Defining Characteristics of Fascism Nazi Germany Franco Mussolini Suharto
1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism Nazi Germany Nationalism in Nazi Germany was a prominent ideology that was used to motivate the citizens to embrace the fascist government. Using tactics to manipulate people, such as group focus, symbolic representations like the swastika or Nazi salute, and many others. During a speech Hitler made, he said “Germany will either be a world power or will not be at all” and this idea of Germany’s economy and reputation being at stake was used to unite the people and give them a feeling that they needed to fight together for a cause. Mussolini (Italy) In fascist Italy under the power of Mussolini, there was a symbol that gave fascism its name. The many sticks surrounding a core with an axe head was a prominent symbolic representation for the new political party, and the idea the people embraced was the desire for Italy to have glory. Back in the Roman times, Italy was powerful and Mussolini wanted to restore that power. The citizens of Italy embraced this and nationalism became stronger than ever.
2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights Nazi Germany Nazi Germany was known for the variety of cruel treatment they committed to the Jewish people during the Holocaust. According to the Nazi belief system, the Jewish people were not people at all, and should be treated like animals or other lesser beings. When the Nazi’s removed the Jewish from their homes, they were put in cramped quarters, travelled like cattle, and in some cases killed all those who were “not useful” anymore. This is a severe denial of the premise of human rights, because these people were not treated fairly or equally. Suharto (Indonesia) In the fascist government in Indonesia under Suharto, many anti-human rights laws and regulations were put into place. When his government’s power was threatened, he made all protests illegal and criminalized some of his largest opponents. Indonesia’s media was also controlled, and suppressed any information of demand for more freedom. These actions negate human rights, and is a key component of a fascist government.
3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause Nazi Germany Similar to the previous example, the Nazi regime blamed all of Germany’s issues due to the loss of the first World War on those who practiced the Jewish religion. Hitler stated that “The struggle for world domination will be fought entirely between us, between Germans and Jews. All else is facade and illusion.” By saying this, Hitler was able to unite the German people against a common enemy which promoted the nationalism the Nazis wanted the citizens to embrace. Suharto (Indonesia) In Indonesia, Suharto created a “New Order” which used the Chinese as scapegoats. The fascist government had both a fear and hatred of communism , and so turned on the closest “enemy”. A variety of anti-Chinese laws were put into place, such as closing Chinese schools, regulating Buddhist temples and adoption of less Chinese sounding names.
4. Supremacy of the Military Nazi Germany According to Hitler’s beliefs, having a strong military was a key component of having a strong country. His army made a series of innovations and techniques, including Blitzkrieg. The military power was enormous and had roughly 550,000 in the army, navy and air force. The intense military focus took a great deal of time and money from the German people, and it broke the Treaty of Versailles, but Hitler felt it was too important and ignored the treaty. Suharto (Indonesia) Indonesian President Suharto was originally a Major General, and so military focus was immensely important in the government he set up. In his “New Order” administration, the military took the place of civilian rule. This means that seats in Parliament were set aside for soldiers. Anyone in the military was given a great deal of respect and more government funding went to building the military than helping the Indonesian citizens.
5. Rampant Sexism Nazi Germany Hitler was a man who believed women had specific, defined roles in society and that they were inferior to men. The main focus for women during WWII was to be mothers and keep a good house for their husbands. It was enforced to such a degree that it was taught to girls in schools and there was tax cuts for women who had at least four children. There was even clothing restrictions for women in Nazi Germany. Mussolini (Italy) Under fascist regimes women were urged to perform their traditional gender role as wives and mothers and to bear many children for the good of the nation. Mussolini instituted policies severely restricting women’s access to jobs outside the home (policies that later had to be revised so that important factories could have enough employees during war), and he distributed gold medals to mothers who produced the most children.
6. Controlled Mass Media Nazi Germany Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany. The only permitted books and broadcasts were monitored and controlled by the Nazi forces, as well as the various propaganda posters that plastered Germany. Hitler’s speeches were heard by everyone in the country, and the inspiration they provided was a form of manipulation for German soldiers and citizens alike. As well as the war propaganda, there was many anti-semantic writings to enforce the hated of the Jewish culture. Franco (Spain) Francisco Franco of Spain strictly controlled and influenced public opinion in order to coerce support of his policies using control of the media and propaganda. Posters of his face were plastered across every window in Spain, as well as messages that his rebellion and new government promoted unity and Franco’s “superior leadership qualities”. Any negative portrayal of the fascist government was censored by the media control, so people only heard and saw what Franco wanted.
7. Obsession with National Security Nazi Germany Another reason the military force needed to be as prominent as it was, is that Hitler had great paranoia over the allied forces, and for good reason. The Gestapo was the German secret police, and they imprisoned or killed anyone suspected of helping the Allied forces or Jews or being against the Nazis in any way. National security was a priority for Hitler, and he insured that fear kept his country secure. Mussolini (Italy) In Mussolini’s fascist Italy, everybody who was proven to have "committed or expressed intention to commit actions directed to violently subvert the social, economic or national order or undermine national security or to oppose or obstruct the actions of the Government" could be sent into exile to remote locations by this secret police force. The citizens feared the threats and so obeyed the government.
8. Religion and Government are Intertwined Nazi Germany Hitler despised not only the Jewish religious group, but Christianity as well. In a speech he said “The heaviest blow which ever struck humanity was Christianity; Bolshevism is Christianity’s illegitimate child. Both are inventions of the Jew.” In the opinion of Hitler, God did exist and created the “pure” Aryan race so that it should not be tainted with interracial mixing. This combination of Hitler’s religious beliefs in the actions of his government made Nazi Germany a great example of a fascist government. Franco (Spain) During the thirty six years where Spain was controlled by the dictator Francisco Franco, there was a strong connection to the Catholic Church. He outlawed anything that did not agree with catholic beliefs, including contraceptives, homosexuality, practice of any other religion, prostitution, and divorce. At this time church and state of Spain were one body and it was the responsibility of both to enforce Spain’s change towards unity.
9. Corporate Power is Protected Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler needed the support of the wealthy and powerful in Germany in order to gain and keep his place in the government. To maintain this support, Hitler protected those who had great corporate power so they could continue with business as usual. There were changes, such as all major sectors of industry now had some state control, but employer associations also developed which gave owners power similar to Parliament in that they were able to create working conditions and wage laws. Mussolini (Italy) Benito Mussolini once said “Fascism should more properly be called corporatism because it is the merger of state and corporate power." What was meant by this statement, it that the state now had control over a majority of industry, and the controllers of industry now had more power in the state. Mussolini needed the corporations, and so it was important that all those in power, remained in power.
10. Labour Power is Suppressed Nazi Germany When Hitler came to power, one of his first acts was to abolish trade unions. This action made the power of the average worker in Germany to almost nothing, but at the same time he was supported because many unemployed Germans now had jobs that were once occupied by Jewish people. Workers could not quit without government permission, because Hitler was using everyone he could to help build the strength of Germany. In Nazi Germany, workers were heavily suppressed but happy to be working in any condition. Franco (Spain) In Franco’s Spain, he created a document entitled the Labour Charter. The purpose of the Labour Charter was to address the Spanish workers, and first and foremost it stated that all Spaniards had the duty to work, and the state was to assure them the right to work. Although the decree called for adequate wages, paid vacations, and a limit to working hours, it ensured labour's compliance with the new regime by labelling strikes as treason. This kept resistance to a minimum and enabled the fascist government to control Spain more easily.
11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts Nazi Germany Hitler was not a man who despised art, for he himself originally wanted to study art in Vienna. While he did not succeed in his endeavors, Hitler still had love for the arts and felt that Germany needed better architecture and culture. He wanted to preserve a great deal of the architecture even in the cities he attacked, because he respected it. However, any Jewish art was not considered to be art. Hitler had great disdain for anything created by a Jew, and could never have respect for their creation. Suharto (Indonesia) Before the death of Suharto, a group of prominent military men, politicians, academics and students calling themselves the "Petition of Fifty" questioned Suharto's use of the national ideology Pancasila. The ideology is one that Suharto came up with, and it had five main principles all focusing on characteristics of fascism. These were intellectuals and Suharto suppressed them through media and put some of the prominent leaders in jail.
12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment Nazi Germany - From Hitler’s childhood, he had always had a strict idea of what punishment should be due to how he was raised. His beliefs reflected his laws and practice once he gained power in Germany. Hitler’s secret police, the Gestapo, had no mercy on those who were accused of going against any of Hitler’s totalitarian laws and the punishments ranged from imprisonment, to torture, to death. Mussolini (Italy) Under Mussolini’s fascist regime, the OVRA (Organization for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism) was a secret police force similar to the Gestapo in Germany. They used violent methods to punish those who had committed or were accused of committing crimes against fascism. The death penalty was put into place so killing the offenders was an option, or sending them to exile or imprisonment.
13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption Nazi Germany When a fascist dictator takes control it is inevitable that he will appoint his friends to positions of power. For example in Hitler’s Nazi Germany, one of Hitler’s very good friends, Goebbels, was the head of media and propaganda while all heads of the secret police and death camps were also friends of Adolf Hitler. Hitler’s second in command Bormann was also a good friend, and could not have gotten his position if he was not. Mussolini (Italy) When Mussolini took power in Italy, he was not satisfied with the system of government where several parties cooperated to work, therefore he set his goal as becoming the ruler of the one party with the totalitarian state. In order to achieve this goal, from 1922 to 1923, Mussolini destroyed the oppositions that had authority. Instead of the removed authorities, he placed loyal fascists in key government positions. Putting these loyal followers in important positions is an excellent example of cronyism.
14. Fraudulent Elections Nazi Germany Contrary to popular belief, the Nazi party did not win the election with an absolute majority. In fact, they only received about 33% of the vote. However once the president was in power he appointed Hitler to the head of the government and they used a series of “emergency” lawmaking protocols to create their totalitarian system. Although the people had been promised a vastly different government during the campaign, Hitler did keep a few promises. An important one being creating a strong, self sufficient country. The citizens of Germany did not know the plan to exterminate the Jewish, or the abolishment of rights, but they wanted a better country and revenge for the Treaty of Versailles. Mussolini (Italy) When Mussolini created his fascist revolution in 1922,it quickly overtook the country and within two years Mussolini was able to shut down all opposition from the media and 80% of political parties that had Italy's vote. With these parties suppressed, the fascist controlled all elections.
http://www.corbisimages.com/ Title Page Pictures, hitler picture slide 2, jew camp slide 3, http://www.google.ca/images?hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&q=mussolini%20fascism&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&biw=1899&bih=824 Mussolini Fascism slide 2 http://www.google.ca/images?hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&q=Suharto%20anti-%20human%20rights&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&biw=1899&bih=824 Suharto Slide 3 http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://i.ytimg.com/vi/l8choRkiQsI/0.jpg&imgrefurl=http://viivi.net/index.php%3Fkey%3Dfascists&usg=__quylJEjePc0g9z3jZoTcOLs4bK0=&h=360&w=480&sz=17&hl=en&start=80&zoom=1&tbnid=5cxhTNpTNwFo0M:&tbnh=156&tbnw=206&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmussolini%2Bwomen%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1G1ACAW_ENCA389%26biw%3D1899%26bih%3D824%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C1236&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=1614&vpy=460&dur=23&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=120&ty=126&ei=N5LXTPaWLs-bnwf5g43ZCQ&oei=LpLXTLCWGsyinAfh982lBQ&esq=3&page=3&ndsp=43&ved=1t:429,r:20,s:80&biw=1899&bih=824 slide 6 mussolini women http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=nazi+election&p=1 slide 15 nazi http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=mussolini++italy+election&p=2 slide 15 mussolini http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=jew+star&p=3 Slide 4 nazi BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=anti-chinese&p=3 Slide 4 Suharto http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=nazi+military&p=1Slide Slide 5 nazi http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=Suharto+military&p=1 Slide 5 Suharto http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=Goebbels&p=1 slide 14 nazi http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=mussolini+italy&p=1 slide 14 mussolini http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=nazi+women&p=3 slide 6 nazi women
http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=nazi+workers&p=1 slide 11 nazi http://www.google.ca/images?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&biw=1899&bih=824&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=anti-semantic+writings&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= slide 7 nazi http://www.google.ca/images?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&biw=1899&bih=824&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=fracisco+franco+and+workers&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= slide 11 franco http://www.google.ca/images?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&biw=1899&bih=824&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=francisco+franco+pictures+on+walls&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= slide 7 franco http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=Gestapo&p=1 slide 8 nazi http://www.google.ca/images?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&biw=1899&bih=824&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=hitler+and+art&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= slide 12 nazi http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/3/37/SuhartoNAMLusaka1970.jpg/180px-SuhartoNAMLusaka1970.jpg&imgrefurl=http://rememberthem.wetpaint.com/page/SUHARTO%2BBiography&usg=__cnaq8eeNMp3M8Ge2nGOeVxYEl4I=&h=200&w=180&sz=14&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=h4utMqmoXs7c3M:&tbnh=155&tbnw=142&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2522Petition%2Bof%2BFifty%2522%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26rlz%3D1G1ACAW_ENCA389%26biw%3D1899%26bih%3D824%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=303&ei=_p3XTK-ECI6gnAeB79WZBQ&oei=_p3XTK-ECI6gnAeB79WZBQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=36&ved=1t:429,r:21,s:0&tx=106&ty=74 slide 12 suharto http://www.google.ca/images?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&biw=1899&bih=824&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=mussolini+execution&aq=4&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=mussolini+&gs_rfai= slide 8 mussolini http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=hate+jews&p=1 slide 9 nazi http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=catholic+francisco+franco&p=1 slide 9 spain http://www.corbisimages.com/Search#q=nazi+torture&p=1 slide 13 nazi http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://home.comcast.net/~dsmjd/tux/images/mussolini_petacci.jpg&imgrefurl=http://alancook.wordpress.com/2010/05/08/famous-last-words-before-execution/&usg=__ru_tfKo2dA5ttwcr8ftCSZe2IO4=&h=800&w=600&sz=91&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=9qoZhAiLb1aJ8M:&tbnh=168&tbnw=126&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmussolini%2Bdeath%2Bpenalty%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1G1ACAW_ENCA389%26biw%3D1899%26bih%3D824%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=512&vpy=60&dur=1298&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=113&ty=177&ei=IZ_XTNOfMsefnAenp7CYBQ&oei=IZ_XTNOfMsefnAenp7CYBQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=40&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0 slide 13 mussolini http://www.google.ca/images?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&biw=1899&bih=824&tbs=isch:1&aq=f&aqi=g10&oq=&gs_rfai=&q=hitler slide 10 nazi http://www.google.ca/images?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1G1ACAW_ENCA389&biw=1899&bih=824&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=mussolini+government&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= slide 10 mussolini