Chapter 7
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  • 1. Chapter 7
  • 2. Identifying/arresting suspects Disregard Page 208:-decide to investigate case base don solvability factors:-witnesses-suspects known All crimes are to be investigated!!!!-cold cases
  • 3. Identifying/arresting suspects Scene:Show up ID:-time is essential-witness/victim to suspect-spotlight in in faceUS v. Ash, Jr (1973):-no right to counsel at field IDMiranda required before questioning
  • 4. Identifying/arresting suepcts Developing a suspect:-wits/vics/others-physical evidence-psychological profiling-police files-other files-informants
  • 5. Identifying/arresting suepcts Vics and Wits:-page 211 Table 7.1-eyewitness ID is fallible Mug shots:-time consuming-if in data base-Integrated Law Enforcement Face Identification System (ILEFS) -3-d system -matches images from surveillance/photos
  • 6. Identifying/arresting suspects Composite sketches:-trained artist-adequate info from witness-generate leads
  • 7. Identifying/arresting suspects MO-series of crimes-check your crime against others under investigation/solved Profiling:f. psychological/criminal-suspect mental, emotional, psychological, physical traitsh. victim-based on victimj. Geographical-areas of crimes
  • 8. Identifying/arresting suspects Racial profiling:-not legitimate in policing Databases:-AFIS-NIBIN-CODIS-PDQ
  • 9. Identifying/arresting suspects Photo array:-how many photos?-wits look at each-initial/date on front-sign/date back-conditions when suspect seen
  • 10. Identifying/arresting suspects Line ups:-minimum of five-similar looking/dressed-perform acts-speak same words-suspects attorney presentWits:-take time-look at all-not need to make ID-be sure-where saw suspect
  • 11. Identifying/arresting suspectsSchmerber v. CA (1966):-suspects refuse to line up-can be used in court against themUS v. Wade (1967):-advise suspect of right to counsel-prior to lineup
  • 12. Identifying/arresting suspects Surveillance:-covert/discrete-observation-people/placesWhat can be gained from surveillance?
  • 13. Identifying/arresting suspects Surveillant:-cover-blend in-what ways you think? Subject:-whom/what being observed-suspects/associates-locations (types?)
  • 14. Identifying/arresting suspects Types of surveillance:3. Stationary:-fixed, plant, stakeout-suspect at/will come to location-crime will be committed-vehicles/buildings-photographs-scout area prior
  • 15. Identifying/arresting suspects Moving: (tail)-info on suspectc. open/rough tail:-subject knows under surveillancee. Loose tail:-undetected-constant observationh. Close/tight tail:-know crime to be committed
  • 16. Identifying/arresting suspects Surveillance:-aerial-video-audio (wiretaps)Knapp v US (1967)Phone booth taps need warrants
  • 17. Identifying/arresting suspects Undercover assignments:-gain confidence-infiltrate group-assumed ID-obtain information/evidence-criminal activity
  • 18. Identifying/arresting suspects Purposes:-evidence-leads-reliability of wits/CI-gain info before raid
  • 19. Identifying/arresting suspects Cover:c. Ruses:-deception-ID/purpose-short termg. Deep:-assume role-complete immersion
  • 20. Identifying/arresting suspects Deep:-credible aliases-carry weapon-avoid draw of the street-remember who you are (Donny Brasco)
  • 21. Identifying/arresting suspects Precautions:-no notes-no ID-HQ communications covert-Don’t suggest/plan/initiate/participate in crimes
  • 22. Identifying/arresting suspects Entrapment:Sorrells v. US:-conception/planning-offense by officer-procurement of commission-by another-who would not have perpetrated-trickery/fraud/persuasion of the officer
  • 23. Identifying/arresting suspects Sting operations:-opportunity to commit created/exploited by police-targeted likely offender-UC officer/deception-”gotcha” climax with arrest
  • 24. Identifying/arresting suspects Raids:-planned, organized-operation-element of surprise6. Seize evidence7. Make arrestConsiderations:-alternatives?-legality
  • 25. Identifying/arresting suspects Legal arrests: 4th amendment-arrest?-misdemeanor in presence-felonies w/PC-warrant Outdoors arrest:-no access residence/vehicle-maintain control-suspect request access to residence for items implied consent for entry/plain view
  • 26. Identifying/arresting suspects Civil liability:b. PC!c. Use of force-reasonable force-amount reasonable person would use-excessive force-more than reasonable forceGraham v. Connor (1989):-severity of crime-immediate threat?-circumstances rapidly evolving-flight?-actively resisting arrest-perspective of reasonable office on scene-not hindsight
  • 27. Identifying/arresting suspects Use of force continuums:-commands-tasers-physical-chemical agents-impact tools-deadly forceTennessee v. Garner (1985):-immediate threat to PO/others
  • 28. Identifying/arresting suspects 21 foot rule?-suspect w/knife Gun side away-practice=habit PIT:Scott v. Harris (2007): deadly force-weighed intrusion against public interest-suspect was culpable-4th amendment pursuits not terminate due to public danger