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Introduction to Insects
Phylum Arthropoda
(jointed appendages, exoskeleton, etc.)
• Class Insecta (most numerous and
diverse group of organisms)
•...
Insects vs Arachnids (Mites,
Spiders)
Insect Life Cycles
• 1. Simple metamorphosis
• 2. Complete metamorphosis
• 3. Some exceptions
• #1 and #2 apply to most ag...
Simple Metamorphosis
Egg
Nymphs
Adult
– has full-size wings,
functional reproductive
system
Simple Metamorphosis
Nymphs
InstarInstar
Molt Molt
Simple Metamorphosis
Egg
Nymphs
Adult
– has full-size wings,
functional reproductive
system
Usually 4-6
instars, resemble
...
Complete Metamorphosis
Egg Pupa
Larva
– several instars,
important feeding stage
Adult
– very different
from larva
Corn Ea...
Complete Metamorphosis
• Life stages are important because
ecology, food habits, and management of
different stages can be...
Survey of insects – Major groups
(orders) of ag pests or beneficial
predators and parasites
• Beneficial insects:
• Predat...
Survey of insects – Major groups
(orders) of ag pests or beneficials
• Dragonflies
• Orthoptera and relatives (mantids, ro...
Survey of Insects
• Dragonflies --- beneficial predators of
flying insects
• Praying mantids --- beneficial predators
• Ro...
Tawny Mole Cricket
Thrips
Thrips
palmi
Thrips
• Almost microscopic in size, fringed wings
• Beneficial pollination in flowers
• Most are plant pests
• Some carry...
Virus Vectors
• Vector = carrier of virus
• Viruses in plants
• Transmitted by insects, etc.
• Vector feeds on infected pl...
True
Bugs
• Squash bug
• Note typical
appearance
True Bugs
• Piercing-sucking mouthparts
• Some important pests, e.g., stink bugs
• Some predators
Piercing-Sucking Insects
• Piercing-sucking mouthparts to feed on
plants
• Formerly Homoptera, often included with
true bu...
Green Peach Aphid
• Very abundant as plant pests
Whitefly Adult
• Common underneath leaves
Sooty Mold - Silverleaf
• Important sign of whiteflies, etc…
Beetles
• Pepper Weevil
Beetles
• Very many species
• Many pests – weevils, larvae of some
types are grubs or wireworms
• Many beneficials – Lady ...
Nerve-Winged Insects (Neuroptera)
• Brown Lacewing
Lacewing Larva Eating Whiteflies
• Beneficial predators
Butterflies and Moths
• Pests – many kinds of caterpillars
• Beneficial as pollinators
Bees, Wasps, Ants
• Beneficial as pollinators
• Many are important as predators and
parasites
• Many different kinds of wa...
Flies
• Many different kinds, difficult to distinguish
– different flies do different things:
• Important pests of livesto...
Leafminers
• Larvae of some flies, some moths
Many Important Pests of Livestock
• Flies, Lice, Fleas, etc…
Important Insect Relatives
• Mites -- some beneficial predators
• Mites – some livestock pests
• Mites – some plant pests
...
Mite Damage on Leaf
Spider Mites
• Note characteristic webbing
Management of Insect Pests
Insecticides and Acaricides
• +++ effective, detailed knowledge of pest
biology not needed
• +++ reliable, fast-acting
• +...
Biological Control
• Control by living organism or natural
product of living organism
• Hyperparasitism
Caterpillar Tachin...
Biological Control
-- Two Approaches
• Introduced = add control agents to
ecosystem (many good examples with
introduced pe...
Biological Control
Many possible organisms:
• Predators (often not specific)
• Parasites
• Diseases (parasites)
Fungi
Bact...
Host Plant Resistance
• Interfere with host finding, feeding, pest
nutrition, timing of life cycles, etc…
• Hairs on leave...
What is Biological Control
and What Is Not ???
What is Biological Control?
• Predators
• Parasites
• Diseases
What is Biological Control?
• Predators
• Parasites
• Diseases
• Bacterial disease of insects caused by
Bacillus thuringie...
What is Biological Control?
• Bacterial disease of insects caused by
Bacillus thuringiensis (BT)
• Allow bacteria to produ...
What is Biological Control?
• Bacterial disease of insects caused by
Bacillus thuringiensis (BT)
• Allow bacteria to produ...
What is Biological Control?
• Resistant plants as biological control
agents
• Plants with alkaloids
• Pyrethrum = natural ...
What is Biological Control?
• Resistant plants as biological control
agents
• Plants with alkaloids
• Pyrethrum = natural ...
What is Biological Control?
• Resistant plants as biological control agents
• Plants with alkaloids
• Pyrethrum = natural ...
Environmental Heterogeneity
• Crop genetics (uniform genotypes vs mix)
• Vegetation diversity vs pest dispersal
• Vegetati...
Plant Health
• +++ Healthy plant can withstand some
insect damage
• - - - High N can increase insect growth
and reproducti...
Attractants and Repellents
• Attractant, e.g., pheromone (sex or
aggregation) useful for:
• Sampling and monitoring (impor...
Cultural Practices
• Crop Rotation
• Weed control of virus hosts
• Sanitation and cleanup of crop residues
(affected overw...
For most effective insect
management, usually need
to know biology and habits
of individual insect pests
References
• Text: Ch 10, pp. 201-208; Ch.11, pp. 219-222.
• Metcalf C.L., W.P. Flint, and R.L. Metcalf. 1962.
Destructive...
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Als 3153 Class 15

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Transcript of "Als 3153 Class 15"

  1. 1. Introduction to Insects
  2. 2. Phylum Arthropoda (jointed appendages, exoskeleton, etc.) • Class Insecta (most numerous and diverse group of organisms) • Class Arachnida • Class Crustacea • Etc. (centipedes, millipedes, etc.) Spiders – often beneficial as predators Mites – some plant pests, some predators
  3. 3. Insects vs Arachnids (Mites, Spiders)
  4. 4. Insect Life Cycles • 1. Simple metamorphosis • 2. Complete metamorphosis • 3. Some exceptions • #1 and #2 apply to most agricultural pests
  5. 5. Simple Metamorphosis Egg Nymphs Adult – has full-size wings, functional reproductive system
  6. 6. Simple Metamorphosis Nymphs InstarInstar Molt Molt
  7. 7. Simple Metamorphosis Egg Nymphs Adult – has full-size wings, functional reproductive system Usually 4-6 instars, resemble adults, smaller size Same food and environment for nymphs and adults
  8. 8. Complete Metamorphosis Egg Pupa Larva – several instars, important feeding stage Adult – very different from larva Corn Earworm
  9. 9. Complete Metamorphosis • Life stages are important because ecology, food habits, and management of different stages can be different • Example: butterflies and moths • Larva – feeds as damaging caterpillar • Adult – beneficial as plant pollinator
  10. 10. Survey of insects – Major groups (orders) of ag pests or beneficial predators and parasites • Beneficial insects: • Predators, parasites • Pollinators • Recyclers of OM
  11. 11. Survey of insects – Major groups (orders) of ag pests or beneficials • Dragonflies • Orthoptera and relatives (mantids, roaches) • Thrips • True bugs (Hemiptera) • Piercing-sucking insects (Homoptera) • Beetles • Nerve-winged insects (Neuroptera) • Butterflies and moths • Bees, wasps, and ants • Flies • Etc.
  12. 12. Survey of Insects • Dragonflies --- beneficial predators of flying insects • Praying mantids --- beneficial predators • Roaches --- recycling in some ag systems • Grasshoppers, Crickets --- can be serious ag pests
  13. 13. Tawny Mole Cricket
  14. 14. Thrips Thrips palmi
  15. 15. Thrips • Almost microscopic in size, fringed wings • Beneficial pollination in flowers • Most are plant pests • Some carry plant viruses
  16. 16. Virus Vectors • Vector = carrier of virus • Viruses in plants • Transmitted by insects, etc. • Vector feeds on infected plant acquires virus feeds and passes virus to other plants
  17. 17. True Bugs • Squash bug • Note typical appearance
  18. 18. True Bugs • Piercing-sucking mouthparts • Some important pests, e.g., stink bugs • Some predators
  19. 19. Piercing-Sucking Insects • Piercing-sucking mouthparts to feed on plants • Formerly Homoptera, often included with true bugs • Many important plant pests • Some transmit viruses • Aphids, cicadas, whiteflies, scale insects, leafhoppers, etc…
  20. 20. Green Peach Aphid • Very abundant as plant pests
  21. 21. Whitefly Adult • Common underneath leaves
  22. 22. Sooty Mold - Silverleaf • Important sign of whiteflies, etc…
  23. 23. Beetles • Pepper Weevil
  24. 24. Beetles • Very many species • Many pests – weevils, larvae of some types are grubs or wireworms • Many beneficials – Lady beetles, ground beetles, tiger beetles
  25. 25. Nerve-Winged Insects (Neuroptera) • Brown Lacewing
  26. 26. Lacewing Larva Eating Whiteflies • Beneficial predators
  27. 27. Butterflies and Moths • Pests – many kinds of caterpillars • Beneficial as pollinators
  28. 28. Bees, Wasps, Ants • Beneficial as pollinators • Many are important as predators and parasites • Many different kinds of wasps, most nearly microscopic • Parasitoids – microscopic wasps, lay eggs in body of pest (e.g., caterpillar), or even in egg
  29. 29. Flies • Many different kinds, difficult to distinguish – different flies do different things: • Important pests of livestock • Beneficial as pollinators • Beneficial as predators • Some are parasitoids • Some are plant pests (leaf miners)
  30. 30. Leafminers • Larvae of some flies, some moths
  31. 31. Many Important Pests of Livestock • Flies, Lice, Fleas, etc…
  32. 32. Important Insect Relatives • Mites -- some beneficial predators • Mites – some livestock pests • Mites – some plant pests • Spiders – Very important as predators (much underrated) in agroecosystems
  33. 33. Mite Damage on Leaf
  34. 34. Spider Mites • Note characteristic webbing
  35. 35. Management of Insect Pests
  36. 36. Insecticides and Acaricides • +++ effective, detailed knowledge of pest biology not needed • +++ reliable, fast-acting • +++ quick response to emergency situations • - - - non target effects • - - - $ and energy costs • - - - high expectations
  37. 37. Biological Control • Control by living organism or natural product of living organism • Hyperparasitism Caterpillar Tachinid fly Parasitoid Wasp
  38. 38. Biological Control -- Two Approaches • Introduced = add control agents to ecosystem (many good examples with introduced pests) • Introduced: classical (new agent) vs augmentation (agent already present) • Natural = favor increase of naturally occurring control agents (manipulate environment, cropping systems)
  39. 39. Biological Control Many possible organisms: • Predators (often not specific) • Parasites • Diseases (parasites) Fungi Bacteria Viruses Parasitoids (often highly specific) Entomopathogenic nematodes
  40. 40. Host Plant Resistance • Interfere with host finding, feeding, pest nutrition, timing of life cycles, etc… • Hairs on leaves, sticky, etc. • Alkaloids in plants deter insects • Crop cultivars/genotypes selected for resistance to pests
  41. 41. What is Biological Control and What Is Not ???
  42. 42. What is Biological Control? • Predators • Parasites • Diseases
  43. 43. What is Biological Control? • Predators • Parasites • Diseases • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT)
  44. 44. What is Biological Control? • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) • Allow bacteria to produce spores with toxin in lab, isolate BT toxin, and spray it on pests
  45. 45. What is Biological Control? • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) • Allow bacteria to produce spores with toxin in lab, isolate BT toxin, and spray it on pests • Transgenic plants that produce BT toxin (Bt corn, Bt cotton)
  46. 46. What is Biological Control? • Resistant plants as biological control agents • Plants with alkaloids • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid
  47. 47. What is Biological Control? • Resistant plants as biological control agents • Plants with alkaloids • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid • Isolate pyrethrum from plants and use it
  48. 48. What is Biological Control? • Resistant plants as biological control agents • Plants with alkaloids • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid • Isolate pyrethrum from plants and use it • Make synthetic pyrethrum • Pyrethroid = pyrethrum analog, similar chem structure
  49. 49. Environmental Heterogeneity • Crop genetics (uniform genotypes vs mix) • Vegetation diversity vs pest dispersal • Vegetation diversity as reservoir for natural enemies
  50. 50. Plant Health • +++ Healthy plant can withstand some insect damage • - - - High N can increase insect growth and reproduction
  51. 51. Attractants and Repellents • Attractant, e.g., pheromone (sex or aggregation) useful for: • Sampling and monitoring (important use for quarantine detection, regional monitoring) • Attracting insects to traps • Confusing normal life processes and patterns
  52. 52. Cultural Practices • Crop Rotation • Weed control of virus hosts • Sanitation and cleanup of crop residues (affected overwintering of boll weevil) • Timing of planting dates (winter wheat, Hessian fly) • Others (sterile males, etc.)
  53. 53. For most effective insect management, usually need to know biology and habits of individual insect pests
  54. 54. References • Text: Ch 10, pp. 201-208; Ch.11, pp. 219-222. • Metcalf C.L., W.P. Flint, and R.L. Metcalf. 1962. Destructive and Useful Insects. McGraw-Hill, NY. • Metcalf, R.L., and W.H. Luckmann. 1994. Introduction to Insect Pest Management. John Wiley & Sons, NY. • Images from UF Dept. Entomology & Nematology – Featured Creatures: • http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu
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