CHAPTER          2              The Crime               Picture                          1
The Value of Data•policy• programs laws funding                    2
Sources of Data1. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR/NIBRS)2. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Professional organizatio...
NIBRS: The New UCRNational Incident Based Reporting System FBI: 1988 Law enforcement:-crime/arrest                      ...
NIBRS-location-weapon-type/value of property-characteristics vic/perp-vic/perp relationship-disposition
UCR/NIBRS       DO NOT WRITE DOWNAlso collects data on:  bad checks            liquor law violations  vagrancy         ...
UCR/NIBRS: Crime Rates                  # of crimes  Crime Rate =                      100,000                 population ...
UCR/NIBRS: Clearance       RatesClearance Rate = number of crimes solved                 number of crimes committed       ...
Murderunlawful killing of a human being byanotherIncludes: Willful/unlawful homicides Non-negligent manslaughter        ...
Murder: Multiple Killings Spree: two/more -more than one occasion Mass: three/more  -single event Serial: three/more -t...
Forcible Rapecarnal knowledge forcibly/against willIncludes: Assault/attempt                                         11
Rape: underreported: 60% -Police unsympathetic -Embarrassment/publicity  -Reprisals -Additional “victimization”           ...
Robberytaking/attempted takingproperty of anotherForce fear of force                          13
Aggravated Assaultserious injury upon anotherIncludes: Attempted-deadly weapon                              14
Burglaryunlawful entry –structureto commit a felony/theft                            15
Larceny–theftunlawfultaking/carrying/leading/riding awayfrom possession of another                                      16
Motor Vehicle TheftTheft/attempted of motor vehicle-self-propelled-land/not rails                                   17
Motor Vehicle TheftIncludes          Excludesautomobiles       trainsmotorcycles       airplanesmotor scooters    bulldoze...
Arsonburning/attempted burning of propertywith/without intent to defraudStructures & vehicles                             ...
Part II Offenses-social order offenses:     Simple assault     DUI     Prostitution     Vandalism     Receiving stole...
NCVSNational Crime Victimization Survey self-reports “dark figure” of crime> 50,000 households surveyed twice per year ...
Dark Figure of Crime                 crimes                 known  all        to the policecrime              dark figure ...
NCVS Statistics Reveal 1/2 of violent crime reported 1/3 of all property crime reported                                 ...
Women and Crime Women:    likely to be injured during crime     Lifestyle modifications due to threat                  ...
Findings of the National Violence Against        Women Survey (NVAWS)         DO NOT WRITE DOWN  52% have been physically...
Violence Against Women      Act (VAWA)• Rape Shield Law to civil/criminal cases Federal funding                          ...
Anti-Stalking Laws All states-protection to women (80%) Cyberstalking:-internet/email/electronic   communication to stal...
Elderly Crime Victims•Lowest rate of victimization-high fear rate-targets of scams                                28
Hate CrimesHate crimes:-hatred/bias/prejudice-actual/perceived- race/color/religion/national origin/ethnicitygender/sexual...
Organized Crime-highly organized/disciplined association-illegal goods/services-RICO Act                                  ...
Drug Crime > x 2 since 1975 Federal prosecutions:-11,854 in 1984-40,000 in 2001•Drugs=other crimes                      ...
CybercrimeCybercrime:-computer-federal/state computer statute-victims?                                  32
Causes of Crime causes? Basically good? Why some violent/aggressive? Self-interest?                                 33
CriminologyCriminology: causes  Crime—violation of criminal law w/o legal  justification  Deviance—  -violation of socia...
Criminological Theory Theory-interrelated propositions -describe/explain/predict                                     35
Characteristics of    Biological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-genetic-hereditary-primitive developmental/evolutionary process...
Social Policy and Biological         Theories“Extreme.”Eugenics (1920s)                               37
Psychobiological    Theories                   38
Characteristics ofPsychobiological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-DNA-nutrition-hormones-physical trauma-body chemistry        ...
Chromosome Theory -Supermales:(XYY) -Later studies disputed findings                                    40
Biochemical Factors and      ImbalancesBiocriminology:-eating habits-vitamin deficiencies-genetics                        ...
Social Policy and Biological         TheoriesPolicies: modify body chemistry-change behaviorExample: Medication           ...
Psychological  Theories                43
Characteristics of Psychological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-individual-unit of analysis-personality-motivational element-ab...
Behavioral Conditioning-behavior-increased/decreased by reward/punishment/other    stimuli-Pavlov’s dogs                  ...
Psychopathology and      CrimePsychopathology: mental illnessPsychopath:-personality disorder/antisocial-likely to become ...
The Psychotic OffenderPsychosis:-mental disorder-out of touch with reality-can lead to crime                             47
Social Policy and   Psychological Theories-individualistic/treatment and therapy plans-reduce dangerousness               ...
Sociological  Theories               49
Characteristics of  Sociological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-Group dynamics-causal basis-Social disorganization-criminal beh...
Social Policy and  Sociological Theories-change cultural conditions that lead people into crime                           ...
Social Process    Theories                 52
Characteristics of Social   Process TheoriesBasic Assumptions-Low self-esteem/no meaningful social roles-crime-socializati...
Social Policy and Social      Process Theories-Improve self esteem-mentor programs                              54
ConflictTheories           55
Characteristics of Conflict         Theory-crime-economic/social inequities-conflict among groups-unavoidable-laws-interes...
Social Policy and      Conflict TheoriesFocus on injustices and inequality-Revolution!   -job opportunities   -prison over...
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Chapter02

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 The Crime Picture 1
  2. 2. The Value of Data•policy• programs laws funding 2
  3. 3. Sources of Data1. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR/NIBRS)2. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Professional organizations Offender self-reports Other regular publications 3
  4. 4. NIBRS: The New UCRNational Incident Based Reporting System FBI: 1988 Law enforcement:-crime/arrest 4
  5. 5. NIBRS-location-weapon-type/value of property-characteristics vic/perp-vic/perp relationship-disposition
  6. 6. UCR/NIBRS DO NOT WRITE DOWNAlso collects data on:  bad checks  liquor law violations  vagrancy  “peeping Tom”  disorderly conduct activities  driving under the  runaways influence  trespassing  drunkenness  general category of all  non-violent family “other” criminal law offenses violations 6
  7. 7. UCR/NIBRS: Crime Rates # of crimes Crime Rate = 100,000 population 7
  8. 8. UCR/NIBRS: Clearance RatesClearance Rate = number of crimes solved number of crimes committed 8
  9. 9. Murderunlawful killing of a human being byanotherIncludes: Willful/unlawful homicides Non-negligent manslaughter 9
  10. 10. Murder: Multiple Killings Spree: two/more -more than one occasion Mass: three/more -single event Serial: three/more -time/cooling off 10
  11. 11. Forcible Rapecarnal knowledge forcibly/against willIncludes: Assault/attempt 11
  12. 12. Rape: underreported: 60% -Police unsympathetic -Embarrassment/publicity -Reprisals -Additional “victimization” 12
  13. 13. Robberytaking/attempted takingproperty of anotherForce fear of force 13
  14. 14. Aggravated Assaultserious injury upon anotherIncludes: Attempted-deadly weapon 14
  15. 15. Burglaryunlawful entry –structureto commit a felony/theft 15
  16. 16. Larceny–theftunlawfultaking/carrying/leading/riding awayfrom possession of another 16
  17. 17. Motor Vehicle TheftTheft/attempted of motor vehicle-self-propelled-land/not rails 17
  18. 18. Motor Vehicle TheftIncludes Excludesautomobiles trainsmotorcycles airplanesmotor scooters bulldozerstrucks most farm equipmentbuses shipssnowmobiles boats spacecraft 18
  19. 19. Arsonburning/attempted burning of propertywith/without intent to defraudStructures & vehicles 19
  20. 20. Part II Offenses-social order offenses:  Simple assault  DUI  Prostitution  Vandalism  Receiving stolen property  Fraud  Embezzlement 20
  21. 21. NCVSNational Crime Victimization Survey self-reports “dark figure” of crime> 50,000 households surveyed twice per year 21
  22. 22. Dark Figure of Crime crimes known all to the policecrime dark figure 22
  23. 23. NCVS Statistics Reveal 1/2 of violent crime reported 1/3 of all property crime reported 23
  24. 24. Women and Crime Women: likely to be injured during crime Lifestyle modifications due to threat 24
  25. 25. Findings of the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) DO NOT WRITE DOWN  52% have been physically assaulted as child/adult  1.9 million women physically assaulted in U.S. each year  25% (8% of men) experienced partner violence  18% experienced a completed/attempted rape (> half under 18 when first raped)  More likely to be injured during assault  Violence against women primarily partner violence  8% of women have been stalked. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 25
  26. 26. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)• Rape Shield Law to civil/criminal cases Federal funding 26
  27. 27. Anti-Stalking Laws All states-protection to women (80%) Cyberstalking:-internet/email/electronic communication to stalk 27
  28. 28. Elderly Crime Victims•Lowest rate of victimization-high fear rate-targets of scams 28
  29. 29. Hate CrimesHate crimes:-hatred/bias/prejudice-actual/perceived- race/color/religion/national origin/ethnicitygender/sexual orientation 29
  30. 30. Organized Crime-highly organized/disciplined association-illegal goods/services-RICO Act 30
  31. 31. Drug Crime > x 2 since 1975 Federal prosecutions:-11,854 in 1984-40,000 in 2001•Drugs=other crimes 31
  32. 32. CybercrimeCybercrime:-computer-federal/state computer statute-victims? 32
  33. 33. Causes of Crime causes? Basically good? Why some violent/aggressive? Self-interest? 33
  34. 34. CriminologyCriminology: causes Crime—violation of criminal law w/o legal justification Deviance— -violation of social norms -appropriate behavior -particular set of circumstances 34
  35. 35. Criminological Theory Theory-interrelated propositions -describe/explain/predict 35
  36. 36. Characteristics of Biological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-genetic-hereditary-primitive developmental/evolutionary process 36
  37. 37. Social Policy and Biological Theories“Extreme.”Eugenics (1920s) 37
  38. 38. Psychobiological Theories 38
  39. 39. Characteristics ofPsychobiological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-DNA-nutrition-hormones-physical trauma-body chemistry 39
  40. 40. Chromosome Theory -Supermales:(XYY) -Later studies disputed findings 40
  41. 41. Biochemical Factors and ImbalancesBiocriminology:-eating habits-vitamin deficiencies-genetics 41
  42. 42. Social Policy and Biological TheoriesPolicies: modify body chemistry-change behaviorExample: Medication 42
  43. 43. Psychological Theories 43
  44. 44. Characteristics of Psychological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-individual-unit of analysis-personality-motivational element-abnormal mental processes 44
  45. 45. Behavioral Conditioning-behavior-increased/decreased by reward/punishment/other stimuli-Pavlov’s dogs 45
  46. 46. Psychopathology and CrimePsychopathology: mental illnessPsychopath:-personality disorder/antisocial-likely to become criminal 46
  47. 47. The Psychotic OffenderPsychosis:-mental disorder-out of touch with reality-can lead to crime 47
  48. 48. Social Policy and Psychological Theories-individualistic/treatment and therapy plans-reduce dangerousness 48
  49. 49. Sociological Theories 49
  50. 50. Characteristics of Sociological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-Group dynamics-causal basis-Social disorganization-criminal behavior 50
  51. 51. Social Policy and Sociological Theories-change cultural conditions that lead people into crime 51
  52. 52. Social Process Theories 52
  53. 53. Characteristics of Social Process TheoriesBasic Assumptions-Low self-esteem/no meaningful social roles-crime-socialization-crime-observation 53
  54. 54. Social Policy and Social Process Theories-Improve self esteem-mentor programs 54
  55. 55. ConflictTheories 55
  56. 56. Characteristics of Conflict Theory-crime-economic/social inequities-conflict among groups-unavoidable-laws-interests of powerful 56
  57. 57. Social Policy and Conflict TheoriesFocus on injustices and inequality-Revolution! -job opportunities -prison overcrowding 57
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