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Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
Als 3153 Class 15
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Als 3153 Class 15

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  1. Introduction to Insects
  2. Phylum Arthropoda (jointed appendages, exoskeleton, etc.) • Class Insecta (most numerous and diverse group of organisms) • Class Arachnida • Class Crustacea • Etc. (centipedes, millipedes, etc.) Spiders – often beneficial as predators Mites – some plant pests, some predators
  3. Insects vs Arachnids (Mites, Spiders)
  4. Insect Life Cycles • 1. Simple metamorphosis • 2. Complete metamorphosis • 3. Some exceptions • #1 and #2 apply to most agricultural pests
  5. Simple Metamorphosis Egg Nymphs Adult – has full-size wings, functional reproductive system
  6. Simple Metamorphosis Nymphs InstarInstar Molt Molt
  7. Simple Metamorphosis Egg Nymphs Adult – has full-size wings, functional reproductive system Usually 4-6 instars, resemble adults, smaller size Same food and environment for nymphs and adults
  8. Complete Metamorphosis Egg Pupa Larva – several instars, important feeding stage Adult – very different from larva Corn Earworm
  9. Complete Metamorphosis • Life stages are important because ecology, food habits, and management of different stages can be different • Example: butterflies and moths • Larva – feeds as damaging caterpillar • Adult – beneficial as plant pollinator
  10. Survey of insects – Major groups (orders) of ag pests or beneficial predators and parasites • Beneficial insects: • Predators, parasites • Pollinators • Recyclers of OM
  11. Survey of insects – Major groups (orders) of ag pests or beneficials • Dragonflies • Orthoptera and relatives (mantids, roaches) • Thrips • True bugs (Hemiptera) • Piercing-sucking insects (Homoptera) • Beetles • Nerve-winged insects (Neuroptera) • Butterflies and moths • Bees, wasps, and ants • Flies • Etc.
  12. Survey of Insects • Dragonflies --- beneficial predators of flying insects • Praying mantids --- beneficial predators • Roaches --- recycling in some ag systems • Grasshoppers, Crickets --- can be serious ag pests
  13. Tawny Mole Cricket
  14. Thrips Thrips palmi
  15. Thrips • Almost microscopic in size, fringed wings • Beneficial pollination in flowers • Most are plant pests • Some carry plant viruses
  16. Virus Vectors • Vector = carrier of virus • Viruses in plants • Transmitted by insects, etc. • Vector feeds on infected plant acquires virus feeds and passes virus to other plants
  17. True Bugs • Squash bug • Note typical appearance
  18. True Bugs • Piercing-sucking mouthparts • Some important pests, e.g., stink bugs • Some predators
  19. Piercing-Sucking Insects • Piercing-sucking mouthparts to feed on plants • Formerly Homoptera, often included with true bugs • Many important plant pests • Some transmit viruses • Aphids, cicadas, whiteflies, scale insects, leafhoppers, etc…
  20. Green Peach Aphid • Very abundant as plant pests
  21. Whitefly Adult • Common underneath leaves
  22. Sooty Mold - Silverleaf • Important sign of whiteflies, etc…
  23. Beetles • Pepper Weevil
  24. Beetles • Very many species • Many pests – weevils, larvae of some types are grubs or wireworms • Many beneficials – Lady beetles, ground beetles, tiger beetles
  25. Nerve-Winged Insects (Neuroptera) • Brown Lacewing
  26. Lacewing Larva Eating Whiteflies • Beneficial predators
  27. Butterflies and Moths • Pests – many kinds of caterpillars • Beneficial as pollinators
  28. Bees, Wasps, Ants • Beneficial as pollinators • Many are important as predators and parasites • Many different kinds of wasps, most nearly microscopic • Parasitoids – microscopic wasps, lay eggs in body of pest (e.g., caterpillar), or even in egg
  29. Flies • Many different kinds, difficult to distinguish – different flies do different things: • Important pests of livestock • Beneficial as pollinators • Beneficial as predators • Some are parasitoids • Some are plant pests (leaf miners)
  30. Leafminers • Larvae of some flies, some moths
  31. Many Important Pests of Livestock • Flies, Lice, Fleas, etc…
  32. Important Insect Relatives • Mites -- some beneficial predators • Mites – some livestock pests • Mites – some plant pests • Spiders – Very important as predators (much underrated) in agroecosystems
  33. Mite Damage on Leaf
  34. Spider Mites • Note characteristic webbing
  35. Management of Insect Pests
  36. Insecticides and Acaricides • +++ effective, detailed knowledge of pest biology not needed • +++ reliable, fast-acting • +++ quick response to emergency situations • - - - non target effects • - - - $ and energy costs • - - - high expectations
  37. Biological Control • Control by living organism or natural product of living organism • Hyperparasitism Caterpillar Tachinid fly Parasitoid Wasp
  38. Biological Control -- Two Approaches • Introduced = add control agents to ecosystem (many good examples with introduced pests) • Introduced: classical (new agent) vs augmentation (agent already present) • Natural = favor increase of naturally occurring control agents (manipulate environment, cropping systems)
  39. Biological Control Many possible organisms: • Predators (often not specific) • Parasites • Diseases (parasites) Fungi Bacteria Viruses Parasitoids (often highly specific) Entomopathogenic nematodes
  40. Host Plant Resistance • Interfere with host finding, feeding, pest nutrition, timing of life cycles, etc… • Hairs on leaves, sticky, etc. • Alkaloids in plants deter insects • Crop cultivars/genotypes selected for resistance to pests
  41. What is Biological Control and What Is Not ???
  42. What is Biological Control? • Predators • Parasites • Diseases
  43. What is Biological Control? • Predators • Parasites • Diseases • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT)
  44. What is Biological Control? • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) • Allow bacteria to produce spores with toxin in lab, isolate BT toxin, and spray it on pests
  45. What is Biological Control? • Bacterial disease of insects caused by Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) • Allow bacteria to produce spores with toxin in lab, isolate BT toxin, and spray it on pests • Transgenic plants that produce BT toxin (Bt corn, Bt cotton)
  46. What is Biological Control? • Resistant plants as biological control agents • Plants with alkaloids • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid
  47. What is Biological Control? • Resistant plants as biological control agents • Plants with alkaloids • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid • Isolate pyrethrum from plants and use it
  48. What is Biological Control? • Resistant plants as biological control agents • Plants with alkaloids • Pyrethrum = natural plant alkaloid • Isolate pyrethrum from plants and use it • Make synthetic pyrethrum • Pyrethroid = pyrethrum analog, similar chem structure
  49. Environmental Heterogeneity • Crop genetics (uniform genotypes vs mix) • Vegetation diversity vs pest dispersal • Vegetation diversity as reservoir for natural enemies
  50. Plant Health • +++ Healthy plant can withstand some insect damage • - - - High N can increase insect growth and reproduction
  51. Attractants and Repellents • Attractant, e.g., pheromone (sex or aggregation) useful for: • Sampling and monitoring (important use for quarantine detection, regional monitoring) • Attracting insects to traps • Confusing normal life processes and patterns
  52. Cultural Practices • Crop Rotation • Weed control of virus hosts • Sanitation and cleanup of crop residues (affected overwintering of boll weevil) • Timing of planting dates (winter wheat, Hessian fly) • Others (sterile males, etc.)
  53. For most effective insect management, usually need to know biology and habits of individual insect pests
  54. References • Text: Ch 10, pp. 201-208; Ch.11, pp. 219-222. • Metcalf C.L., W.P. Flint, and R.L. Metcalf. 1962. Destructive and Useful Insects. McGraw-Hill, NY. • Metcalf, R.L., and W.H. Luckmann. 1994. Introduction to Insect Pest Management. John Wiley & Sons, NY. • Images from UF Dept. Entomology & Nematology – Featured Creatures: • http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu

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