Week 2Methods & Flow of CommunicationIN Business OrganizationInternal & External Flow of Communication•Upward Flow•Downward Flow•Horizontal Flow•Grapevine Flow•Written•Oral• ElectronicBY WARDAH AZHAR
Flow of CommunicationInformation flows i-e, moves and transfers in anorganization Internal flow Flow of communicationi-e, information withinthe organization is calledinternal flow ofcommunication. External flow Flow of communicationi-e, information, fromone organization toanother is called externalinformation.
Downward Flow ofCommunication: Communication that flows froma higher level in an organizationto a lower level is a downwardcommunication. In otherwords, communication fromsuperiors to subordinates in achain of command is adownward communication. Thiscommunication flow is used bythe managers to transmit work-related information to theemployees at lower levels.Employees require thisinformation for performing theirjobs and for meeting theexpectations of their managers
Example The kinds of media used for downward oralcommunication includeinstructions, speeches, meetings, thetelephone, loudspeakers, and even the grapevine.Examples of written downward communication arememoranda, letters, handbooks, pamphlets, policystatements, procedures, and electronic news displays.It is done to pass on the decisions and policies of thecompany to the cadres. Worst is the feedback abouttheir work. This performance assesment is the trickiestpart of downward communication.
Upward Flow of Communication: Communication that flowsto a higher level in anorganization is calledupward communication. Itprovides feedback on howwell the organization isfunctioning. Thesubordinates use upwardcommunication to conveytheir problems andperformances to theirsuperiors.
Lateral or HorizontalCommunication: Crosswise communication includes the horizontalflow of information, among people on the same orsimilar organizational levels, and the diagonalflow, among persons at different levels who have nodirect reporting relationships.
GrapevineCommunicationGrapevine is an informalchannel of businesscommunication. It iscalled so because itstretches throughout theorganization in alldirections irrespectiveof the authority levels.Man as we know is asocial animal. Despiteexistence of formalchannels in anorganization, theinformal channels tendto develop when he/sheinteracts with otherpeople in organization.It exists more at lowerlevels of organization.
Examples of Grapevine Network ofCommunication Suppose the profit amount of a company is known.Rumor is spread that this much profit is there and onthat basis bonus is declared. CEO may be in relation to the Production Manager.They may have friendly relations with each other.
Difference b/wObjective Communication Subjective Communication Objective is a statement thatis completely unbiased. It isnot touched by the speaker’sprevious experiences ortastes. It is verifiable bylooking up facts orperforming mathematicalcalculations. Subjective is a statement thathas been colored by thecharacter of the speaker orwriter. It often has a basis inreality, but reflects theperspective through with thespeaker views reality. Itcannot be verified usingconcrete facts and figures.
ExamplesObjective CommunicationSubjective Communication scientific facts are objective asare mathematical proofs;essentially anything that canbe backed up with solid data. opinions, interpretations, andany type of marketingpresentation are allsubjective.
A ChallengePlease write a One SentenceDefinition ofEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Examples of Communication Systems- E-mail- Voice Mail - Fax- Smart Phone - Instant Messaging- Telecommuting - Video-conferencing- Groupware - Telephony- E-Commerce - The Internet- Bulletin board system - The Web- Global positioning system
Methods of Communication Memo, fax, e-mail, voice mail, letter. Phone call, in-person.Two-WayOne-WayCollaborative Teammeetings, consulting, consensus, decisionmaking, group problem
Oral Communication Oral communication implies communication throughmouth. It includes individuals conversing with eachother, be it direct conversation or telephonicconversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions areall forms of oral communication. Oral communicationis generally recommended when the communicationmatter is of temporary kind or where a directinteraction is required. Face to face communication(meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) issignificant so as to build a rapport and trust.
Oral communication According to the University of Virginia, "oralcommunication is the effectiveinterpretation, composition, and presentation ofinformation, ideas, and values to a specific audience." Oral communication describes any type of inter-actionthat makes use of spoken words, and it is avital, integral part of the modern business world.
Demand of Oral Communication "Knowing the content of the functional areas ofbusiness is important, but to give life to thoseideas—in meetings or in solo presentations—demands an effective oral presentation.“ "The ability to communicate effectively throughspeaking as well as in writing is highly valued, anddemanded, in business, " According to Herta A.Murphy and Herbert W. Hildebrandt
Oral communication: SignificanceCommunication is used daily to talk to friends, makebusiness proposals and pass legislation. It is theexchange of messages between a sender and areceiver. Effective communication is the ability tosend a message and have it be understood in itsentirety. Oral communication is used in business tomake deals, sell products and train employees.
Advantages of Oral Communication There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communicationas it is interpersonal. There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility forallowing changes in the decisions previously taken. The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisionscan be made quickly without any delay. Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money andefforts. Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. Theconflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talkingthem over. Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy. Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale amongorganizational employees. Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidentialinformation/matter.
Disadvantages of OralCommunication Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as businesscommunication is formal and very organized. Oral communication is less authentic than written communication asthey are informal and not as organized as written communication. Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions areconcerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of timeand are unproductive at times. Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they areunsteady. There may be misunderstandings as the information is not completeand may lack essentials. It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of thereceivers/audience. Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legalrecords except in investigation work
Types of Oral communication The types of oral communication commonly usedwithin an organization include StaffMeetings, PersonalDiscussions, Presentations, TelephoneDiscourse, And Informal Conversation. Oral communication with those outside of theorganization might take the form of Face-to-faceMeetings, TelephoneCalls, Speeches, Teleconferences, OrVideoconferences.
Conversation management skills are essential for smallbusiness owners and managers, who often shouldermuch of the burden in such areas as client/customerpresentations, employee interviews, and conductingmeetings.
Effectiveness of OralCommunication For oral communication to be effective, it should be: Clear Relevant Tactful in phraseology and tone Concise, and informative. Presentations or conversations that bear thesehallmarks can be an valuable tool in ensuringbusiness health and growth.
Unclear, inaccurate, or inconsiderate businesscommunication, on the other hand, can waste valuabletime, alienate employees or customers, and destroygoodwill toward management or the overall business.
Steps of Oral Presentations The public presentation is generally recognized asthe most important of the various genres of oralbusiness communication. The first step in preparing a public speech orremarks is to determine the essential purpose/goalof the communication. Business presentations tend to have one of threegeneral purposes: to persuade, to inform orinstruct, or to entertain.
The purpose is to include the main ideas in thepresentation. These ideas should be researchedthoroughly and adapted to the needs of the audience. The ideas should then be organized to include anintroduction, a main body or text, and a summary orconclusion
The introduction should grab the listeners interestand establish the theme of the remainder of thepresentation. The main body should concentrateon points of emphasis. The conclusion shouldrestate the key points and summarize theoverarching message that is being conveyed. Visual aids are an important component of manyoral presentations. Whether they are displayed onchalkboards, dry-erase boards, flip charts, orpresented using a slide projector, overheadprojector, or computer program, visual aids shouldbe meaningful, creative, and interesting in order tohelp the speaker get a message across.
Once the presentation has been organized and thevisual aids have been selected, the speaker shouldrehearse out loud and revise as needed to fit timeconstraints, cover points of emphasis, etc. A goodoral presentation will include transitional phrases tohelp listeners move through the material, and willnot be overly long or technical. Professional and gracious presentation is anotherkey to effective communication
Use the event as an opportunity to promote goodwill. Avoid complaints, criticism, or controversy.These will alienate the audience and destroy yourcredibility quickly. Instead, talk about what theaudience wants to hear. Praise your host, honor theoccasion, and compliment the attendees. Radiatesuccess and optimism.“ Oral presentations can be deliveredextemporaneously (from an outline or notes); byreading from a manuscript; or from memory.
The delivery of effective oral presentations requires aspeaker to consider his or her vocal pitch, rate, andvolume. It is important to incorporate changes invocal pitch to add emphasis and avoid monotony. Speakers should be careful not to add extraneouswords or sounds—such as "um, " "you know, " or"okay"—between words or sentences in apresentation.
Nonverbal elements such as posture, gestures, andfacial expression are also important factors indeveloping good oral communication skills. "Youroutward appearance mirrors your inner mood. "Thusgood posture suggests poise and confidence; standneither at rigid attention nor with sloppy casualnessdraped over the podium, but erect with your weightabout equally distributed on each foot."
Interpersonal Oral Communication Interpersonal oral communication is the exchange ofwords between two individuals. This form ofcommunication is commonly seen between friends, co-workers and within families, but is not limited to peoplewho know one another. The purpose of interpersonalcommunication is to build and maintain relationships.Effective interpersonal oral communication willencourage, educate and inspire. Interpersonal oralcommunication is the most effective when one is able topredict what the other person will understand.
10 Principles For Better OralCommunication Design a dynamic format than a static one. Keep your outline clear and simple. Oral design should be oriented to time rather thanspace. Emphasize main ideas by placement and reiteration. Use carefully worded transitions as you move troughthe presentation.
Task One by one introduce yourself, following the steps oforal presentation, also explain what have you learnedup till now!
Plan carefully for a combination of inductive anddeductive movement. Use language best suited to the ear, not the eye. Plan the introductory segments carefully. Plan the closing segments of the design carefully. Plan the whole design from the audience point ofview.
Written Communication - Meaning Written communication has great significance intoday’s business world. It is an innovative activity ofthe mind. Effective written communication is essentialfor preparing worthy promotional materials forbusiness development. Speech came before writing.But writing is more unique and formal than speech.Effective writing involves careful choice of words, theirorganization in correct order in sentences formation aswell as cohesive composition of sentences.Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech.But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delayand takes time as feedback is not immediate.
Task Write an introduction for your self, keeping yourname, a mystery!
Advantages of WrittenCommunication Written communication helps in laying down apparentprinciples, policies and rules for running of an organization. It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is usefulwhere record maintenance is required. It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case oforal communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilitieson the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or hemay refuse to acknowledge. Written communication is more precise and explicit. Effective written communication develops and enhances anorganization’s image. It provides ready records and references. Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as itprovides valid records.
Disadvantages of WrittenCommunication Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costshuge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed inwriting/typing and delivering letters. Also, if the receivers of the written message are separatedby distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response isnot spontaneous. Written communication is time-consuming as the feedbackis not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takestime. Effective written communication requires great skills andcompetencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skillsand quality have a negative impact on organization’s reputation. Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.