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    Chapter02 Chapter02 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 2 The Crime Picture 1
    • The Value of Data•policy• programs laws funding 2
    • Sources of Data1. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR/NIBRS)2. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Professional organizations Offender self-reports Other regular publications 3
    • NIBRS: The New UCRNational Incident Based Reporting System FBI: 1988 Law enforcement:-crime/arrest 4
    • NIBRS-location-weapon-type/value of property-characteristics vic/perp-vic/perp relationship-disposition
    • UCR/NIBRS DO NOT WRITE DOWNAlso collects data on:  bad checks  liquor law violations  vagrancy  “peeping Tom”  disorderly conduct activities  driving under the  runaways influence  trespassing  drunkenness  general category of all  non-violent family “other” criminal law offenses violations 6
    • UCR/NIBRS: Crime Rates # of crimes Crime Rate = 100,000 population 7
    • UCR/NIBRS: Clearance RatesClearance Rate = number of crimes solved number of crimes committed 8
    • Murderunlawful killing of a human being byanotherIncludes: Willful/unlawful homicides Non-negligent manslaughter 9
    • Murder: Multiple Killings Spree: two/more -more than one occasion Mass: three/more -single event Serial: three/more -time/cooling off 10
    • Forcible Rapecarnal knowledge forcibly/against willIncludes: Assault/attempt 11
    • Rape: underreported: 60% -Police unsympathetic -Embarrassment/publicity -Reprisals -Additional “victimization” 12
    • Robberytaking/attempted takingproperty of anotherForce fear of force 13
    • Aggravated Assaultserious injury upon anotherIncludes: Attempted-deadly weapon 14
    • Burglaryunlawful entry –structureto commit a felony/theft 15
    • Larceny–theftunlawfultaking/carrying/leading/riding awayfrom possession of another 16
    • Motor Vehicle TheftTheft/attempted of motor vehicle-self-propelled-land/not rails 17
    • Motor Vehicle TheftIncludes Excludesautomobiles trainsmotorcycles airplanesmotor scooters bulldozerstrucks most farm equipmentbuses shipssnowmobiles boats spacecraft 18
    • Arsonburning/attempted burning of propertywith/without intent to defraudStructures & vehicles 19
    • Part II Offenses-social order offenses:  Simple assault  DUI  Prostitution  Vandalism  Receiving stolen property  Fraud  Embezzlement 20
    • NCVSNational Crime Victimization Survey self-reports “dark figure” of crime> 50,000 households surveyed twice per year 21
    • Dark Figure of Crime crimes known all to the policecrime dark figure 22
    • NCVS Statistics Reveal 1/2 of violent crime reported 1/3 of all property crime reported 23
    • Women and Crime Women: likely to be injured during crime Lifestyle modifications due to threat 24
    • Findings of the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) DO NOT WRITE DOWN  52% have been physically assaulted as child/adult  1.9 million women physically assaulted in U.S. each year  25% (8% of men) experienced partner violence  18% experienced a completed/attempted rape (> half under 18 when first raped)  More likely to be injured during assault  Violence against women primarily partner violence  8% of women have been stalked. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 25
    • Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)• Rape Shield Law to civil/criminal cases Federal funding 26
    • Anti-Stalking Laws All states-protection to women (80%) Cyberstalking:-internet/email/electronic communication to stalk 27
    • Elderly Crime Victims•Lowest rate of victimization-high fear rate-targets of scams 28
    • Hate CrimesHate crimes:-hatred/bias/prejudice-actual/perceived- race/color/religion/national origin/ethnicitygender/sexual orientation 29
    • Organized Crime-highly organized/disciplined association-illegal goods/services-RICO Act 30
    • Drug Crime > x 2 since 1975 Federal prosecutions:-11,854 in 1984-40,000 in 2001•Drugs=other crimes 31
    • CybercrimeCybercrime:-computer-federal/state computer statute-victims? 32
    • Causes of Crime causes? Basically good? Why some violent/aggressive? Self-interest? 33
    • CriminologyCriminology: causes Crime—violation of criminal law w/o legal justification Deviance— -violation of social norms -appropriate behavior -particular set of circumstances 34
    • Criminological Theory Theory-interrelated propositions -describe/explain/predict 35
    • Characteristics of Biological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-genetic-hereditary-primitive developmental/evolutionary process 36
    • Social Policy and Biological Theories“Extreme.”Eugenics (1920s) 37
    • Psychobiological Theories 38
    • Characteristics ofPsychobiological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-DNA-nutrition-hormones-physical trauma-body chemistry 39
    • Chromosome Theory -Supermales:(XYY) -Later studies disputed findings 40
    • Biochemical Factors and ImbalancesBiocriminology:-eating habits-vitamin deficiencies-genetics 41
    • Social Policy and Biological TheoriesPolicies: modify body chemistry-change behaviorExample: Medication 42
    • Psychological Theories 43
    • Characteristics of Psychological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-individual-unit of analysis-personality-motivational element-abnormal mental processes 44
    • Behavioral Conditioning-behavior-increased/decreased by reward/punishment/other stimuli-Pavlov’s dogs 45
    • Psychopathology and CrimePsychopathology: mental illnessPsychopath:-personality disorder/antisocial-likely to become criminal 46
    • The Psychotic OffenderPsychosis:-mental disorder-out of touch with reality-can lead to crime 47
    • Social Policy and Psychological Theories-individualistic/treatment and therapy plans-reduce dangerousness 48
    • Sociological Theories 49
    • Characteristics of Sociological TheoriesBasic Assumptions-Group dynamics-causal basis-Social disorganization-criminal behavior 50
    • Social Policy and Sociological Theories-change cultural conditions that lead people into crime 51
    • Social Process Theories 52
    • Characteristics of Social Process TheoriesBasic Assumptions-Low self-esteem/no meaningful social roles-crime-socialization-crime-observation 53
    • Social Policy and Social Process Theories-Improve self esteem-mentor programs 54
    • ConflictTheories 55
    • Characteristics of Conflict Theory-crime-economic/social inequities-conflict among groups-unavoidable-laws-interests of powerful 56
    • Social Policy and Conflict TheoriesFocus on injustices and inequality-Revolution! -job opportunities -prison overcrowding 57