Principle One UNIQUENESS:-no two people identical-identification-ridge characteristics (minutiae)-> 150 minutiae on average finger
Principle One DO NOT WRITE DOWN! Points? How many required for ID in US Courts?-“no valid basis exists for requiring a predetermined minimum number of friction ridge characters which must be present in two impressions in order to establish positive identification”-sufficient number of friction ridge details present for conclusion 100%
Principle One Conclusions: Match no match inconclusive
Principle Two PERMANENCE: Epidermis-outer layer Dermis-inner layer Form in womb/unchanged for life
PRINCIPLE THREE Patterns:-classification/filing-3 patternsDO NOT CONFUSE PATTERNS WITH PRINCIPLES!!!
Fingerprints Computer software compares the location of these minutiae.
AFIS AFIS highlights all the identifiable minutia.
Madrid Bombing Timeline March 11, 2004 – Terrorists bomb several trains in Madrid, Spain March 13, 2004 – LPU receives electronic transmission of digital images (no info, scale, etc.) 8 latent prints Known exemplars March 19, 2004
Madrid April 13, 2004 – Spanish National Police (SNP) issues ‘negativo’ report regarding latent print April 21, 2004 – LPU rep travels to Spain to provide basis of identification to SNP
Madrid May 6, 2004 – Brandon Mayfield arrested by FBI Portland May 19, 2004 (in California) – Defense expert verifies FBI identification May 19, 2004 – SNP informs FBI they have identified the latent fingerprint with another individual May 20, 2004 – Judge releases Mayfield