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  • STUDY OF ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF SELECTED WEEDS ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH PARAMETERS OF Oryza sativa L. PRESENTED BY MONIKA SHARMA A PRESENTATION ON
    • Allelopathy is derived from two Greek words ‘ Allelon ’ means each other and ‘ Pathos’ means to suffer i.e. the injurious effects of one plant upon another.
    • This term was first used in 1937 by the Austrian professor Hans Molisch.
    • In the book Der Einfluss einer Pflanze auf die andere - Allelopathie (The Effect of Plants on Each Other) published in German.
    • Generally refers to the inhibitory or stimulatory effect of one plant species on the germination, growth or developemnt of another plant species.
    INTRODUCTION
  • Cont..
    • International Allelopathy Society in 1996, broadened its defintion to -
    • Refers to any process involving secondry metabolites produced by plants, microorganism, virus, fungi that influence the growth and development of agriculture and biological systems.
    • It is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals.
    • Allelochemicals are a subset of secondary metabolites.
  • Cont..
    • During evolution, the plants developed new biosynthetic pathways to produce secondary metabolites (flavonoids, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, phenolics and tannins) known as allelochemicals.
    • Allelochemicals are the secondary metabolites produced by plants and are by products of primary metabolic processes.
    • Allelochemicals include plant biochemical's that exert their physiological or toxicological action on plants and microbes.
    • They are present in the plant, root, rhizome, stems, leaves, flowers, inflorescence, pollens, fruits and seeds but leaves are the major sources.
    • Allelopathy phenomenon refers to inhibitory or stimulatory biochemical interactions between the plant-plants, plant-predators and plant-pathogens mediated by plant allelochemicals released into the environment as leachates, volatiles, root exudates and decomposition of plant residues.
    ALLELOCHEMICALS
  • SIGNIFICANCE
    • Allelopathy offers great potential –
    • - to increase agricultural production
    • - and decrease harmful effects of modern agricultural practices on soil productivity and on environment,
    • - to maintain soil productivity and a pollution free environment for our future generations .
    • Safe food Production
    • - It is a natural phenomenon as allelochemicals are released from the plants. but on the other hand, the toxic residues of herbicides from plants or soil get enter into food chain and cause different diseases not only in humans but also in animals.
    • Environmental protection
    • - Allelopathy is an important environment friendly science. Allelopathy protects the environment
    • Resources Conservation
    • - Synthetic herbicides are much expensive one. They increase the cost of production. Being the natural phenomenon, allelopathy is the cheapest method and hence conserve the resources.
    • Sustainable Weed Management
    • - Various experiments have been successfully performed on allelopathy that demonstrate that if different crop water extracts can be tank mixed with one third dose of herbicides, gives nearly the same results as full dose of herbicides.
    Cont..
  • LIST OF WEEDS UNDER STUDY
    • S.No. NAME BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY IMAGE
    • 1 . Lantana Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae
    • 2. Prickly Chaff Flower Achyranthus aspera L. Amaranthaceace
    • 3. Nutgrass Cyperus rotundus L. Cyperaceae ( Sedge family)
    Cont..
  • Description of Test Crop RICE
    • Taxonomic Position:-
    • Kingdom : Plantae
    • Division : Angiosperm
    • Class : Monocots
    • Order : Poales
    • Family : Poaceae
    • Genus : Oryza
    • Species : sativa L.
    • Rice is the seed of the monocot plants such as Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima.
    • - Oryza sativa (common names include Asian Rice ).
    • - Oryza glaberrima , commonly known as African rice
    • The crops that are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crops, after maize(corn).
    • The term Kharif means "autumn" in Arabic Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains in July, during the south-west monsoon season.
    • The main monsoon season in India runs from June to September
    Cont..
  • OBJECTIVES-
    • To study the allelopathic response of weed viz. Lantana camara L. on germination and growth behavior of selected crop i.e. Paddy in Dayalbagh in-vitro and in-vivo.
    • To study the allelopathic response of weed viz . Achyranthus aspersa L. on germination and growth behavior of selected crop i.e. Paddy in Dayalbagh in vitro and in-vivo.
    • To study the allelopathic response of weed viz. Cyperus rotundus L. on germination and growth behavior of selected crop i.e. Paddy in Dayalbagh in-vitro and in-vivo.
    Cont..
  • METHODOLOGY Collection of sample Extract Preparation of test plant Sterilization Sterilization of glass wares Sterilization of paddy seedlings Cont..
  • Bioassay 0% control 25% 50% 75% 100% Petri dish
    • Observation-
    • - record the germination at 7, 11, 15 and 19 days after soaking (DAS) for in-vitro condition.
    • - record the germination at 15 days after sowing (DAS) for in-vivo condition.
    • Analysis-
    • - Statistical Analysis of collected data .
    • * Mean deviation.
    • * Standard deviation.
  • Germination percentage of Oryza sativa L. seed soaked in different concentration of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana camara L. at 3-7 DAS(days after soaking). 80 Control 63.33 100 66.66 75 70 50 76.66 25 Lantana (Root) 70 Control 13.33 100 16.66 75 30 50 60 25 Lantana (Stem) 90 Control 70 100 76 75 80 50 86.66 25 Lantana (Leaf) Germination Percentage Concentration of extract (%) Plant part 3-7 DAS(days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana camara L. on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 7 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 3.41±2.01 Control 63.63 2.17±0.60 100 68.91 2.35±0.82 75 91.78 3.13±1.19 50 95.30 3.25±1.21 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 4.00±1.00 Control 31.25 o.97±0.64 100 24.25 1.25±0.92 75 75 3.00±1.00 50 97 3.88±1.66 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 4.92±1.32 Control 55.08 2.71±0.92 100 71.54 3.52±0.98 75 73.98 3.64±1.00 50 74.18 3.65±1.33 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH 7 DAS(days after soaking) Oryza sativa L.
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 7 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 5.57±1.33 Control 55.47 3.19±1.04 100 58.60 3.37±1.49 75 76.17 4.38±1.50 50 92.17 5.30±3.14 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 6.50±2.23 Control 6.53 0.42±0.15 100 7.38 0.48±0.59 75 34.15 2.22±1.09 50 57.53 3.74±1.79 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 5.34±3.06 Control 13.50 0.72±0.45 100 42.69 2.28±1.02 75 75.46 4.03±1.03 50 76.40 4.08±1.49 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 7 DAS(days after soaking) Oryza sativa L.
  • Germination of Oryza sativa seeds soaked in leaf extracts of different concentration of leaf extract of Lantana camara L. after 7 DAS(days after sowing) Germination, shoot and root growth of Oryza sativa L. seeds soaked in stem extracts of different concentration of leaf extract of Lantana camara L. after 7 DAS (days after soaking)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 11 DAS(days after sowing). 100.00 4.85±1.40 Control 62.08 3.05±0.99 100 78.55 3.81±1.18 75 80.20 3.89±1.03 50 91.75 4.45±2.10 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 4.82±0.79 Control 36.30 1.75±0.82 100 62.24 3.00±1.32 75 83.60 4.03±1.27 50 85.06 4.10±1.53 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 5.83±1.32 Control 64.83 3.78±0.66 100 74.28 4.33±0.75 75 78.38 4.57±1.22 50 78.90 4.60±1.23 25 Lantana (Leaf) %Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH 11 DAS (DAYS AFTER SOAKING) Oryza sativa L(IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 11 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 6.33±1.29 Control 50.71 3.21±0.85 100 60.03 3.80±1.75 75 71.09 4.50±1.38 50 85.62 5.42±2.61 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 8.64±1.57 Control 4.91 0.42±0.15 100 6.13 0.53±0.50 75 25.92 2.24±0.97 50 46.52 4.02±1.81 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 6.34±2.85 Control 13.56 0.86±0.42 100 31.07 1.97±0.99 75 61.35 3.89±1.13 50 66.56 4.22±1.20 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 11 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Germination of Oryza sativa seeds soaked in leaf extracts of different concentration of leaf extract of Lantana camara L. after 11DAS(days after sowing)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 15 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 5.64±1.28 Control 58.51 3.30±1.02 100 73.75 4.16±1.19 75 77.48 4.37±0.89 50 91.13 5.14±1.94 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 5.80±0.90 Control 51.72 3.00±0.00 100 52.75 3.06±1.25 75 70.86 4.11±1.78 50 81.37 4.72±1.47 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 6.50±1.03 Control 62.61 4.07±0.50 100 71.84 4.67±0.54 75 73.23 4.76±1.12 50 75.39 4.90±1.28 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH 15 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lanatana on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 15 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 6.41±1.11 Control 60.84 3.90±1.10 100 62.40 4.00±1.36 75 70.82 4.54±1.16 50 92.04 5.90±2.54 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 9.30±2.04 Control 16.12 1.50±0.57 100 25..05 2.33±0.57 75 30.43 2.83±1.11 50 45.37 4.22±1.47 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 6.78±3.11 Control 13.56 0.92±0.51 100 33.92 2.30±0.87 75 57.81 3.92±1.08 50 63.42 4.30±1.28 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 15 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Germination of Oryza sativa seeds soaked in leaf extracts of different concentration of leaf extract of Lantana camara L. after 15 DAS (days after sowing)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 19 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 6.10±1.10 Control 67.04 4.09±0.91 100 71.14 4.34±1.04 75 72.62 4.43±0.93 50 85.73 5.23±1.61 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 6.44±0.56 Control 49.38 3.18±0.23 100 51.24 3.30±1.05 75 70.18 4.52±1.90 50 79.34 5.11±1.33 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 6.65±1.45 Control 62.55 4.16±0.59 100 73.98 4.92±0.68 75 75.03 4.99±0.80 50 78.34 5.21±1.23 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH 19 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • :- Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 19 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 6.46±1.38 Control 63.46 4.10±0.88 100 65.01 4.20±1.41 75 77.27 4.99±1.02 50 94.73 6.12±2.52 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 9.54±1.94 Control 19.39 1.85±0.33 100 17.88 2.66±0.76 75 30.18 2.88±0.99 50 45.17 4.31±1.23 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 8.03±1.94 Control 21.79 1.75±0.57 100 33.38 2.68±0.91 75 53.18 4.27±1.08 50 57.65 4.63±1.20 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 19 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  •  
  • Germination percentage of Oryza sativa L. seed soaked in different concentration of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes aspera L. at 3-7 DAS(days after soaking). 60 Control 36.66 100 40 75 46.66 50 56.66 25 Achyranthes (Root) 60 Control 3.33 100 26.66 75 26.66 50 50 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 80 Control 26.66 100 40 75 53.33 50 53.33 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) Germination Percentage Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part 3-7 DAS(days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 7 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 5.83±0.76 Control 35.16 2.05±0.55 100 51.45 3.00±0.89 75 61.57 3.59±1.34 50 71.69 4.18±1.46 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 5.12±0.85 Control 13.67 0.70±0.00 100 18.75 0.96±0.40 75 29.88 1.53±0.39 50 51.56 2.64±1.76 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 4.92±1.13 Control 32.72 1.61±0.16 100 35.36 1.74±0.67 75 57.62 2.54±0.72 50 56.09 2.67±1.03 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH 7 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 7 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 8.03±3.23 Control 13.07 1.05±0.50 100 21.41 1.72±0.80 75 43.33 3.48±1.21 50 58.15 4.67±1.32 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 0.85±1.65 Control 0.00 0.00±0.00 100 7.55 0.50±0.00 75 8.61 0.57±0.38 50 35.64 2.36±1.95 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 7.12±2.57 Control 7.02 0.50±0.00 100 8.70 0.62±0.22 75 14.46 1.03±0.49 50 23.17 1.65±0.57 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) %Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 7 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. ( IN-VITRO)
  • 11 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 11 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 6.50±1.73 Control 33.07 2.15±0.53 100 50.15 3.26±1.16 75 59.38 3.86±1.38 50 78 5.07±1.49 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 6.38±1.10 Control 23.51 1.50±0.00 100 28.21 1.80±0.48 75 31.34 2.00±0.57 50 64.57 4.12±1.62 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 5.47±0.76 Control 33.08 1.81±0.37 100 41.68 2.28±0.48 75 55.02 3.01±0.83 50 60.32 3.30±1.32 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 11 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 8.06±2.54 Control 16.99 1.37±0.57 100 25.93 2.09±0.59 75 43.79 3.53±1.14 50 60.29 4.86±1.94 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 8.02±1.60 Control 6.23 0.50±0.00 100 11.22 0.90±0.38 75 16.20 1.30±0.28 50 34.41 2.76±1.94 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 7.27±2.49 Control 19.25 1.40±0.15 100 19.99 1.09±0.18 75 21.04 1.53±0.18 50 22.83 1.66±0.38 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) %Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 11 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • 15 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 15 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 7.66±1.52 Control 30.41 2.33±0.63 100 45.03 3.45±1.38 75 53.78 4.12±1.63 50 74.41 5.70±1.46 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 6.75±1.11 Control 30.66 2.07±0.00 100 37.03 2.50±0.46 75 37.18 2.51±0.74 50 69.33 4.68±1.42 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 6.77±1.11 Control 28.21 1.91±0.42 100 35.45 2.40±0.47 75 48.58 3.29±0.82 50 52.25 3.54±1.30 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 15 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 9.76±0.63 Control 17.21 1.68±0.61 100 22.54 2.18±0.47 75 36.57 3.57±1.28 50 51.74 5.05±1.29 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 8.40±2.53 Control 11.90 1.00±0.00 100 14.64 1.23±0.27 75 18.45 1.55±0.18 50 35.95 3.02±1.99 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 8.41±2.33 Control 18.07 1.52±0.14 100 19.02 1.60±0.17 75 19.38 1.68±0.21 50 20.68 1.74±0.44 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 15 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 19 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 8.16±1.52 Control 30.63 2.50±0.55 100 46.07 3.76±1.43 75 55.88 4.56±1.57 50 73.89 6.03±1.47 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 7.12±1.16 Control 36.57 2.60±0.00 100 37.07 2.64±0.80 75 38.90 2.77±0.77 50 70.64 5.03±1.40 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 7.04±1.08 Control 27.69 1.95±0.27 100 36.64 2.58±0.42 75 53.12 3.74±1.67 50 62.64 4.41±0.70 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH 19 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthus on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 19 DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 10.1±2.35 Control 18.11 1.83±0.63 100 24.65 2.49±0.53 75 38.01 3.84±1.17 50 50.99 5.15±1.73 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 9.30±2.13 Control 16.12 1.50±0.00 100 11.07 1.03±0.23 75 19.46 1.81±0.14 50 36.02 3.35±2.20 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 8.60±2.28 Control 19.88 1.71±0.13 100 20.93 1.80±0.22 75 21.27 1.83±1.69 50 21.51 1.85±0.38 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 19 DAS (days after soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Germination percentage of Oryza sativa L. seed soaked in different concentration of nodule extract of Cyperus rotundus L. at 3-7 DAS(days after soaking). 70 Control 33.33 100 43.33 75 46.66 50 60 25 Cyperus (Nodule) Germination Percentage Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part 3-7 DAS(days after Soaking) Oryza sativa L. (IN-VITRO)
  • Allelopathic response of Cyperus nodule extract on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 7th, 11th ,15th, & 19th DAS(days after soaking).   100.00 5.74± 1.97 100.00 5.10± 2.44 100.00 4.76± 1.90 100.00 4.06± 1.75 Control   57.31 3.29± 0.71 59.21 3.02± 0.77 58.68 2.50± 0.00 0.00 0.00± 0.00 100   78.74 4.52± 0.74 60.78 3.10± 0.98 67.37 2.87± 0.97 0.00 0.00± 0.00 75   89.19 5.12± 1.10 83.72 4.27± 1.99 92.01 3.92± 1.04 59.11 2.40± 0.73 50   90.59 5.20± 1.42 96.66 4.93± 1.45 111.50 4.75± 1.04 75.86 3.08± 0.85 25   % change over control Mean ±SD % change over control Mean ±SD % change over control Mean ±SD % change over control Mean±SD Conc. of Cyperus nodule extract (%) 19 th 15 th 11 th 7 th SOOT LENGTH DAS(days after soaking) Oryza sativa L.
  •  
  • Allelopathic response of Cyperus nodule extract on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vitro as on 7th, 11th ,15th, & 19th DAS(days after soaking). 100.00 5.83± 2.14 100.00 5.16± 2.40 100.00 6.62± 3.58 100.00 4.14± 3.57 Control 26.58 1.55± 0.75 28.68 1.48± 0.20 0.00 0.45± 0.19 0.00 0.00± 0.00 100 30.36 1.77± 0.34 28.87 1.49± 0.53 7.55 0.50± 0.20 0.00 0.00± 0.00 75 44.08 2.57± 0.41 44.57 2.30± 0.75 8.61 0.57± 0.39 25.84 1.07± 1.07 50 64.15 3.74± 0.75 65.31 3.37± 0.76 49.96 3.29± 1.05 61.11 2.53± 1.09 25 % change over control Mean ±SD % change over control Mean ±SD % change over control Mean ±SD % change over control Mean±SD Conc. of Cyperus nodule extract (%) 19 th 15 th 11 th 7 th ROOT LENGTH DAS(days after soaking) Oryza sativa L.
  •  
  • Germination percentage of Oryza sativa L. seed soaked in different concentration of leaf, stem and root of Lantana camara L. 15 DAS (days after sowing). (IN-VIVO) 50 Control 40 100 33.33 75 43.33 50 43.33 25 Lantana (Root) 60 Control 26 100 30 75 40 50 56.66 25 Lantana (Stem) 60 Control 20 100 33.33 75 40 50 46.66 25 Lantana (Leaf) Germination Percentage Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part 15 DAS(days after sowing) Oryza sativa L. (IN -VIVO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vivo as on 15 DAS(days after sowing). 100.00 10±2.32 Control 31.30 3.13±2.81 100 5.00 5.00±0.00 75 66.20 6.62±2.94 50 77.00 7.70±2.62 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 9.50±1.73 Control 62.31 5.92±2.45 100 64.21 6.10±2.96 75 69.68 6.62±2.98 50 79.68 7.57±2.83 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 9.58±2.76 Control 56.68 5.43±3.18 100 66.49 6.37±4.02 75 72.33 6.93±3.15 50 89.03 8.53±2.84 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH 15 DAS(days after sowing) Oryza sativa L. (IN -VIVO
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Lantana on root growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vivo as on 15 DAS(days after sowing). 100.00 10±7.07 Control 67.30 6.73±4.05 100 68.50 6.85±3.59 75 70.80 7.08±5.23 50 82.20 8.22±4.64 25 Lantana (Root) 100.00 9.61±5.09 Control 54.63 5.25±3.69 100 70.23 6.75±4.49 75 71.27 6.85±4.67 50 98.85 9.50±1.83 25 Lantana (Stem) 100.00 15.6±6.96 Control 35.25 5.50±2.57 100 45.38 7.08±4.54 75 45.96 7.17±4.11 50 75.32 11.75±5.74 25 Lantana (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 15 DAS(days after sowing) Oryza sativa L. (IN –VIVO)
  • Germination of Oryza sativa L. seeds soaked in leaf extracts of different concentration of leaf extract of Lantana camara L. after 15 DAS(days after sowing) in-vivo. Germination of Oryza sativa L. seeds soaked in stem extracts of different concentration of stem extract of Lantana camara L. after 15 DAS(days after sowing) in-vivo
  • Germination of Oryza sativa L. seeds soaked in stem extracts of different concentration of root extract of Lantana camara L. after 15 DAS(days after sowing) in-vivo.
  • Germination percentage of Oryza sativa L. seed soaked in different concentration of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes aspera L. at 15 DAS(days after sowing). 60 Control 43.33 100 46.33 75 50.66 50 56.66 25 Achranthus (Root) 50 Control 13.33 100 36.66 75 43.33 50 43.33 25 Achranthus (Stem) 80 Control 43.33 100 43.33 75 53.33 50 73.33 25 Achranthus (Leaf) Germination Percentage Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part 15 DAS(days after sowing) Oryza sativa L. (IN -VIVO)
  • Allelopathic response of leaf, stem and root extract of Achyranthes on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vivo as on 15 DAS(days after sowing). 100.00 10.77±3.98 Control 59.23 6.38±2.75 100 79.66 8.58±4.17 75 87.92 9.47±4.02 50 93.12 10.03±3.26 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 11.00±2.45 Control 52.27 5.75±3.84 100 54.54 9.00±4.14 75 73 8.03±2.56 50 74.36 8.18±3.45 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 11.53±2.77 Control 73.72 8.50±3.71 100 78.05 9.00±4.94 75 91.67 10.57±2.28 50 91.84 10.59±2.79 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part SHOOT LENGTH 15 DAS(days after sowing) Oryza sativa L. (IN -VIVO)
  • Allelopathic response of Achyranthes stem extract on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vivo as on 15 DAS(days after sowing). 100.00 6.41±2.57 Control 55.53 3.56±5.74 100 59.75 3.83±6.96 75 79.71 5.11±4.54 50 87.51 5.61±4.11 25 Achyranthes (Root) 100.00 5.63±3.97 Control 44.40 2.50±0.70 100 64.47 3.63±1.26 75 68.73 3.87±1.43 50 80.46 4.53±1.89 25 Achyranthes (Stem) 100.00 8.69±5.68 Control 55.69 4.84±2.45 100 65.93 5.73±2.50 75 74.79 6.50±0.00 50 94.13 8.18±3.81 25 Achyranthes (Leaf) % Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration of extract (%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH 15 DAS(days after sowing) Oryza sativa L. (IN -VIVO)
  • Germination of Oryza sativa L. seeds soaked in leaf extracts of different concentration of leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera L. after 15 DAS(days after sowing) in-vivo. 30Germination of Oryza sativa L. seeds soaked in stem extracts of different concentration of stem extract of Achyranthes aspera L. after 15 DAS(days after sowing) in-vivo.
  • 31Germination of Oryza sativa L. seeds soaked in root extracts of different concentration of root extract of Achyranthes aspera L. after 15 DAS(days after sowing)in-vivo.
  • Germination percentage of Oryza sativa L. seed soaked in different concentration of stem extract of Cyperus rotundus L. 15 DAS (days after sowing). (IN-VIVO) 60 Control 36.66 100 36.66 75 40 50 50 25 Germination Percentage Concentration Of nodule extract (%) 15 DAS(days after sowing) Oryza sativa L.
  • Allelopathic response of Cyperus rotundus L. extract on shoot growth of Oryza sativa L. in different concentration in vivo as on 15 DAS(days after sowing). 100.00 9.00±5.96 100.00 7.95±2.11 Control 37.77 3.40±2.01 57.86 4.60±2.22 100 55.55 5.00±1.67 60.37 4.80±1.09 75 57 5.13±3.46 61.13 4.86±2.58 50 58.55 5.27± 3.06 65.40 5.20±2.48 25 Cyperus (nodule) Percentage Change Over Control Mean ± SD Percentage Change Over Control Mean ± SD Concentration Of nodule extract(%) Plant Part ROOT LENGTH SHOOT LENGTH 15 DAS(days after sowing) Oryza sativa L.(in-vivo)
  • Germination of Oryza sativa L. seeds soaked in nodule extracts of different concentration of nodule extract of Cyperus rotundus L. after 15 DAS(days after sowing)