Cj 101 ch 4
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  • In 1703 pay in the sum of 35 shillings a month .In 1796, the Watch was reorganized and the watchmen carried a badge of office, a rattle, and a six-foot pole, which was painted blue and white with a hook on one end and a bill on the other. The hook was used to grab fleeing criminals, and the rounded “bill” was used as a weapon. The rattle was a noise-making device used for calling for assistance.
  • The LEAA’s Exemplary Projects Program recognized outstanding innovative efforts to combat crime and to provide victims with assistances. Exemplary Projects served as examples to other police departments. Examples: Street Crimes Unit (NYC) The Hidden Cameras Project (Seattle) The Kansas City Experiment
  • The LEAA’s Exemplary Projects Program recognized outstanding innovative efforts to combat crime and to provide victims with assistances. Exemplary Projects served as examples to other police departments. Examples: Street Crimes Unit (NYC) The Hidden Cameras Project (Seattle) The Kansas City Experiment
  • The frontier was home to many outlaws. Frontier lands lacked established police forces, so many settlers took to vigilantism .
  • In 1750, Sir Henry Fielding became magistrate of London’s Bow Street region. He attracted a number of dedicated men to serve as officers, patrolling streets and highways leading to London. They became known as the Bow Street Runners.
  • The purposes of policing in democratic societies is to: Enforce and support the laws Investigate crimes/apprehend offenders 3. Prevent crime Ensure domestic peace and tranquility Provide the community with enforcement–related services
  • Only about 10 – 20% of all calls to the police require a law enforcement response. Police cannot enforce all of the laws. Resources are limited. Law enforcement priorities are significantly affected by community needs. Individual discretion also impacts them. Police are expected to support the laws they enforce.
  • Offenders may be apprehended: While committing a crime Shortly after committing a crime After an extensive investigation
  • Crime prevention is proactive . It aims to: Reduce crime and criminal opportunities Lower the rewards of crime Lessen the fear of crime Law enforcement’s ability to prevent crimes relies in part on their ability to predict crime. Determining when and where crimes will occur Allocating resources accordingly Crime mapping, as with CompStat , h
  • The dominant operational policing strategy is preventive patrol, which places uniformed officers on the street in the midst of the public. Patrol is designed to: Deter crimes Interrupt crimes in progress Position officers for quick response to emergencies Increase the public’s feeling of safety and security
  • Emergency responses (or critical incidents ) occur in response to crimes in progress, serious injuries, natural disasters, and other situations in which human lives may be in jeopardy.
  • Routine incident responses include restoring order, documenting information, or provide another immediate service to the parties involved in routine occurrences such as minor traffic accidents. This is the second most common police activity. Having a good response time is strongly linked to citizen satisfaction.
  • Criminal investigations dominate media attention but constitute a relatively small proportion of police work. An investigation involves discovering, collecting, preparing, identifying, and presenting evidence to determine what happened and who is responsible.
  • First responding officers: Provide assistance to the injured and in capturing suspects. Secure the crime scene. Conduct the preliminary investigation. Sometimes, special crime-scene investigators will come in to assist. Follow-up investigations are based on solvability factors.
  • Problem solving policing requires: Gathering knowledge of problem causes Developing solutions in partnership with the community Responding with a workable plan Assessing the progress
  • Consistent with service policing, community policing emphasizes the idea that police must partner with the community to help fulfill the community needs. Police actively work with citizens and with social services to help solve problems.
  • Community policing involves at least one of four elements: Community-based crime prevention Reorientation of patrol activities to emphasize nonemergency services Increased police accountability to the public A decentralization of command, including greater use of civilians at all levels of police decision making
  • The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks changed the role of police departments. The core mission has not changed, but all police departments now devote much more resources to preparing for a possible terrorist attack and intelligence gathering. Local police departments play an especially important role in responding to the challenges of terrorism.
  • Law enforcement agencies use a variety of applicant screening methods, including: Personal interviews Basic skills tests Physical agility measures Medical exams Drug tests Background investigations Psychological testing
  • Modern police education programs involve training in areas like: Human relations Firearms Communications Legal issues Patrol Investigations Report writing A post-academy field training program (PTO) is a recent development in police training.
  • Today’s demands for police professionalism require that police officers have specialized knowledge and they adhere to professional standards and police ethics . Accreditation is a step toward greater professionalism. Ethics training is integrated into most basic training programs.
  • Opportunities for women and minorities in policing are expanding. Although ethnic minorities are now employed in policing in significant numbers, women are still significantly underrepresented, especially in top command positions.
  • There are a number of factors that influence police decision making, including: Officer’s background Suspect’s characteristics Department policy Community interest Pressure from victim Disagreement with the law
  • The Police Foundation recommends: Involving underrepresented groups in departmental affirmative action and long-term planning programs. Encouraging the development of an open promotion system. Periodic audits to make sure that female officers are not being underutilized by ineffective tracking into clerical and support positions.

Transcript

  • 1. CJ 101 Introduction to Criminal Justice Chapter 4
  • 2. History of Policing England:-Watch system-Hue and Cry 1829: Sir Robert Peel-uniformed officers-decreased force-”Police are the public and the public are the police”
  • 3. London Metropolitan Police
  • 4. The Early Cities Self-policed: Justice of the Peace: Boston: (1635): Night watch NYC: (1651): Shout/Rattle Watch Philadelphia: (1705): 10 patrol areas CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger5 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 5. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger6 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 6. August Vollmer (1876-1955)DO NOT WRITE DOWN!!!! Berkeley, CA: Chief: -Centralized records (1906) -blood/soil/fibers (1907) -police academy (1907) -Patrol-bikes (1910)/motors (1911)/Cars (1913)/Radios (1928) -1st juvenile division (US)-1914 -college degrees CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, -CJ program UC Berkeley 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger 7 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 7. August Vollmer (1876-1955)DO NOT WRITE DOWN!!!! -polygraphs-investigations 1921 -1st Black officer (1919)/1st female officer (1925) -prevent v. solve crimes -helped organize-LA, Chicago, San Diego CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E -many students other chiefs © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger -cancer-suicide 1955 8 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 8. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger9 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 9. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger10 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 10. The Frontier “wild west” -lacked law enforcement -vigilantes -sheriff-elected/appointed CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger11 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 11. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger12 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 12. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger13 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 13. Policing Eras Political: 1840-1930 -appointed Reform: 1930-1970 -professionalism/crime solving Community Problem Solving: (1970- ) CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, -partnerships 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger14 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 14. Modern PolicingJurisdiction:-geographical area-officers enforce Federal State Counties Cities/towns
  • 15. Federal Jurisdiction:-50 states/DC-US territories-federal lands
  • 16. StateOldest-Texas RangersState Police:-jurisdiction-state boundaries-patrol highways-criminal investigations-cover small towns
  • 17. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger18 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 18. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger19 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 19. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger20 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 20. Mass State Police
  • 21. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger22 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 22. County Sheriff:-only elected law enforcement official-county areas-jails-courtrooms
  • 23. Municipal Enforce all laws-jurisdiction-city limits-closest to public-crime prevention-community policing
  • 24. The Police Mission 1. Enforce/support laws 2. Investigate & apprehend 3. Prevent crime CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc 4. Community services by Dr. Frank Schmalleger30 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 25. Enforcing the Law  10–20% calls-response  Resources limited  Priorities affected Support laws enforce? CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger31 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 26. Apprehending Offenders Crime Arrest CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger32 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 27. Preventing CrimeProactive:  Reduce crime  Lessen fear Crime mapping CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger33 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 28. Preventive Patrol Uniformed officers 1. Deterrence 2. Interrupt crimes 3. Quick response CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E 4. Safety & security © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger34 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 29. Emergency Response Critical Incidents: -crimes in progress/serious injuries, -lives in jeopardy CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger35 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 30. Routine Incident Response  Second most common activity  Good response time-citizen satisfaction CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger36 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 31. Criminal Investigation -small % police work -determine what happened/who responsible CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger37 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 32. Criminal Investigation First officers:  Assist injured/capture suspects  Secure scene  Preliminary investigation Investigators/Detectives: CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E -in depth actions © 2009 Pearson -trained/experienced Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger38 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 33. Problem Solving -causes -solutions/community -plan/assess progress CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger39 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 34. Community Policing-crime prevention-quality of life issues CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E-police/citizens/social services solve problems © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger40 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 35. Community Policing 1. Community-based crime prevention 2. Nonemergency services 3. Increased accountability to public 4. Decentralization of command CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger41 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 36. Terrorism’s Impact on Policing September 11, 2001: -changed role -more preparing -local-important role CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger42 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 37. Recruitment and Selection DO NOT WRITE DOWN:: Personal interviews Basic skills tests Physical agility measures Medical exams CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, Drug tests 10E Background investigations © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc Psychological testing by Dr. Frank Schmalleger43 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 38. Education and Training-College credits-Academy-FTO-Cultural awareness CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson-Specialized Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger44 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 39. Professionalism and Ethics -specialized knowledge -professional standards and ethics -accreditation CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger45 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 40. Ethnic and Gender Diversityin Policing Women/Minorities: expanding -underrepresented-top command CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger46 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 41. Officer Discretion Arrest or not?-judgment call-exercising autonomy-individual solutions
  • 42. Factors that Influence Discretion Factors: Officer’s background Suspect’s characteristics Department policy Community interest Pressure from victim CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, Disagreement with the law 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger48 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 43. Increasing the Number of Minorities and Women in Police Work Police Foundation recommends: 1. Involving underrepresented groups 2. Open promotion system 3. Periodic audits CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger49 Pearson Prentice Hall
  • 44. Multiculturalism and Police Police reflect community-same make up-mutual understanding-training/exposure