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  • The first carved laws in a society: -criminal (theft/violence) -civil (deeds/personal injury) Punishments followed the theory of lex talionis an eye for eye -execution -amputations -fines -no imprisonment -social status considered
  • Mosaic Law: Hebrews Moses tablets -tied to religion -uniform standard -lex talionis -punishment fit crime Roman Law- -Twelve Tables-rights of Roman citizens -death penalty and compensation -early imprisonment -exile replaced execution
  • Medieval-feudalism: -Lords/citizens/serfs -evolved from assemblies of free men in courts To -enforcement of royal rights (landholders) -Baron presided over disputes -between vassals -sought advice of other vassals (peers) -away from capital punishment-mutilation-exhibitory
  • 17 th & 18 Th Centuries Banishment Transportation 1700’s: -American colonies (lack of labor) Transportation Act of 1718 -replaced execution/punishment of its own -50,000 transported before 1775 -1788-1868-160,000 -Australia
  • Houses of Corrections (Bridewell House): -vagrants/beggars -unruly wives/children -hard work Masion de Force: -work not deterrent -learned trade
  • Early America: -various housing units-crimes/debts -1785-Castle Island -1 st state prison in US -housed people convicted
  • Pennsylvania System: -separate/ and silent -insanity and costly Auburn System: -congregate and silent -enforced with flogging Elmira Reformatory: -prepare for return to society
  • American West: -1880-Folsom-overcowded -Washington Territory -leased prisoners to industry Yuma Territorial prison: -electricity/circulated heat/library
  • Medical model (1930s): -offenders sick versus bad -exam/diagnose/treatment -personal histories/reception and diagnostic centers -Professional staff -Treatment programs -Community corrections

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 3 Correctional Practices: Ancient to contemporary
  • 2.
    • Would you rather be in prison now or 200 years ago?
    • Crime/punishment: evolved
    • -blood feuds
    • -complex legal systems
  • 3.
    • -Code of Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC)
    • laws (carved)
    • -criminal (theft/violence)
    • -civil (deeds/personal injury)
    • punishments-lex talionis
    • -execution
    • -amputations
    • -fines
    • -no imprisonment
    • -social status considered
  • 4.
    • Mosaic law: Hebrew
    • Roman Law: 451-450 BC
  • 5.
    • Medieval-feudalism:
    • -Lords/citizens/serfs
    • -assemblies of free men in courts
    • To
    • -enforcement of royal rights (landholders)
    • -Baron presided over disputes
  • 6.
    • 17 th & 18 Th Centuries
    • Banishment
    • Transportation
    • 1700’s:
    • -American colonies (lack of labor)
    • Transportation Act of 1718
    • -replaced execution
    • -50,000 transported before 1775
    • -1788-1868-160,000 -Australia
  • 7.
    • Women offenders:
    • -24, 000 women
    • -positive influence on male population
    • -brothels
    • -forced marriages
    • -stopped 1851
  • 8.
    • Prison Hulks:
    • -Ships converted to prison ships
    • -6,000
    • -30% mortality rates
    • Early incarceration:
    • -isolate-penitence/no cross ideas
    • -work
  • 9.
    • Hospice of St. Michael: misbehaving boys (Rome) 1704
    • -single cells
    • -hard work/silence-religious instruction
    • -orphans/aged & infirmed adults
    • -cell-opened into common area
  • 10.
    • Houses of Corrections (Bridewell House):
    • -hard work
    • Masion de Force:
    • -work not deterrent/learned trade
  • 11.
    • John Howard-prison reformer
    • -1779 Penitentiary Act:
    • -secure/sanitary
    • -inspections
    • -fees for services abolished
    • -discipline-reformatory
    • -solitary confienment/silence/work
  • 12.
    • Early America:
    • -various housing units-crimes/debts
    • -1785-Castle Island
    • -1 st state prison in US
  • 13.
    • Pennsylvania System:
    • -separate/silent
    • Auburn System:
    • -congregate/silent
    • Elmira Reformatory:
    • -prepare for return to society
  • 14.
    • American West:
    • -1880-Folsom-overcowded
    • -Washington Territory
    • -leased prisoners to industry
    • Yuma Territorial prison:
    • -electricity/circulated heat/library
  • 15.
    • Medical model (1930s):
    • -offenders sick
    • -exam/diagnose/treatment
    • -Professional staff
    • -Treatment programs
    • -Community corrections
  • 16.
    • Balanced Model:-equal weight
    • -deterrence
    • -rehabilitation
    • -retribution
    • -incapacitation