CRIME SCENE PROCESSING Introduction to Forensic Science
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>Crime scene processing is a slow, methodical, systematic and orderly process that involves ...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>EDMOND LOCARD-father of Criminalistics </li></ul><ul><li>LOCARD EXCHANGE PRINCIPLE: </li></...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>HAZARDS: </li></ul><ul><li>-personal safety #1 concern </li></ul><ul><li>1 st  officer on s...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>2. Protect scene </li></ul><ul><li>-close/post door </li></ul><ul><li>-crime scene tape </l...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>AVOID HUB!!! </li></ul><ul><li>HUA=Head up Butt. </li></ul><ul><li>Never  assume  a case is...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>Understand trace evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Few absolute rules </li></ul><ul><li>Remain cal...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>POSSIBLE EVIDENCE: </li></ul><ul><li>-look before you leap! </li></ul><ul><li>-never charge...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>Crime scene processing is a team effort </li></ul><ul><li>-no one is an expert in all areas...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>*RESPONSIBILITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>1.        skill/knowledge in investigation may establi...
Fruit of the Poisoned Tree Doctrine <ul><li>Takes police to hidden gun/money </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect confesses to whole ...
Fruit of the Poisoned Tree Doctrine <ul><li>Probable cause hearing before judge: </li></ul><ul><li>-defense points out sea...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>EVIDENCE: 2 TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonial: </li></ul><ul><li>witnesses testifying to ...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>TRACE EVIDENCE: </li></ul><ul><li>-not visible to the naked eye </li></ul><ul><li>-sources:...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>VALUE OF EVIDENCE?  </li></ul><ul><li>Crime committed </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect contact w/v...
7 steps to crime scene processing <ul><li>1. Arrive on scene and get info: </li></ul><ul><li>-start notes </li></ul><ul><l...
7 steps to crime scene processing <ul><li>-draw diagram of scene  </li></ul><ul><li>-mark north on diagram </li></ul><ul><...
7 steps to crime scene processing <ul><li>6. Properly package evidence & tag with appropriate information. </li></ul><ul><...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><ul><li>CHAIN OF CUSTODY:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The written documentation of where the ev...
Boundaries <ul><li>Scene boundaries are important! </li></ul>
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>PHOTOGRAPHS: </li></ul><ul><li>-number photo in corresponding photo log </li></ul><ul><li>O...
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>PHOTOS </li></ul><ul><li>Of body: </li></ul><ul><li>All five angles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. F...
 
 
 
 
 
CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>Every crime scene should be evaluated on its own merits. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take anyt...
You decide <ul><li>Look carefully at what you see: </li></ul><ul><li>-elderly female on floor </li></ul><ul><li>-walker ne...
You decide <ul><li>OOOPS! </li></ul><ul><li>-things have just taken a turn for the worst </li></ul><ul><li>-never assume a...
Processing <ul><li>Clean floor?  </li></ul><ul><li>Look closely! </li></ul>
Processing <ul><li>Same floor when luminol has been applied.  </li></ul><ul><li>The area luminescing is where blood has be...
Observe <ul><li>What do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the shirt? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the pants? </li></ul...
Observe <ul><li>What do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the feet?  Do you think victim hopped out into desert with l...
Crime scenes <ul><li>You never know what type of scene you will have.  This is the remains of a homicide bomber in Israel....
<ul><li>Another bomber in Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of tremendous forensic experience </li></ul>
Crime scenes <ul><li>Identifying homicide bombers is not difficult.  They are heroes in their homeland. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Police photography has been around for many years </li></ul>
<ul><li>Photograph with a scale </li></ul>
<ul><li>Crime scene kit </li></ul>
<ul><li>Jaw bone in the dirt </li></ul>
<ul><li>Foot wear impression with scale in photograph </li></ul>
<ul><li>Shell casing </li></ul>
<ul><li>Blood stain </li></ul>
<ul><li>Crime scene photo of burial site. Note the sign at the head.  </li></ul><ul><li>There is a fine line between love ...
3-D Diagram
Crime scene diagram
Primary sketch
Computer program diagram
 
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Crime Scene Processing

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  • Hazards: -if it killed decedent-can it kill you? 1 st Officer on scene: Success of entire investigation often times depends on actions of first arriving officer on scene. Starting point for whole crime: where/who/what, etc. Physical evidence at scene is key to solution of the crime #1 task: Actions/inactions should not destroy/disturb evidence Boston PO and cigarette butts at scenes Do not rush into scene haphazardly Steps for 1 st officers: Recording times is very important in establishing PO credibility
  • 2. Protect scene -onlookers, officers, command staff -primary/secondary perimeters LA started third to protect POs
  • Objectives: -reconstruct incident -ascertain sequence of events -determine mode of operation -uncover a motive -detect all activity that may have occurred -recover physical evidence Often thankless, not glamorous job Understand trace evidence: defined shortly -how left -where left -how to collect properly Few Absolute rules (test ?) -there are basic rules for every crime scene but do not expect same thing at similar calls Remain clam, flexible and adaptable Exam of scene -follow laws/protocols -search warrants may be needed (HPD will secure the house until warrant arrives) -Do not start until all teams members are present (detectives, CSA) -”2 heads are better than one” -the more eyes the better Team effort 3 conditions for success (test ?)
  • Stand at periphery as a team and look around-most often overlooked step in crime scene processing. People get charged up and just enter. Own up to it:Downtown casino story
  • -there is no I in team. Cause of death: what happened Manner of death (5) Firearms: Names used? Ballistics is incorrect term for how it is used Ballistics is the study of the flight characteristics of the bullet once it fired. Firearms examiner: matches particular weapon to bullets collected (test ?)
  • Crime scene investigators have a tremendous responsibility to maintain professionalism and ethics.
  • Juries are every day people who watch all of the forensic shows and expect tremendous scientific evidence to prove case. ID:
  • -Make contact with first arriving officer. -As CSI/CSA you’ll work under the direction of a detective since they are the primary person responsible for putting together the entire case. Note taking: Chronological order Date/time of incident (911 call) Event # Time of your arrival Who you contacted/spoke with Location of occurrence Scene description -type of building -location -lighting -evidence found/#/location -weather conditions -team members (roles) -victims (s) -who accessed scene prior to you -what touched/moved -where walked/exited/entered -all actions taken at scene 2. REVIEW SCENE/FORMULATE PLAN: Stand at periphery and take in whole scene. This is the most forgotten step in crime scene processing. Plan of action is formulated -with all parties involved -determine if need a warrant -safety issues -everyone has input -this is where disagreements are worked out prior to going into scene -decide on search pattern (s) -what evidence you expect to find (casings/blood/etc.) Roles clearly delineated prior to entering: -detective (primary) in charge -team leader (CSA supervisor) -note taker -photographer -evidence collector -Once all issues resolved and plan formulated-execute plan. 3. Photograph/Diagram scene to include a search for evidence. -mark each piece of evidence with a number/letter and leave in place -measurements include the boundary measurements -take measurements of items in the scene using perpendicular or triangulation methods (explained shortly)
  • Draw a diagram/sketch: -more than a note but less than a photograph -contain measurements of entire scene -Mark north on sketch -use a legend to match each piece of evidence 4. Collect evidence of a fragile nature first: Trace Blood Hair fibers Fingerprints Powders 5. Properly recover remaining evidence: -gun, casings -conduct secondary search to be sure nothing was overlooked.
  • 6. Properly package evidence &amp; tag with appropriate information. Packaging properly: Biological items -blood/clothes go into paper bags-plastic is never used as it causes breakdown of material -items must be packaged separately especially the vics/suspects Guns- packaged in rigidly fixed container Casings- soft cushioning material Syringes- appropriate plastic container Drugs -pill bottle/vials Charred items- paint cans are best Date.time What the evidence is Where collected from Who collected by Case # 7. Complete inventory of impounded evidence/maintain chain of custody. -# on evidence is entered onto inventory with description -evidence log/inventory goes with all evidence to locker -keep copy of inventory -
  • Photographs: -2 of every picture was rule with 35mm-never knew how pic would come out. -1 with and 1 without a scale -keep a running photo log so you know what pic is of OVERVIEWS/OVERALLS: -from farthest part of scene -CSA will start at front of house,move inn get address, apartment # in photo -move through doorway into scene MEDIUMS: Closer views CLOSE-UPS/UP-CLOSE: -close up of scene and items in scene -individual items in scene -body/hands/etc.
  • Line search pattern: Also called the strip Divided into N/S strips Walk parallel to each other Useful for teams Best used for outside scenes
  • Spiral search pattern: Start from outside and work inwards Useful with limited number of personnel Good for looking for large items
  • Zone search pattern: -the area (usually a room) is divided into equal sized zones -each zone is assigned to a searcher -useful for teams/less number of searchers -useful when trace evidence is a concern -once zone is searched everyone switches and searches over
  • Coordinate method of measurements: -usually inside-from wall to wall -two points
  • Triangulation Method: -usually outside -use three fixed/permanent objects/can be referred back to later
  • Each crime scene presents its own set of problems and conditions. Experience gained at previous scenes can be relied on but one case should not always guide how you handle another case.
  • Transcript of "Crime Scene Processing"

    1. 1. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING Introduction to Forensic Science
    2. 2. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>Crime scene processing is a slow, methodical, systematic and orderly process that involves protocols and a processing methodology. </li></ul>
    3. 3. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>EDMOND LOCARD-father of Criminalistics </li></ul><ul><li>LOCARD EXCHANGE PRINCIPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever an individual comes into contact with another person/location certain small seemingly insignificant changes occur. Small items, such as hair, fibers and assorted microscopic debris may be left by one person or picked up by that person. In short it is impossible to come into contact with an environment without changing it in some small way </li></ul>
    4. 4. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>HAZARDS: </li></ul><ul><li>-personal safety #1 concern </li></ul><ul><li>1 st officer on scene- </li></ul><ul><li>-Actions very important </li></ul><ul><li>-crime scene starting point </li></ul><ul><li>-physical evidence on scene </li></ul><ul><li>-#1 task:prevent destruction/disturbance of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>-includes officer </li></ul><ul><li>-Approach scene cautiously </li></ul><ul><li>a. EMS holding short </li></ul><ul><li>b. suspect still on scene </li></ul><ul><li>c. obvious dead-let one medic in </li></ul><ul><li>-injured take precedence </li></ul><ul><li>-mistakes cannot be corrected </li></ul><ul><li>STEPS: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Record time/precise times </li></ul><ul><li>-time of call/arrival </li></ul><ul><li>-witnesses times </li></ul>
    5. 5. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>2. Protect scene </li></ul><ul><li>-close/post door </li></ul><ul><li>-crime scene tape </li></ul><ul><li>-1 st PO stay at scene until properly relieved </li></ul><ul><li>3. Start log </li></ul><ul><li>-name/ID# </li></ul><ul><li>-times </li></ul><ul><li>-exact location </li></ul><ul><li>-who entered scene </li></ul><ul><li>a. name </li></ul><ul><li>b. agency </li></ul><ul><li>c. purpose/actions taken </li></ul><ul><li>d. time in/out </li></ul><ul><li>4. Isolate/hold witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>a. start on written statements </li></ul><ul><li>b. keep separated until detectives can interview </li></ul>
    6. 6. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>AVOID HUB!!! </li></ul><ul><li>HUA=Head up Butt. </li></ul><ul><li>Never assume a case is one thing or another. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat every case like a homicide and work backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not let yourself be fooled or talked into something. </li></ul><ul><li>Base your decisions on your exams/scene evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Good rule of thumb: Nothing is what it seems. </li></ul><ul><li>The main thing you can do in a scene is to remain aware. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the power of observation is key. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume everyone has seen an object-mention it. </li></ul><ul><li>KEEP YOUR EYES OPEN AT ALL TIMES!!!! </li></ul>
    7. 7. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>Understand trace evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Few absolute rules </li></ul><ul><li>Remain calm, flexible and adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>EXAM OF SCENE: </li></ul><ul><li>-Follow law/protocols </li></ul><ul><li>-Start when entire team assembled </li></ul><ul><li>-3 conditions for success </li></ul><ul><li>organization </li></ul><ul><li>thoroughness </li></ul><ul><li>caution </li></ul>
    8. 8. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>POSSIBLE EVIDENCE: </li></ul><ul><li>-look before you leap! </li></ul><ul><li>-never charge into a scene. </li></ul><ul><li>-stand at periphery and look </li></ul><ul><li>around. </li></ul><ul><li>-let scene “talk” to you. </li></ul><ul><li>-be aware at all times for possible evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Look/think before you: </li></ul><ul><li>-enter </li></ul><ul><li>-touch </li></ul><ul><li>-move </li></ul><ul><li>-step </li></ul><ul><li>Physical evidence-can be seen with naked eye ( shell casings, blood spatter) </li></ul><ul><li>Trace evidence-cannot be seen with naked eye (fibers, blood) </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT TOUCH WHAT YOU DON’T HAVE TO. IF YOU DO TOUCH SOMETHING OWN UP TO IT!! </li></ul>
    9. 9. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>Crime scene processing is a team effort </li></ul><ul><li>-no one is an expert in all areas. </li></ul><ul><li>-consults are done with many disciplines: </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic pathologist </li></ul><ul><li>-MD specially trained to perform autopsies </li></ul><ul><li>determine cause/manner of death </li></ul><ul><li>Cause of death: Varied </li></ul><ul><li>Manners of death: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>5 manners of death: </li></ul><ul><li>Homicide </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Undetermined </li></ul><ul><li>District Attorney (DA) </li></ul><ul><li>-presents case in court </li></ul><ul><li>Dentists/Odontologists </li></ul><ul><li>Entomologists </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms experts </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic toxicologists </li></ul>
    10. 10. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>*RESPONSIBILITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>1.       skill/knowledge in investigation may establish guilt/innocence </li></ul><ul><li>2.       professional ethics/integrity are essential </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3.       owe duty to truth </li></ul><ul><li>4.       outcome of guilt/innocence not important as long as collected evidence in good faith. </li></ul><ul><li>5.       thorough, competent and unbiased </li></ul>
    11. 11. Fruit of the Poisoned Tree Doctrine <ul><li>Takes police to hidden gun/money </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect confesses to whole event </li></ul><ul><li>Detectives confront suspect w/bag & mask </li></ul><ul><li>CSA sees car opens trunk-mask/bag </li></ul><ul><li>Search warrant for residence only </li></ul><ul><li>Bank robbery-fingerprints lifted/ID’d </li></ul>
    12. 12. Fruit of the Poisoned Tree Doctrine <ul><li>Probable cause hearing before judge: </li></ul><ul><li>-defense points out search warrant specifically listed the residence and not the car </li></ul><ul><li>-judge agrees car search was illegal </li></ul><ul><li>-any/all evidence obtained on the basis of the car search now inadmissible </li></ul><ul><li>-includes objects in car/confession/suspect leading to hidden items at another location </li></ul><ul><li>-left? The fingerprints at the bank---where the suspect has banked many time sin the past three years. </li></ul>
    13. 13. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>EVIDENCE: 2 TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonial: </li></ul><ul><li>witnesses testifying to what they saw </li></ul><ul><li>Real: </li></ul><ul><li>-physical </li></ul><ul><li>-trace </li></ul>
    14. 14. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>TRACE EVIDENCE: </li></ul><ul><li>-not visible to the naked eye </li></ul><ul><li>-sources:clothing, fibers, footwear, tools. </li></ul><ul><li>-use alternate light sources </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: </li></ul><ul><li>-can be seen with the naked eye. </li></ul><ul><li>-blood/shell casings </li></ul><ul><li>-documented with photos/notes </li></ul><ul><li>collected properly </li></ul>
    15. 15. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>VALUE OF EVIDENCE? </li></ul><ul><li>Crime committed </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect contact w/vics & scene </li></ul><ul><li>Exonerate innocent </li></ul><ul><li>Corroborate stories </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect confronted w/evidence may confess </li></ul><ul><li>Physical is more reliable than eyewitnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Juries love the “smoking gun” </li></ul><ul><li>Identification versus Individualization of evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFICATION: </li></ul><ul><li>-Items share common source-classified /placed into groups with all other items w/similar properties. </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUALIZATION: </li></ul><ul><li>-Items come from unique source. </li></ul>
    16. 16. 7 steps to crime scene processing <ul><li>1. Arrive on scene and get info: </li></ul><ul><li>-start notes </li></ul><ul><li>chronological order </li></ul><ul><li>specific as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Officer’s name/P# </li></ul><ul><li>Time of call </li></ul><ul><li>Details of events </li></ul><ul><li>Who has entered/left scene </li></ul><ul><li>Scene changed/items moved </li></ul><ul><li>Primary detective/investigator </li></ul><ul><li>Witnesses/suspect info </li></ul><ul><li>2. Review the scene/formulate plan </li></ul><ul><li>-stand at periphery and look at whole scene </li></ul><ul><li>-establish appropriate scene boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>-entire team discusses and formulates plan of action </li></ul><ul><li>-plan search patterns </li></ul><ul><li>-once agreed on implement plan of action. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Photograph/diagram scene </li></ul><ul><li>- search for evidence and mark as found-letter or # w/each item </li></ul><ul><li>-leave in place during first search </li></ul><ul><li>-take measurements for scene boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>-take measurements of items using perpendicular or triangulation </li></ul>
    17. 17. 7 steps to crime scene processing <ul><li>-draw diagram of scene </li></ul><ul><li>-mark north on diagram </li></ul><ul><li>-use legend </li></ul><ul><li>-photograph overalls of scene first </li></ul><ul><li>-document photo w/# & description in notebook </li></ul><ul><li>-if you don’t know what photo is of no one else will </li></ul><ul><li>-document #/total # </li></ul><ul><li>-overalls-mid range and finally close ups of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>-photo with & without a scale in photo </li></ul><ul><li>4. Collect evidence of fragile nature first </li></ul><ul><li>-blood </li></ul><ul><li>-hair </li></ul><ul><li>-fibers </li></ul><ul><li>-fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>-powders </li></ul><ul><li>5. Properly Recover remaining evidence </li></ul><ul><li>-Fingerprints-dusting, photo, lifting </li></ul><ul><li>-physical evidence-gun, casings </li></ul><ul><li>-conduct secondary search to be sure nothing was overlooked </li></ul>
    18. 18. 7 steps to crime scene processing <ul><li>6. Properly package evidence & tag with appropriate information. </li></ul><ul><li>-date/time </li></ul><ul><li>-what evidence is </li></ul><ul><li>-where collected from </li></ul><ul><li>-who collected by (initial) </li></ul><ul><li>-case # </li></ul><ul><li>7. Complete inventory of impounded evidence/maintain chain of evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>-evidence log to go to lab-describing each item </li></ul><ul><li>-chain of custody-definition? </li></ul>
    19. 19. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><ul><li>CHAIN OF CUSTODY: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The written documentation of where the evidence has been and who has had custody/possession of it from it’s collection to the present time. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Boundaries <ul><li>Scene boundaries are important! </li></ul>
    21. 21. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>PHOTOGRAPHS: </li></ul><ul><li>-number photo in corresponding photo log </li></ul><ul><li>OVERVIEWS: </li></ul><ul><li>-from farthest part of scene (outward working inward) </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIUMS: </li></ul><ul><li>-closer views </li></ul><ul><li>UP-CLOSE: </li></ul><ul><li>-close up of items/scene </li></ul><ul><li>-2 of every picture </li></ul><ul><li>-1 with/1 without scale </li></ul>
    22. 22. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>PHOTOS </li></ul><ul><li>Of body: </li></ul><ul><li>All five angles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. From above </li></ul><ul><li>2. From feet </li></ul><ul><li>3. From left side </li></ul><ul><li>4. From right side </li></ul><ul><li>5. From head </li></ul>
    23. 28. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING <ul><li>Every crime scene should be evaluated on its own merits. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take anything for granted. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to every detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Things are not always what they seem. </li></ul>
    24. 29. You decide <ul><li>Look carefully at what you see: </li></ul><ul><li>-elderly female on floor </li></ul><ul><li>-walker nearby </li></ul><ul><li>-no blood </li></ul><ul><li>-nothing suspicious </li></ul>
    25. 30. You decide <ul><li>OOOPS! </li></ul><ul><li>-things have just taken a turn for the worst </li></ul><ul><li>-never assume anything on a scene </li></ul><ul><li>-what do you see here? </li></ul><ul><li>-blood?- how come no blood? </li></ul>
    26. 31. Processing <ul><li>Clean floor? </li></ul><ul><li>Look closely! </li></ul>
    27. 32. Processing <ul><li>Same floor when luminol has been applied. </li></ul><ul><li>The area luminescing is where blood has been cleaned up. </li></ul>
    28. 33. Observe <ul><li>What do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the shirt? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the pants? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened to the mid-section? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of crime do you think this is? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: </li></ul><ul><li>-Sexual-related homicide </li></ul><ul><li>-mid-section damage: feral animal activity from being outside. What do you think that does to your forensic evidence? </li></ul>
    29. 34. Observe <ul><li>What do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the feet? Do you think victim hopped out into desert with legs taped? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the face? </li></ul><ul><li>Decedent appears wet-what is that? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: Homicide </li></ul><ul><li>Animal activity to the face </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid is decomposition fluid </li></ul>
    30. 35. Crime scenes <ul><li>You never know what type of scene you will have. This is the remains of a homicide bomber in Israel. </li></ul>
    31. 36. <ul><li>Another bomber in Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of tremendous forensic experience </li></ul>
    32. 37. Crime scenes <ul><li>Identifying homicide bombers is not difficult. They are heroes in their homeland. </li></ul><ul><li>Pretty young huh? </li></ul>
    33. 38. <ul><li>Police photography has been around for many years </li></ul>
    34. 39. <ul><li>Photograph with a scale </li></ul>
    35. 40. <ul><li>Crime scene kit </li></ul>
    36. 41. <ul><li>Jaw bone in the dirt </li></ul>
    37. 42. <ul><li>Foot wear impression with scale in photograph </li></ul>
    38. 43. <ul><li>Shell casing </li></ul>
    39. 44. <ul><li>Blood stain </li></ul>
    40. 45. <ul><li>Crime scene photo of burial site. Note the sign at the head. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a fine line between love & hate </li></ul>
    41. 46. 3-D Diagram
    42. 47. Crime scene diagram
    43. 48. Primary sketch
    44. 49. Computer program diagram
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