Communication skills week 3

818 views
620 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
818
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Communication skills week 3

  1. 1. WEEK 3Benefits of Effective CommunicationChallenges of Business CommunicationBYWARDAH AZHAR
  2. 2. Important Questions: Why is communication important in schoolorganizations? What are the steps in the communication process? Why is it difficult to obtain accurate informationfrom upward and downward communicationflows?
  3. 3.  What symbol systems do humans use in theirefforts to communicate? What role does non-verbal communication playin the process? What are the barriers to effectivecommunication? What are some techniques we can use toovercome these barriers? What influence has technology had oncommunication?
  4. 4. Importance of Communication Communication is the life blood of the schoolorganization, just a walk through a typicalschool and one can observe numerouscommunication activities. Secretaries are typing memos, reports andletters, and communicating with the public onthe telephone.
  5. 5.  Principals are in conference with teachers orstudents, or members of the community, as wellas with school board members Teachers are communicating with students,exchanging information Dieticians are exchanging ideas with thelunchroom staff and on and on and on… Today’s school administrator has a complex joband effective communication is vital for theirsurvival
  6. 6. The Steps Involved in theCommunication Process: Ideating – developing an idea or message –information to be transmitted Encoding – symbols, words, non verbalcues, pictures or diagrams Transmitting – memos, letters, telephone, e-mail, policies, face to face verbalcommunication
  7. 7. DEVELOPSIDEAENCODES TRANSMITS BARRIERSENDER MESSAGE RECEIVERRECIEVES BARRIER DECODES ACTSSENDERADMINFACULTYSTUDENTSBOARDMEMBERSPARENTSSTATEGOVT.FED.GOVT.ENCODINGVOCALINFLECTIONPICTURESDIAGRAMSNONVERBALWORDSCHARTSSTEPS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
  8. 8. TRANSMITTINGBODYLANG.MEMOSPHONEPOLICYSTATEMENTSCLOSEDCIRCUTEMAILLETTERSFACETOFACERECEIVINGORAL MESSAGEREQUIRES GOODLISTENEINGSKILLSWRITTEN MESSAGESREQUIRE ATTENTIONTOSTATED AND IMPLIEDMEANINGS
  9. 9. DECODINGRECEIVER MUST TRANSLATETO:PERCEIVED OR INTERPRETEDMEANINGMEANING CANNOT BETRANSMITTEDBARIERS CAN OCCUR ANYWHERE BUT MOST LIKELY IN DECODING
  10. 10. ACTINGTHE FINAL STEPIN COMMUNICATIONSENDERCANIGNORSTOREFORLATEROR DOSOMETHING ELSEWITH IT
  11. 11. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIONKINESISHOW WESTAND FACIALEXPRESSIONSUSEOFHANDSUSEOFARMSUSEOFLEGSPOSTURE
  12. 12. PARALANGUAGELAUGHINGSPEECHRATEVOLUMEYAWNINGVOICEQUALITYPITCH
  13. 13. PROXEMICS(PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT)INTIMATE ZONEZERO –TWO FEETPERSONAL ZONETWO-FOUR FEETSOCIAL ZONEFOUR-TWELVEFEETPUBLIC ZONEMORE THANTWELVE FEETMUST KNOW THEM INTIMATELY WELL ACQUAINTEDUSUALLY TREAT THEM AS IF THEY DON’T EXISTACQUAINTANCE WITH A PURPOSE
  14. 14. Physical Space , Consider This: Employees of higher status have bigger, better,offices, better furniture, more windows etc. Offices of higher status employees are betterprotected Superiors feel free to walk in on subordinates Subordinates hesitate to walk in on superiors
  15. 15. DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATIONDOWNWARD UPWARDHORIZONTALDIAGIONAL
  16. 16. Downward Communication Used by most large schools that are hierarchical in nature Flows from Superintendent to Assistant Superintendent toPrincipal to Assistant Principals to Faculty to students Necessary to clarify district’s goals, provide a sense ofmission, assist in indoctrinating new employees, informemployees about educational changes that impact thedistrict and to provide subordinates with data regardingtheir performance
  17. 17. Problems With Downward Communication Subordinates select and prioritize messages in accordancewith their perception of their boss’scharacter, personality, and motivation Sender does not devote enough time to learn whethermessages have been received and understood Those at the top may shut off this channel at certain timesand on certain subjects or withhold information on a need toknow basis Downward communication tends to be dominate inmechanistic organizations, as opposed to organic systemswhich are more open and unidirectional in flows ofinformation.
  18. 18. WAYS TO IMPROVE DOWNWARDCOMMUNICATION Adopt training sessions for administrators tohelp them learn better ways to communicate Get out of the office and walk around, talk toemployees on “the firing line” Conduct regular supervisory-subordinatediscussion sessions, which will helpidentify, analyze, and solve problems incollaboration with subordinates
  19. 19. UPWARD COMMUNICATIONFACULTYASSISTANT PRINCIPALSPRINCIPALSASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENTSSUPERINTENDENTS
  20. 20. Benefits Provides feedback to administrators fromdownward communication Helps monitor decision making effectiveness Helps gauge organizational climate Deals with problem areas quickly Provides needed information to administrators
  21. 21. Problems With Upward Communication Subject to filtering and distortion because subordinatesdo not want superiors to gain information that could bedamaging to the subordinates Highly cohesive groups tend to withhold informationthat might be damaging to the group as a whole Lower level subordinates show less openness to upwardcommunication than those who are at higher levels inthe organization
  22. 22. DEVELOPSIDEAENCODES TRANSMITS BARRIERSENDER MESSAGE RECEIVERRECIEVES BARRIER DECODES ACTSSENDERADMINFACULTYSTUDENTSBOARDMEMBERSPARENTSSTATEGOVT.FED.GOVT.ENCODINGVOCALINFLECTIONPICTURESDIAGRAMSNONVERBALWORDSCHARTSSTEPS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
  23. 23. TRANSMITTINGBODYLANG.MEMOSPHONEPOLICYSTATEMENTSCLOSEDCIRCUTEMAILLETTERSFACETOFACERECEIVINGORAL MESSAGEREQUIRES GOODLISTENEINGSKILLSWRITTEN MESSAGESREQUIRE ATTENTIONTOSTATED AND IMPLIEDMEANINGS
  24. 24. DECODINGRECEIVER MUST TRANSLATETO:PERCEIVED OR INTERPRETEDMEANINGMEANING CANNOT BETRANSMITTEDBARIERS CAN OCCUR ANYWHERE BUT MOST LIKELY IN DECODING
  25. 25. ACTINGTHE FINAL STEPIN COMMUNICATIONSENDERCANIGNORSTOREFORLATEROR DOSOMETHING ELSEWITH IT
  26. 26. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIONKINESISHOW WESTAND FACIALEXPRESSIONSUSEOFHANDSUSEOFARMSUSEOFLEGSPOSTURE
  27. 27. PARALANGUAGELAUGHINGSPEECHRATEVOLUMEYAWNINGVOICEQUALITYPITCH
  28. 28. PROXEMICS(PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT)INTIMATE ZONEZERO –TWO FEETPERSONAL ZONETWO-FOUR FEETSOCIAL ZONEFOUR-TWELVEFEETPUBLIC ZONEMORE THANTWELVE FEETMUST KNOW THEM INTIMATELY WELL ACQUAINTEDUSUALLY TREAT THEM AS IF THEY DON’T EXISTACQUAINTANCE WITH A PURPOSE
  29. 29. Physical Space Consider This: Employees of higher status have bigger, better,offices, better furniture, more windows etc. Offices of higher status employees are betterprotected Superiors feel free to walk in on subordinates Subordinates hesitate to walk in on superiors
  30. 30. DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATIONDOWNWARD UPWARDHORIZONTALDIAGIONAL
  31. 31. Downward Communication Used by most large schools that are hierarchical in nature Flows from Superintendent to Assistant Superintendent toPrincipal to Assistant Principals to Faculty to students Necessary to clarify district’s goals, provide a sense ofmission, assist in indoctrinating new employees, informemployees about educational changes that impact thedistrict and to provide subordinates with data regardingtheir performance
  32. 32. PROBLEMS WITH DOWNWARDCOMMUNICATION Subordinates select and prioritize messages in accordance withtheir perception of their boss’s character, personality, andmotivation Sender does not devote enough time to learn whether messageshave been received and understood Those at the top may shut off this channel at certain times and oncertain subjects or withhold information on a need to know basis Downward communication tends to be dominate in mechanisticorganizations, as opposed to organic systems which are more openand unidirectional in flows of information.
  33. 33. WAYS TO IMPROVE DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION Adopt training sessions for administrators tohelp them learn better ways to communicate Get out of the office and walk around, talk toemployees on “the firing line” Conduct regular supervisory-subordinatediscussion sessions, which will help identify,analyze, and solve problems in collaborationwith subordinates
  34. 34. EMPLOYEE MEETINGS Meetings to probe job problems, and needs Determine what administrative practices help or hindersubordinate job performance Provide feedback to administrators and encourage subordinatesto offer ideas Help subordinates feel self worth and importance Studies show these meetings reduce turnover and improvesubordinates attitudes
  35. 35. EMPLOYEE MEETINGS Meetings to probe job problems, and needs Determine what administrative practices help or hindersubordinate job performance Provide feedback to administrators and encourage subordinatesto offer ideas Help subordinates feel self worth and importance Studies show these meetings reduce turnover and improvesubordinates attitudes
  36. 36. OPEN DOOR POLICY Encourages subordinates to walk in and talk toadministrators many levels up They are encouraged to talk with immediate supervisors firstto eliminate resentment among administrators who arebypassed Some barriers exist such as subordinates who do not want tobe identified as having a problem
  37. 37. EMPLOYEE LETTERS Subordinates can submit letters to administrators orsuggestions All letters are anonymous All submissions must be answered without delay Replies can be delivered to the appropriate lower leveladministrators in cases where the communicator isanonymous
  38. 38. PARTICIPATION IN SOCIAL GROUPS Act as unplanned upward communication Examples are: Parties, picnics, golf outings, cookouts, retreats, andother employer-sponsored events Main barrier can sometimes be a lack of attendance
  39. 39. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATIONASSISTANTPRINCIPALASSISTANTPRINCIPALFACULTYMEMBERFACULTYMEMBEROFTENOVERLOOKEDASUNIMPORTANTFACILITATECOORDINATIONBETWEENUNITSACHIEVEDTHROUGHCROSS-FUNCTIONALCOMMITTEESFURNISHESEMOTIONALSUPPORTAMONG PEERS
  40. 40. ASSIST. SUPT.FOR PERSONNELDIRECTOR OFPERSONNELCHIEFNEGOTIATORSUPERINTENDENTASST. SUPT. FORINSTRUCTIONASST. SUPT.FORBUSINESSELEM. ED.COORDINATORSECONDARY ED.COORDINATORELEMENTARYPRINCIPALSECONDARYPRINCIPALDIAGIONAL COMMUNICATIONACCOUNTANTS
  41. 41. I Heard It Through The Grapevine Used when employees feel the organizational forms ofcommunication have failed Exists in all organizations Nearly five out of six messages are carried this wayrather than formal methods of communication This form of communication is very rapid It has both positive and negative features
  42. 42. Positive features include: Keeps subordinates informed about importantorganizational matters Gives school administrators insight about subordinatesattitudes Provides subordinates a relief valve to vent emotions Provides a test of subordinates feelings about a newprocedure or policy without making formal commitments Helps build morale by passing positive commentsregarding the organization Rumor- is the one item that gives the grapevine its badreputation
  43. 43. FRAMES OF REFRENCEPEOPLE INTREPRET COMMUNICATIONS DIFFERENTLY DUE TO:LEARNING CULTURE EXPERIENCESIF PARTICIPANTSHAVE ACOMMON FRAMEOF REFERENCEEFFECTIVECOMMUNICATIONIF FRAMES OFREFERENCE AREDIFFERENTCOMMUNICATIONMAY BEDISTORTED
  44. 44. FILTERINGCAN BEINTENTIONALORUNINTENTIONALERRORS INENCODINGAND DECODINGDUE TODIFFERENTFRAMES OFREFERENCEEXPERIENCELEARNING CULTUREADMINISTRATORSWITHHOLDNEGATIVEINFORMATIONEMPLOYEESMANIPULATE INFORMAITONIN ORDER TO AVOIDTHE APPEARANCEOF HAVING A PROBLEM
  45. 45. STRUCTURENEW YORKCITY SCHOOLSMANY LEVELSOFAUTHORITYMESSAGES OFTENMODIFIEDSHORTENEDAMMENDEDMIS-INTREPRETED
  46. 46. INFORMATION OVERLOADUNCERTAINTYDUE TOEXTERNALTURBULANCEINCREASEDSPECIALIZATIONLEARNING DISABILITIESEMOTIONALLY DISTURBEDEDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPEDPHYSICALLY HANDICAPPEDADVANCES IN COMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGYCOMPUTERSTHE INTERNETMORE INFORMATIONTHAN SCHOOLS CAN ABSORBADMINISTRATORS SELECT PARTSOF INFORMATION IN ORDERTO MAKE DECISIONSWHICH RESULTIN BAD DECISIONS
  47. 47. SEMANTICSDIFFERENTWORDSHAVE DIFFERENTMEANING TODIFFERENT PEOPLESENDER CANNOTTRANSMITUNDERSTANDINGORMEANINGCONCRETE WORDSHAVE LITTLEDIFFERENCE FROMSENDER TORECIEVERABSTRACT WORDSMAYCAUSEDECODING PROBLEMS(SEMANTICS)COMPUTERTYPEWRITERBOOKOFFICELOVEHAPPINESSLIBERALCONSERVATIVE
  48. 48. STATUS DIFFERENCESCREATED BY:TITLESOFFICE SIZEFURNISHINGSCARPET STYLESTATIONARYPRIVATE SECRETARYRESERVED PARKINGSALARYTHOSE WITH HIGHERSTATUS HAVE MORECOMMUNICATIONDEMANDS ON THEMNECESSITATESLIMITINGCOMMUNICATIONTO THOSE WHOHAVE DIRECT INFLUENCE
  49. 49. ELEMENTS THAT CAN HELP WITHOVERCOMING COMMUNICATION BARRIERSEMPATHY UNDERSTANDINGREPETITIONFEEDBACK LISTENING
  50. 50. REPETITIONSEND THE SAMEMESSAGEOVER, AND OVERAND OVERUSE MULTIPLECHANNELSTELEPHONELETTERMEMOFACE TO FACEUSINGTHIS METHODREDUCESCHANCE OFCOMMUNICATIONERROREXAMPLE:FOLLOW UPFACE TO FACEWITH ALETTER ORMEMOLETTER OR MEMOALSO SERVES ASREMINDERORDOCUMENTATIONIF NEEDEDMULTIPLECHANNELSEXPRESS TO THERECEIVERTHE IMPORTANCEOF THEMESSAGE
  51. 51. EMPATHYA TECHNIQUE TOUNDERSTAND THERECEIVERSFRAME OFREFERENCESENDER SHOULDPUT THEMSELVESIN THE RECEIVERSSHOESWHEN COMPOSINGTHE MESSAGETHE GREATER THEGAP IN LEARNING,CULTURE, ANDEXPERIENCES THEGREATER THEEFFORTMUST BE
  52. 52. UNDERSTANDINGCOMMUNICATIONIS ONLYEFFECTIVE TO THEEXTENT THAT THESENDER ANDRECEIVERBOTH HAVE A HIGHDEGREE OFUNDERSTANDINGADMINISTRATORSMUST ENCODEMESSAGES INWORDS AND SYMBOLSTHAT AREUNDERSTANDABLE TOTHE RECEIVERSOME RESEARCHHAS SHOWNTHATMUCH OF THECOMMUNICATIONSENT TOEMPLOYEES ISBEYOND THE LEVELOF THEIR READINGABILITIES
  53. 53. FEEDBACKFEEDBACK IS AMUST TOENSURE THATMESSAGES HAVEBEEN UNDERSTOODAND RECEIVEDAND HELPS THESENDER ANDRECEIVER OBTAINMUTUALUNDERSTANDINGSTUDIES SHOWTHAT SCHOOLSTHAT USEDOWNWARDCOMMUNICATIONNEED EFFECTIVEUPWARDCOMMUNICATIONTO HAVEEFFECTIVECOMMUNICATION
  54. 54. TWO WAY COMMUNICATION TAKES MORE TIME BUT PROVIDESMORE SATISFACTION AND IS RECOMMENDED IN ALL BUT THESIMPLEST AND ROUTINE TRANSMISSIONS OF INFORMATIONTO SOLICIT FEED BACK TRY THESE QUESTIONS:How do you feel about my statement?What do you think?What did you hear me say?Do you see any problems with what we have talked about
  55. 55. SUGGESTIONS REGARDING FEEDBACKPROMOTE AND CULTIVATE FEEDBACK BUT DON’T FORCE ITREWARD THOSE WHO PROVIDE FEEDBACK AND USE ITWHEN POSSIBLE GO STRAIGHT TO THE SOURCE AND OBSERVETHE RESULTS-DON’T WAIT FOR FEEDBACKGIVE FEEDBACK TO SUBORDINATES ON THE OUTPUT OFFEEDBACK RECEIVED
  56. 56. LISTENINGADMINISTRATORS SPEND OVER 70% OF THEIR TIME COMMUNICATINGESTIMATES INDICATE THAT OVER 30% IS DEVOTED TO LISTENINGTESTS OF LISTENING COMPREHENSION SUGGEST THAT THESEINDIVIDUALS LISTEN AT ONLY 25% EFFICIENCYADMINISTRATORS MUST LISTEN MORE EFFECTIVELY IN ORDERTO COMMUNICATE MORE EFFECTIVELY
  57. 57. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING LISTENING SKILLSSTOP TALKINGPUT THE TALKER AT EASESHOW THE TALKER YOU WANT TO LISTENREMOVE DISTRACTIONSEMPATHIZE WITH THE TALKERBE PATIENTHOLD YOUR TEMPERGO EASY ON ARGUMENT AND CRITICISMSTOP TALKING
  58. 58. SUMMARY Communication is an important skill because schooladministrators spend over 70% of their timecommunicating The process involves six steps:ideating, encoding, transmitting, receiving, decoding, and acting. Non-verbal communication involvesencoding and decoding body language Vocal cues, use of time, and spatial relationships helpus to understand vocal messages
  59. 59. SUMMARY CONTINUED Communication within school organizations flow infour directions, downward, upward, horizontally, and The major informal information flow is called thegrapevine The grapevine carries both accurate information andrumors The barriers to effective communication includediffering frames of reference, structure, informationoverload, semantics, and status differences
  60. 60. SUMMARY CONTINUED Techniques for overcoming barriers to communicationinclude repetition, empathy, understanding, feedback,and listening
  61. 61. WEEK 4Inter Cultural VariablesByWARDAH AZHAR
  62. 62. Globalization For a company it means to “survive To establish markets (both local and foreign) The world is a large mix of nationalities and people.
  63. 63. Global contextCulture Ethnocentrism Behavioral characteristicsof a nation/ community. Judging other groups orcountries by the culturalstandards of your group.
  64. 64. Try to Guess in which Countries theFollowing Communication and CulturalHabits Exist What do you think of culture in which people signtheir last names first? What is your reaction when two signatures appear atthe bottom of a bussiness letter? Why don’t people put the month first, then theday, rather than day first, then the month? What is your impression of a foreign letter that isintentionally not concise?

×