Age crime curve is the tendency for crime to be committed during a person's younger years and decline as they get older.
Age crime curve: peak18 violent16 property½ by 32½ by 2159%-violent juveniles=adults
1899-1st juvenile court-Illinois-1500-1600’s –discovery of childhood-”ideal” child produced-”undesirable” prevented from developing17th Century France: duels, mutinies, brawls, assaults on teachersStudent required to leave weapons at door
Ideal:-educators, clergy, psychologists Undesirable:-no distinction for age 19th Century-1st attempt social control
1825:NY House of Refuge 1826:Boston 1828:PhiladelphiaSet standards for 25 years:-ball & chain/handcuffs/whipping/work
Work:-exploited kids-rented out to industry 1850’s:-”child saving organizations
Juvenile Court:Illinois 1899-Dependent-NeglectedTheory of Parens Patriae-court has ultimate authority over kids-superseded parental rights
Due Process and Juveniles:-non existent why?1. Not criminal (statutory)2. No determination of guilt (adjudicated)3. Treatment versus punishment (not relevant)
1960’s: Supreme Court-In Re Gault (1967):-arrested obscene call-parents not notified-no witnesses-15 year old sentenced until 211. Fair notice of charges to prepare defense2. Counsel3. Face accusers4. No self-incrimination
In re Winship (1970):-preponderance of evidence changed to reasonable doubt McKeiver v. PA:-no right to jury-states free to experiment
Teen (peer) Courts:-Comprised of other teens-admitted to offense-low recidivism rates
Juveniles and adult court:-when?-how?Judicial waiver: judge waives jurisdictionConcurrent jurisdiction: Prosecutors file as adult/juvenileStatutorily excluding: Legislatures
Transfers:-More severe sentences Blended sentences:-juvenile/adult time Criminal Blended sentences:-juvenile/criminal sanctions but juvenile system supervises.
Status Offenses:-offenses only because of age-MIP-Truancy-running away-curfew-Females 60% runaways-Males 70% alcoholDetention?:-protect jurisdiction of court process-protect community-protect juvenile
Institution based responses:-education-vocation-substance abuse-anger management
Girls in a boy’s system:-Substance abuse: psychosocial development interrupted-Pregnancy: higher sexual activity v. non-offenders-Academic performance: learning disabilities-Societal factors: community-based program for girls rare