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Als 3153 Class 15

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    Als 3153 Class 15 Als 3153 Class 15 Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Insects
    • Phylum Arthropoda (jointed appendages, exoskeleton, etc.)
      • Class Insecta (most numerous and diverse group of organisms)
      • Class Arachnida
      • Class Crustacea
      • Etc. (centipedes, millipedes, etc.)
      Spiders – often beneficial as predators Mites – some plant pests, some predators
    • Insects vs Arachnids (Mites, Spiders)
    • Insect Life Cycles
      • 1. Simple metamorphosis
      • 2. Complete metamorphosis
      • 3. Some exceptions
      • #1 and #2 apply to most agricultural pests
    • Simple Metamorphosis Egg Nymphs Adult – has full-size wings, functional reproductive system
    • Simple Metamorphosis Nymphs Instar Instar Molt Molt
    • Simple Metamorphosis Egg Nymphs Adult – has full-size wings, functional reproductive system Usually 4-6 instars, resemble adults, smaller size Same food and environment for nymphs and adults
    • Complete Metamorphosis Egg Pupa Larva – several instars, important feeding stage Adult – very different from larva Corn Earworm
    • Complete Metamorphosis
      • Life stages are important because ecology, food habits, and management of different stages can be different
      • Example: butterflies and moths
      • Larva – feeds as damaging caterpillar
      • Adult – beneficial as plant pollinator
    • Survey of insects – Major groups (orders) of ag pests or beneficial predators and parasites
      • Beneficial insects:
      • Predators, parasites
      • Pollinators
      • Recyclers of OM
    • Survey of insects – Major groups (orders) of ag pests or beneficials
      • Dragonflies
      • Orthoptera and relatives (mantids, roaches)
      • Thrips
      • True bugs (Hemiptera)
      • Piercing-sucking insects (Homoptera)
      • Beetles
      • Nerve-winged insects (Neuroptera)
      • Butterflies and moths
      • Bees, wasps, and ants
      • Flies
      • Etc.
    • Survey of Insects
      • Dragonflies --- beneficial predators of flying insects
      • Praying mantids --- beneficial predators
      • Roaches --- recycling in some ag systems
      • Grasshoppers, Crickets --- can be serious ag pests
    • Tawny Mole Cricket
    • Thrips Thrips palmi
    • Thrips
      • Almost microscopic in size, fringed wings
      • Beneficial pollination in flowers
      • Most are plant pests
      • Some carry plant viruses
    • Virus Vectors
      • Vector = carrier of virus
      • Viruses in plants
      • Transmitted by insects, etc.
      • Vector feeds on infected plant acquires virus feeds and passes virus to other plants
    • True Bugs
      • Squash bug
      • Note typical appearance
    • True Bugs
      • Piercing-sucking mouthparts
      • Some important pests, e.g., stink bugs
      • Some predators
    • Piercing-Sucking Insects
      • Piercing-sucking mouthparts to feed on plants
      • Formerly Homoptera, often included with true bugs
      • Many important plant pests
      • Some transmit viruses
      • Aphids, cicadas, whiteflies, scale insects, leafhoppers, etc…
    • Green Peach Aphid
      • Very abundant as plant pests
    • Whitefly Adult
      • Common underneath leaves
    • Sooty Mold - Silverleaf
      • Important sign of whiteflies, etc…
    • Beetles
      • Pepper Weevil
    • Beetles
      • Very many species
      • Many pests – weevils, larvae of some types are grubs or wireworms
      • Many beneficials – Lady beetles, ground beetles, tiger beetles
    • Nerve-Winged Insects (Neuroptera)
      • Brown Lacewing
    • Lacewing Larva Eating Whiteflies
      • Beneficial predators
    • Butterflies and Moths
      • Pests – many kinds of caterpillars
      • Beneficial as pollinators
    • Bees, Wasps, Ants
      • Beneficial as pollinators
      • Many are important as predators and parasites
      • Many different kinds of wasps, most nearly microscopic
      • Parasitoids – microscopic wasps, lay eggs in body of pest (e.g., caterpillar), or even in egg
    • Flies
      • Many different kinds, difficult to distinguish – different flies do different things:
      • Important pests of livestock
      • Beneficial as pollinators
      • Beneficial as predators
      • Some are parasitoids
      • Some are plant pests (leaf miners)
    • Leafminers
      • Larvae of some flies, some moths
    • Many Important Pests of Livestock
      • Flies, Lice, Fleas , etc…
    • Important Insect Relatives
      • Mites -- some beneficial predators
      • Mites – some livestock pests
      • Mites – some plant pests
      • Spiders – Very important as predators (much underrated) in agroecosystems
    • Mite Damage on Leaf
    • Spider Mites
      • Note characteristic webbing
    • Management of Insect Pests
    • Insecticides and Acaricides
      • +++ effective, detailed knowledge of pest biology not needed
      • +++ reliable, fast-acting
      • +++ quick response to emergency situations
      • - - - non target effects
      • - - - $ and energy costs
      • - - - high expectations
    • Biological Control
      • Control by living organism or natural product of living organism
      • Hyperparasitism
      • Caterpillar Tachinid fly Parasitoid Wasp
    • Biological Control -- Two Approaches
      • Introduced = add control agents to ecosystem (many good examples with introduced pests)
      • Introduced: classical (new agent) vs augmentation (agent already present)
      • Natural = favor increase of naturally occurring control agents (manipulate environment, cropping systems)
    • Biological Control Many possible organisms:
      • Predators (often not specific)
      • Parasites
      • Diseases (parasites)
      Fungi Bacteria Viruses Parasitoids (often highly specific) Entomopathogenic nematodes
    • Host Plant Resistance
      • Interfere with host finding, feeding, pest nutrition, timing of life cycles, etc…
      • Hairs on leaves, sticky, etc.
      • Alkaloids in plants deter insects
      • Crop cultivars/genotypes selected for resistance to pests
    • What is Biological Control and What Is Not ???
    • What is Biological Control?
      • Predators
      • Parasites
      • Diseases
    • What is Biological Control?
      • Predators
      • Parasites
      • Diseases
      • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT)
    • What is Biological Control?
      • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT)
      • Allow bacteria to produce spores with toxin in lab, isolate BT toxin, and spray it on pests
    • What is Biological Control?
      • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT)
      • Allow bacteria to produce spores with toxin in lab, isolate BT toxin, and spray it on pests
      • Transgenic plants that produce BT toxin (Bt corn, Bt cotton)
    • What is Biological Control?
      • Resistant plants as biological control agents
      • Plants with alkaloids
      • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid
    • What is Biological Control?
      • Resistant plants as biological control agents
      • Plants with alkaloids
      • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid
      • Isolate pyrethrum from plants and use it
    • What is Biological Control?
      • Resistant plants as biological control agents
      • Plants with alkaloids
      • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid
      • Isolate pyrethrum from plants and use it
      • Make synthetic pyrethrum
      • Pyrethroid = pyrethrum analog, similar chem structure
    • Environmental Heterogeneity
      • Crop genetics (uniform genotypes vs mix)
      • Vegetation diversity vs pest dispersal
      • Vegetation diversity as reservoir for natural enemies
    • Plant Health
      • +++ Healthy plant can withstand some insect damage
      • - - - High N can increase insect growth and reproduction
    • Attractants and Repellents
      • Attractant, e.g., pheromone (sex or aggregation) useful for:
      • Sampling and monitoring (important use for quarantine detection, regional monitoring)
      • Attracting insects to traps
      • Confusing normal life processes and patterns
    • Cultural Practices
      • Crop Rotation
      • Weed control of virus hosts
      • Sanitation and cleanup of crop residues (affected overwintering of boll weevil)
      • Timing of planting dates (winter wheat, Hessian fly)
      • Others (sterile males, etc.)
    • For most effective insect management, usually need to know biology and habits of individual insect pests
    • References
      • Text: Ch 10, pp. 201-208; Ch.11, pp. 219-222.
      • Metcalf C.L., W.P. Flint, and R.L. Metcalf. 1962. Destructive and Useful Insects. McGraw-Hill, NY.
      • Metcalf, R.L., and W.H. Luckmann. 1994. Introduction to Insect Pest Management. John Wiley & Sons, NY.
      • Images from UF Dept. Entomology & Nematology – Featured Creatures:
      • http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu