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  • 1. CHAPTER 2 The Crime Picture 1
  • 2. The Value of Data•policy• programs laws funding 2
  • 3. Sources of Data1. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR/NIBRS)2. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Professional organizations Offender self-reports Other regular publications 3
  • 4. NIBRS: The New UCRNational Incident Based Reporting System FBI: 1988 Law enforcement:-crime/arrest 4
  • 5. NIBRS-location-weapon-type/value of property-characteristics vic/perp-vic/perp relationship-disposition
  • 6. UCR/NIBRS DO NOT WRITE DOWNAlso collects data on:  bad checks  liquor law violations  vagrancy  “peeping Tom”  disorderly conduct activities  driving under the  runaways influence  trespassing  drunkenness  general category of all  non-violent family “other” criminal law offenses violations 6
  • 7. UCR/NIBRS: Crime Rates # of crimes Crime Rate = 100,000 population 7
  • 8. UCR/NIBRS: Clearance RatesClearance Rate = number of crimes solved number of crimes committed 8
  • 9. Murderunlawful killing of a human being byanotherIncludes: Willful/unlawful homicides Non-negligent manslaughter 9
  • 10. Murder: Multiple Killings Spree: two/more -more than one occasion Mass: three/more -single event Serial: three/more -time/cooling off 10
  • 11. Forcible Rapecarnal knowledge forcibly/against willIncludes: Assault/attempt 11
  • 12. Rape: underreported: 60% -Police unsympathetic -Embarrassment/publicity -Reprisals -Additional “victimization” 12
  • 13. Robberytaking/attempted takingproperty of anotherForce fear of force 13
  • 14. Aggravated Assaultserious injury upon anotherIncludes: Attempted-deadly weapon 14
  • 15. Burglaryunlawful entry –structureto commit a felony/theft 15
  • 16. Larceny–theftunlawfultaking/carrying/leading/riding awayfrom possession of another 16
  • 17. Motor Vehicle TheftTheft/attempted of motor vehicle-self-propelled-land/not rails 17
  • 18. Motor Vehicle TheftIncludes Excludesautomobiles trainsmotorcycles airplanesmotor scooters bulldozerstrucks most farm equipmentbuses shipssnowmobiles boats spacecraft 18
  • 19. Arsonburning/attempted burning of propertywith/without intent to defraudStructures & vehicles 19
  • 20. Part II Offenses-social order offenses:  Simple assault  DUI  Prostitution  Vandalism  Receiving stolen property  Fraud  Embezzlement 20
  • 21. NCVSNational Crime Victimization Survey self-reports “dark figure” of crime> 50,000 households surveyed twice per year 21
  • 22. Dark Figure of Crime crimes known all to the policecrime dark figure 22
  • 23. NCVS Statistics Reveal 1/2 of violent crime reported 1/3 of all property crime reported 23
  • 24. Women and Crime Women: likely to be injured during crime Lifestyle modifications due to threat 24
  • 25. Findings of the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) DO NOT WRITE DOWN  52% have been physically assaulted as child/adult  1.9 million women physically assaulted in U.S. each year  25% (8% of men) experienced partner violence  18% experienced a completed/attempted rape (> half under 18 when first raped)  More likely to be injured during assault  Violence against women primarily partner violence  8% of women have been stalked. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 25
  • 26. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)• Rape Shield Law to civil/criminal cases Federal funding 26
  • 27. Anti-Stalking Laws All states-protection to women (80%) Cyberstalking:-internet/email/electronic communication to stalk 27
  • 28. Elderly Crime Victims•Lowest rate of victimization-high fear rate-targets of scams 28
  • 29. Hate CrimesHate crimes:-hatred/bias/prejudice-actual/perceived- race/color/religion/national origin/ethnicitygender/sexual orientation 29
  • 30. Organized Crime-highly organized/disciplined association-illegal goods/services-RICO Act 30
  • 31. Drug Crime > x 2 since 1975 Federal prosecutions:-11,854 in 1984-40,000 in 2001•Drugs=other crimes 31
  • 32. CybercrimeCybercrime:-computer-federal/state computer statute-victims? 32
  • 33. Causes of Crime causes? Basically good? Why some violent/aggressive? Self-interest? 33
  • 34. CriminologyCriminology: causes Crime—violation of criminal law w/o legal justification Deviance— -violation of social norms -appropriate behavior -particular set of circumstances 34
  • 35. Criminological Theory Theory-interrelated propositions -describe/explain/predict 35
  • 36. Characteristics of Biological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-genetic-hereditary-primitive developmental/evolutionary process 36
  • 37. Social Policy and Biological Theories“Extreme.”Eugenics (1920s) 37
  • 38. Psychobiological Theories 38
  • 39. Characteristics ofPsychobiological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-DNA-nutrition-hormones-physical trauma-body chemistry 39
  • 40. Chromosome Theory -Supermales:(XYY) -Later studies disputed findings 40
  • 41. Biochemical Factors and ImbalancesBiocriminology:-eating habits-vitamin deficiencies-genetics 41
  • 42. Social Policy and Biological TheoriesPolicies: modify body chemistry-change behaviorExample: Medication 42
  • 43. Psychological Theories 43
  • 44. Characteristics of Psychological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-individual-unit of analysis-personality-motivational element-abnormal mental processes 44
  • 45. Behavioral Conditioning-behavior-increased/decreased by reward/punishment/other stimuli-Pavlov’s dogs 45
  • 46. Psychopathology and CrimePsychopathology: mental illnessPsychopath:-personality disorder/antisocial-likely to become criminal 46
  • 47. The Psychotic OffenderPsychosis:-mental disorder-out of touch with reality-can lead to crime 47
  • 48. Social Policy and Psychological Theories-individualistic/treatment and therapy plans-reduce dangerousness 48
  • 49. Sociological Theories 49
  • 50. Characteristics of Sociological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-Group dynamics-causal basis-Social disorganization-criminal behavior 50
  • 51. Social Policy and Sociological Theories-change cultural conditions that lead people into crime 51
  • 52. Social Process Theories 52
  • 53. Characteristics of Social Process TheoriesBasic Assumptions-Low self-esteem/no meaningful social roles-crime-socialization-crime-observation 53
  • 54. Social Policy and Social Process Theories-Improve self esteem-mentor programs 54
  • 55. ConflictTheories 55
  • 56. Characteristics of Conflict Theory-crime-economic/social inequities-conflict among groups-unavoidable-laws-interests of powerful 56
  • 57. Social Policy and Conflict TheoriesFocus on injustices and inequality-Revolution! -job opportunities -prison overcrowding 57