ICT PENETRATION AND USAGE IN ETHIOPIA

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MULAT DEMESSE, TADESU BIRU GIVE A STUDY ON ICT PENETRATION AND USAGE IN ETHIOPIA.

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  • * Purposive selection, as ETC is a monopoly in the ICT sector ** Random samples of private ICT firms and computer training centers
  • * ETA, Trade & Industry Bureau, Investment Authority, Quality & Standards Auth, … **Ministry of Education/Regional Educ. Bureaus, other local gov’t offices,…
  • One educational institution was randomly selected from each type (prim., sec. & tertiary) and category (gov’t, private & mission). And 2 dep’ts from each higher institution were selected. 2. From each type and category 5 teachers, 5 students & 2 IT personnel were selected.
  • One hospital, 2 HCs, 1 clinic from each type (L, M & H) and 1 pharmacy were randomly selected. 2. Two doctors from each hosp. & HC and one lab. tech from each hosp. were selected. 3. One individual from each type of clinic and pharmacy were randomly selected.
  • Six regional bureaus were selected from each sample area: Commun. & Transport, Finance & Economic Dev’t, Youth Sport & Culture, Justice, Agriculture, and Investment Office 2. Two non-IT employees & one IT professional from each bureau were randomly selected.
  • Five random samples of private ICT firms and computer training centers were taken from each sample town.
  • Only two relevant licensing bureaus were identified and contacted in each regional town: Education + Trade, Industry & Tourism Reason: Organization and compositions of bureaus vary in the regions.
  • Est. population of Eth (2000/01) 65.4 million
  • As of 2001, the total main telephone lines in Ethiopia is 283,683 More than half of the country’s main telephone lines is in Addis Ababa Afar, Beninshangul and Gambella have the lowest percentage share Harari 2% (legend doesn’t show it)
  • Elsewhere: Multi-purpose telecenters may include phone services, Internet access, media services, computer training and business services, among others. Ethiopia: Telecenters serve as pay stations that provide only telephone services. Total # of pay stations in Ethiopia is 687 92,400 inhabitants are served per pay station
  • Est. population of Eth (2000/01) 65.4 million
  • Source: Compiled from ETC 2001 Report *These are city-states without regional government status **Teledensity computed based on 1999/00 estimated population of 63.5 million
  • Gambella and Harari are both the names of the regions and the capital towns.
  • For the majority of the regional towns there are only 0.2 Internet subscribers per each 1000 population For the country as a whole the figure is 0.1
  • Source: ITU Report 2002 (for2001 computer & TV figures) Tassew W/H and Tekie Alemu, Poverty Profile in Eth, MoFED Jan. 2002 (for 1999/00 Radio figure) About 18%, 2.8% and 0.1% of the total population own radio, TV and Computers, respectively
  • Figures in bracket: total # of sample institutions contacted
  • Figures in parentheses: reporting cases
  • ICT PENETRATION AND USAGE IN ETHIOPIA

    1. 1. ICT PENETRATION AND USAGE IN ETHIOPIA: BASELINE STUDY MULAT DEMEKE TADESSE BIRU Addis Ababa University Department of Economics
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>ICT penetration and usage </li></ul><ul><li>ICT industry </li></ul><ul><li>Summing up </li></ul>
    3. 3. I. Project Objectives <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and analyze the information the </li></ul><ul><li>country needs to participate in a global </li></ul><ul><li>information economy. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Project Objectives (cont’d) <ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Track the status of ICT-infrastructure related to telephony, Internet, computers, television and radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the extent of human resource development and institutional capacity in the area of ICTs. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess ICT penetration and usage in three different sectors: education, health and public administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the status of the ICT industry. </li></ul>
    5. 5. II. Data Generating Methods <ul><li>Two major approaches: </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary data (related to ICT infrastructure, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of institutions/firms and individuals using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Survey Areas <ul><li>Purposive selection of five survey sites: </li></ul><ul><li>The federal capital: Addis Ababa, and </li></ul><ul><li>Four major regional towns (capitals): Awasa </li></ul><ul><li>Bahir Dar </li></ul><ul><li>Mekele </li></ul><ul><li>Nazareth </li></ul>
    7. 7. Summary of sample size (Addis Ababa) <ul><li>Education Sector (Total) </li></ul>* Only 35 IT professionals were found in the sample educational institutions Samples Planned Contacted Schools/Colleges/Faculties/ Departments Students Teachers/instructors IT professionals* 86 1030 400 136 70 (81.4%) 969 (94.0%) 374 (93.5%) 35 ( 25.7% )
    8. 8. Summary of sample size (Addis Ababa) <ul><li>Health Sector (Total) </li></ul>* Only 4 IT professionals were found in the sample health facilities Samples Planned Contacted Health Facilities Health Professionals Lab Technicians Pharmacists IT professionals * 32 68 7 5 14 29 (90.6%) 68 (100%) 7 (100%) 5 (100%) 4 ( 28.6% )
    9. 9. Summary of sample size (Addis Ababa) <ul><li>Public Administration (Total) </li></ul>*Relatively larger number of IT personnel were found in public institutions . Samples Planned Contacted Ministries Other Public Institutions Public Employees IT professionals * 8 10 36 36 8 (100%) 8 (80%) 31 (86.1%) 20 ( 55.6% )
    10. 10. Sample Size by Category: Addis Ababa <ul><li>ICT Industry (total) </li></ul>Sample Types Planned Contacted Eth. Telecom. Corporation* Private Computer Dealers** (Training, Sales, Web-site Dev’t, Networking, Software Dev’t, Consultancy, Assembly & Maintenance,…) Short-term computer training providers** 1 32 20 1 26 (81.3%) 17 (85.0%) Total 53 44 (83.0%)
    11. 11. Summary of sample size (Addis Ababa) <ul><li>Regulatory and Licensing Institutions (total) </li></ul>Sample Institutions Planned Contacted <ul><li>License/permit issuing </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions* </li></ul><ul><li>Related Public Institutions** </li></ul>5 6 5 (100%) 6 (100%)
    12. 12. Summary of sample size (Regional Towns) <ul><li>Education Sector (Total) </li></ul>* Only 2 IT professionals were found in the sample education institutions Samples Planned Contacted Schools/Colleges/Faculties/ Departments Students Teachers/instructors IT professionals* 33 210 127 66 32 (97.0%) 175 (83.3%) 120 (94.5%) 2 ( 3.0% )
    13. 13. Summary of sample size (Regional Towns) <ul><li>Health Sector (Total) </li></ul>* NO IT professionals were found in the sample health facilities Samples Planned Contacted Health Facilities Health Professionals Lab Technicians Pharmacists IT professionals * 28 32 4 5 4 25 (89.3%) 23 (71.8%) 4 (100%) 4 (80%) 0
    14. 14. Summary of sample size (Regional Towns) <ul><li>Public Administration (Total) </li></ul>* Only 3 IT professionals were found in the sample education institutions Samples Planned Contacted Regional Bureaus Public Employees IT professionals * 24 48 24 23 (95.8%) 31 (64.6%) 3 ( 12.5% )
    15. 15. Summary of Sample Size (Regional Towns) <ul><li>ICT Industry </li></ul>Sample Types Planned Contacted Private Computer Dealers and Short-term computer training providers 20 18 (90.0%)
    16. 16. Summary of sample size (Regional Towns) <ul><li>Regulatory and Licensing Institutions </li></ul>Sample Institutions Planned Contacted License/permit issuing Institutions & related Public Institutions 8 8 (100%)
    17. 17. III. Infrastructure <ul><li>ETC only provider of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile telephone, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facsimile, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>telex services. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Infrastructure - Telephone <ul><li>Telephone subscribers up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by 167.7% from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1987/88 to 2000/01 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(nearly by 12% per annum) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>But distribution unbalanced </li></ul>
    19. 19. Telephone (cont’d) <ul><li>Telephone distribution (as of 2001) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Telephone (cont’d) <ul><li>Distribution of pay stations in different regions (as of 2001) </li></ul>Note: Others include Dire Dawa, Harari, Gambella, Beninshangul, Afar and Somali .
    21. 21. Telephone (cont’d) <ul><li>Teledensity varies significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Addis Ababa 15.4 people/telephone line </li></ul><ul><li>Somali 1935 “ </li></ul><ul><li>Country 224 “ </li></ul><ul><li>or 4.5 telephones per 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>inhabitants </li></ul>
    22. 22. Telephone (cont’d) <ul><li>Teledensity statistics (by region) </li></ul>Regions Pop (‘000) # of tele Pop/tele Tele/’000 people Density ADDIS A.* 2495 16251 615.4 65.9 0.0659 AMHARA 16298 29024 561.5 1.9 0.0019 OROMIYA 22354 45358 492.8 2.0 0.002 SNNP 12515 15839 790.1 1.3 0.0013 TIGRAY 3694 13117 281.6 3.6 0.0036 DIRE D. * 318 8592 37.02 27 0.027 AFAR 1216 1002 1213.6 0.8 0.0008 SOMALI 3698 1911 1935.1 0.5 0.0005 BENINSH. 537 669 802.7 1.2 0.0012 GAMBELLA 211 646 326.6 3.1 0.0031 HARARI 160 5009 31.9 31.3 0.0313 ETHIOPIA 63496** 283,683 223.8 4.5 0.0045
    23. 23. Telephone (cont’d) <ul><li>Teledensity statistics (by regional town) </li></ul>Regions Pop (‘000) # of tele Pop/tele Tele/’000 people Density Addis A. 2495 16251 615.4 65.9 0.0659 Bahir D. 232 5016 46.3 21.6 0.0216 Nazareth 333 9141 36.4 27.5 0.0275 Awasa 425 2694 157.8 6.3 0.0063 Mekele 129 6874 18.8 53.2 0.0532 Dire D. 318 8592 37.02 27 0.027 Asayita 59 460 128.3 7.8 0.0078 Jijiga 292 1911 152.8 6.5 0.0065 Assosa 87 669 130.0 7.7 0.0077 Gambela 33 646 51.1 19.6 0.0196 Harari 97 5009 19.4 51.5 0.0515
    24. 24. Telephone (cont’d) <ul><li>Classification of telephone subscribers’ lines (as of 2001) </li></ul>Note: Others include embassies, international organizations and NGOs.
    25. 25. Internet <ul><li>Introduced in 1996/97 with 1042 subscribers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased to 6487 in 2002 (by 5 fold) </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage of Internet services expanded to 12 major towns </li></ul><ul><li>96% of the total subscribers are from Addis Ababa </li></ul><ul><li>subscribers per 1000 people </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 Addis Ababa </li></ul><ul><li>0.24 other towns </li></ul><ul><li>or 0.1 country as whole </li></ul>
    26. 26. Internet (cont’d) <ul><li>Internet subscribers per 1000 population (as of Mar 2002) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Local Web-sites <ul><li>Increased from 68 in 2000/01 to 88 in 2001/02 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(by29.4%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>and it is projected to rise to 100 in 2002/03 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(by 14%) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Mobile Telephone <ul><li>Started in 1998/99 with 6740 subscribers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased to 27,532 subscribers in 2000/01 </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage: Addis Ababa and two nearby towns (Debre Zeit & Nazareth) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution: </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector: 91% </li></ul><ul><li>(71% individuals & 20% businesses) </li></ul><ul><li>Government 4% </li></ul><ul><li>International Org. 5% </li></ul>
    29. 29. Computers, TV and Radio <ul><li>Stock of computers, TV and Radio </li></ul>
    30. 30. IV. ICT penetration and usage <ul><li>Access to basic ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>% of institutions reporting </li></ul>Computers Fixed line Telephones Internet connection Web-Sites Education (103) 81.6 89.3 51.5 18.9 Health (84) 33.3 96.3 13.0 1.9 Public Institutions (39) 100.0 100.0 69.3 22.2
    31. 31. ICT penetration and usage <ul><li>Uses of computers (reporting institutions, %) </li></ul>Office tools CD-Rom search Personnel Admin. Education (84) 85.7 26.2 46.4 Health (54) 61.1 11.1 27.8 Public Institutions (39) 94.9 17.9 41.0
    32. 32. ICT penetration and usage <ul><li>Personal ownership of some ICT items at home (reporting cases, %) </li></ul>Computers Fixed line telephone Local TV Internet Connection Radio Teachers 10.9 42.0 65.9 2.5 85.3 Students 19.2 74.3 81.6 12.2 92.0 Health Profess. 11.7 78.4 88.3 3.5 86.5 Public employees 12.6 55.3 78.9 5.8 84.5
    33. 33. ICT penetration and usage <ul><li>Computer & Internet Usage & Places of </li></ul><ul><li>Access: % reporting </li></ul>Computer literate Using computers Using Internet Access Internet at Work place/ Learning institution Private computer centers Teachers 42.8 38.4 26.2 61.1 37.4 Students 48.5 48.5 19.1 29.4 41.7 Health Profess. 38.7 33.3 26.1 34.4 42.8 Public employees 81.3 72.8 44.7 82.6 37.0
    34. 34. ICT penetration and usage – Further details on educational inst Computers Fixed line Telephones Internet connection Web-Sites (19) (12) AA (24) (15) Prim & Sec Government Non-govt 47 100 100 100 5 42 0 0 Tertiary Government Non-govt 100 87 96 87 88 87 17 27 (9) (10) Reg (10) (4) Prim & Sec Government Non-govt 56 80 89 100 11 40 0 0 Tertiary Govt Non-govt 90 100 30 100 50 75 0 50 (103) Total 82 (84) 89 (92) 52 (54) 19 (10)
    35. 35. ICT penetration and usage – Further details of health institutions Computers Fixed line Telephones Internet connection Web-Sites (4+4) AA (1+ 15+5) Government Hospitals & Health Centers 50 100 25 0 Private Hosp & Clinics Pharmacies 44 60 100 80 19 20 6 0 (3+5) Reg (1+13+3) Government Hospitals & Health Centers 13 100 13 0 Private Hosp & Clinics Pharmacies 14 33 93 100 0 0 0 0 (54 ) Total 33 (18) 96 (52) 13 (6) 2 (1)
    36. 36. ICT penetration and usage – Further details in public institutions Computers Fixed line Telephones Internet connection Web-Sites Addis Ababa (16) 100 100 94 33 Regional towns (23) 100 100 52 8 (39) Total 100 (39) 100 (39) 69 (27) 22 (6)
    37. 37. ICT penetration and usage Use of computers by inst. Uses of computers (reporting cases, %) Office tools CD-Rom search Personnel Admin. Education (84) 85.7 26.2 46.4 Health (54) 61.1 11.1 27.8 Public Institutions (39) 94.9 17.9 41.0
    38. 38. ICT penetration and usage – use of internet by inst. E-mail Info search Downloading/ Uploading Info on procurement of materials Education (54) 100.0 86.8 71.7 41.5 Health (6) 71.4 57.1 42.9 28.6 Public Institutions (27) 100.0 100.0 70.4 14.8
    39. 39. ICT penetration and usage – use of websites by edu. inst. % reporting web-sites Strengthen contact with educ inst’ns Provide distance education Provide info about institution AA Prim & Sec Government Non-govt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tertiary Government Non-govt 16.7 (4) 26.7 (4) 50 (2) 100 (4) 0 0 52 (2) 75 (3) Reg Prim & Sec Government Non-govt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tertiary Govt Non-govt 0 50 (2) 0 100 (2) 0 50 (1) 0 0 Total 19 (10) 80 (8) 10 (1) 50 (5)
    40. 40. V. ICT Industry <ul><li>62 firms engaged in ICT related businesses were contacted. </li></ul><ul><li>Employed 693 workers (80% IT professionals) </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of operation: Firms engaged in </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term training 79% </li></ul><ul><li>Consultancy services 55% </li></ul><ul><li>Computer networking 60% </li></ul><ul><li>ICT HW maintenance & support 66% </li></ul><ul><li>ICT HW & SW sales 65% </li></ul><ul><li>HW assembly and SW dev’t 42% </li></ul>
    41. 41. ICT Industry (cont’d) <ul><li>Those engaged in ICT short term training </li></ul><ul><li>Trained 16,715 persons so far </li></ul><ul><ul><li>51% females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of all trainees from Addis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highly demanded areas of training (96%) are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer maintenance & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trouble shooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>networking </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. ICT Industry - laws, regulations & procedures <ul><li>Major problems identified: </li></ul><ul><li>Problems related to tax </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and customs regulations </li></ul><ul><li>High collateral requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Negative attitude of tax inspectors </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of laws relating to hackers & virus </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive contraband goods in the market </li></ul>
    43. 43. ICT Industry- Regulatory Framework <ul><li>Government monopoly in telecommunication </li></ul><ul><li> adversely affecting ICT infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>No standards relating to ICT services </li></ul><ul><li> recently ETA has been mandated </li></ul><ul><li>Eth has no national ICT strategy or policies so far </li></ul><ul><li> adversely affected efficiency & dev’t of the </li></ul><ul><li>industry </li></ul>
    44. 44. VI. Summing up <ul><li>very low teledensity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only 4.5 telephone lines per 1000 inhabitants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main lines satisfy only 65% of the expressed demand </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of waiting list (relative to the main line connections) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>was 55% in 2000/01. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Summing up … <ul><li>Teledensity varies significantly by region: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of people per main telephone line ranged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from 15.4 in Addis Ababa to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,935 in Somali. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Addis Ababa accounts for 55% of the installed capacity. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Summing up … <ul><li>ICT penetration and usage in schools/ colleges and health facilities varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by type of ownership (government vs. non-government). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government owned institutions lag behind </li></ul><ul><li>Regional towns at a disadvantage relative to Addis Ababa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to basic ICTs lower among employees residing in regional towns </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Summing up … <ul><li>Introduction of hardware and software relatively easy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective use is difficult and requires transformation in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internal organization, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>technical capabilities and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resource management. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Summing up … <ul><li>Computers used mainly as office tools </li></ul><ul><li>Many administrators unaware of the wider application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accounting, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>finance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human resource management, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>database management, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>procurement of goods and services, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Summing up … <ul><li>Poor quality of education a major problem in Eth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very large class sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor teaching facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICTs a major role in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher quality and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wider coverage of education. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-speed communication networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to obtain better quality reference materials. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Summing up … <ul><li>Possible to increase supply of well-trained teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and students with access to Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>perform better than those without access. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-line learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows full flexibility regarding the time and place of study. </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Summing up … <ul><li>Health sector constrained by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>budgetary limitations and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shortage of personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT applications to support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>efficient exchange of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>between health professionals, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thus saving time and money. </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Summing up … <ul><li>Public services automated with the objective of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improving a variety of services and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensuring transparency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to widen the use of ICT (e.g. Website) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the cost of public administration and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solicit feedback from citizens and the business community. </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Summing up … <ul><li>Consensus regarding major constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost of computer most important problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>followed by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor telecommunication infrastructure, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of accessories (necessary equipment) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high Internet service charge </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Summing up … <ul><li>Need to encourage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establishment of a computer assembly and/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce tax/duty rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberalize telecommunication industry necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide competitive service at lower service charges. </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Summing up … <ul><li>A digital divide along income and educational level </li></ul><ul><li>Logistic regression has confirmed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT usage positively and significantly influenced by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>income and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>education. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Summing up … <ul><li>Increasing access to ICTs requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcoming poverty, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing awareness and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success in PRSP critical to overcome digital divide </li></ul>
    57. 57. Summing up … <ul><li>ICT industry consists of small business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only about 11 employees each. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very few engaged in R & D and software development. </li></ul><ul><li>But many qualified professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Possible for some firms to work on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development of customized software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to client specifications for export. </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Summing up … <ul><li>Low cost of labor a major source of comparative advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Government should support ICT companies by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improving access to credit and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating an enabling policy environment. </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Summing up … <ul><li>Several regulatory problems of ICT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax system and customs regulation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws to guard against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hackers and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contraband ICT goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property rights to protect creators of content </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Summing up … <ul><li>Government needs to work very closely with all stakeholders to </li></ul><ul><li>overcome the deficiencies in the legal and regulatory framework </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing capacity building crucial </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>

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