ul>Dirty Brown Color Fingerprints > Analysis
39. 39. Chemical Development: <ul><li>Ninhydrin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reacts with amino acids; purple color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painted or sprayed on area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heated to react </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis
40. 40. Chemical Development: <ul><li>Super glue fuming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fumes with heat or base (NaOH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fumed in cabinets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-white print </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis
41. 41. Chemical Development: Ninhydrin and super glue prints can be further processed: <ul><ul><li>Dusted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemically treated to fluoresce (using laser or alternative light) </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis
42. 42. Development <ul><li>Fingerprints on the inside of a rubber glove </li></ul>
43. 43. Development <ul><li>Fingerprints developed on plastic bag </li></ul>
44. 44. Development <ul><li>Inside of rubber gloves treated with ninhydrin </li></ul>
45. 45. Development <ul><li>Ninhydrin </li></ul>
46. 46. Development <ul><li>Ninhydrin-Note initials at top-CHAIN OF CUSTODY </li></ul>
47. 47. Development <ul><li>Super glue developed prints </li></ul>
48. 48. Super glue <ul><li>Heating unit </li></ul>
49. 49. Super Glue <ul><li>Drops of glue added and heated </li></ul>
50. 50. Super Glue <ul><li>Do it yourself super glue chamber </li></ul>
51. 51. Developing <ul><li>Latent prints visulaized using fluorescent powder </li></ul>
52. 52. Developing <ul><li>Different colored fluorescent powder </li></ul>
53. 53. Development and Collection : <ul><li>No rule: Depends on situation </li></ul><ul><li>Fingerprint must be photographed after development (scene or lab) </li></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis Scene or Lab?
54. 54. Development and Collection <ul><li>Small objects: </li></ul><ul><li>-preserved/transported in entirety </li></ul><ul><li>Large immovable objects: </li></ul><ul><li>-develop prints with powder </li></ul><ul><li>-“lifting” with a broad adhesive tape </li></ul><ul><li>-tape is placed on labeled card providing good background contrast with the powder </li></ul>
55. 55. Digital Imaging <ul><li>Digital imaging: </li></ul><ul><li>-picture converted into a digital computer file </li></ul><ul><li>-fingerprints enhanced for the most accurate/ comprehensive analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Compare function: </li></ul><ul><li>-two images side by side </li></ul><ul><li>-allows the examiner to chart the both images simultaneously </li></ul>
56. 56. Collection of prints: Tape lift: <ul><ul><li>Tape placed over developed print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape then placed on white card. </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Collection
57. 57. Collection of prints: Sometimes a photograph will be the only permanent record. Fingerprints > Collection
58. 58. Fingerprint Kit
59. 59. <ul><li>How are fingerprints analyzed? </li></ul>Categorized by pattern and minutiae Fingerprints
60. 60. <ul><li>How are fingerprints analyzed? </li></ul>Patterns Loop Whorl Arch Fingerprints
61. 61. <ul><li>How are fingerprints analyzed? </li></ul>Minutiae Dot Bifurcation Island Ridge Ending Fingerprints
62. 62. AFIS <ul><li>Computer scans/digitally encode fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>-aids in classifying and retrieving fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>-converts image of fingerprint into digital minutiae </li></ul><ul><li>-contain data showing minutia </li></ul><ul><li>-produces a list of file prints </li></ul><ul><li>-must be examined by a trained fingerprint expert </li></ul>
63. 63. Old system of fingerprints
64. 64. AFIS
65. 65. Modern Fingerprint Analysis <ul><li>Computer system stores patterns and minutiae of prints </li></ul><ul><li>AFIS: automated fingerprint identification system </li></ul>Fingerprints
66. 66. Computer software compares the location of these minutiae. Fingerprints
67. 67. AFIS <ul><li>AFIS highlights all the identifiable minutia. </li></ul>
68. 68. Madrid Bombing Timeline <ul><li>March 11, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorists bomb several trains in Madrid, Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March 13, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LPU receives electronic transmission of digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>images (no info, scale, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 latent prints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known exemplars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>March 19, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LPU identifies/verifies one latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fingerprint as a result of an automated search </li></ul></ul>
69. 69. <ul><li>April 13, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish National Police (SNP) issues ‘negativo’ report regarding latent print </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 21, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LPU rep travels to Spain to provide basis of identification to SNP </li></ul></ul>Madrid
70. 70. <ul><li>May 6, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brandon Mayfield arrested by FBI Portland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 19, 2004 (in California) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense expert verifies FBI identification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 19, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SNP informs FBI they have identified the latent fingerprint with another individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 20, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge releases Mayfield </li></ul></ul>Madrid
71. 71. MADRID BOMBING