Antonio Banks   EDAD 510                                 EDAD 510 Final Exam1. Define the types of Internal and external v...
deals with when an individual drops out of an experiment and drawingconclusions for their scores is difficult.       The s...
By definition, threats to external validity are problems that threaten ourability to draw the correct inferences fro the s...
retest reliability, Alternative forms reliability, alternate forms and test-retestreliability, inter-rater reliability, an...
misunderstanding of questions on the instrument, inability to make usefulpredictions from scores, poorly designed question...
(Creswell, 2008). The key concept behind common variance is having the abilityto be able to make an educated guess about o...
the researcher’s primary goal is to explore in depth as to how the two or morevariables covariate to one another (Creswell...
from the researcher(s) in order to achieve an accurate and detailed data set.Things that must be accounted for in this typ...
experience in their journey. There are three types of ethnographic studies thatcan be performed; realist ethnographies, ca...
rapport with the culture you’re examining, collecting various forms of datathrough several outlets, or being a collaborato...
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Edad 510 final

  1. 1. Antonio Banks EDAD 510 EDAD 510 Final Exam1. Define the types of Internal and external validity threats in an experiment. By definition, threats to internal validity are problems that threaten ourability to draw correct inference from sample data to other persons, settings, andpast/future situations. By structure, there are three main types of threats tointernal validity, each consisting of key factors. The first types of threats are related to participants in the study & theirexperience. Within this type, there are factors such as history, maturation,regression, selection, mortality, and interaction with selection. History isconcerned with the time that passes between the beginning of the experimentand the end, and the experiences that happen in between that can have an effectof the eventual outcome. Maturation deals with the amount of growth in variousvectors that an individual may undergo during the process of the experiment.Regression deals with individuals who start off in the experiment with a superb orsubpar pretest and over time have lower or higher score that regress towards themean. Selection deals with selecting individuals who may be more receptive to atreatment, or more familiar with a treatment for experimental group. Mortality
  2. 2. deals with when an individual drops out of an experiment and drawingconclusions for their scores is difficult. The second type of threats to internal validity is related to treatments usedin the study. This includes diffusion of treatments, compensatory equalization,compensatory rivalry, and resentful demoralization. Diffusion of treatments dealswith the communication across the control and the experimental groups occur.Compensatory equalization refers to the need for both the experimental groupand the control group to both be granted benefits in some way, shape, or formequally as opposed to one group (usually the experimental group) receiving thebenefits/treatment. Compensatory rivalry exists when the assignments aredisclosed to both the control and the experiment group; and the control groupfeels as though they are undervalued in comparison to the control group. Lastly,there is resentful demoralization, which occurs when members of a control groupmay start to feel resentful n regards to their participation because they receivewhat they perceive to be a less beneficial treatment than a control group The third category of threats to internal validity is threats that occur duringan experiment and relate to the procedures. Types of these threats include:testing and instrumentation. A threat to testing can occur when participants maybecome familiar with the outcome measures and remember responses to forlater testing (Creswell, 2008). Instrumentation deals with threats that may occur ifthe testing instrument is modified any time during the duration of the experiment.
  3. 3. By definition, threats to external validity are problems that threaten ourability to draw the correct inferences fro the sample data to other persons,settings, and past and future situations (Creswell, 2008). The types of threats toexternal validity include interaction of selection and treatment, interaction ofsetting and treatment, and interaction of history and treatment. Interaction ofselection and treatment pertains to the inability to generalize beyond the groupsin the experiment (such as other racial, social, geographical, age, gender orpersonality groups) (Creswell, 2008). Interaction of setting and treatment dealswith the inability to generalize from the setting in which the experiment tookplace. When this type of threat to external validity exists, the solution is oftentimes to analyze the effect of a treatment for each type of setting. Lastly, theinteraction of history and treatment deals with the researcher trying to generalizefindings to past and future situations (Creswell, 2008). Although there is nomethod to accurately apply the research for a past situation, a solution for futureoccurrences would be to attempt to replicate the study at a later date, asopposed to generalizing the results for future situations.2. Discuss measurement and characteristics of measurement, including reliability and validity.When developing or using an instrument for research it is important that youunderstand the two key concepts of reliability and validity. Reliability pertains tothe fact that a testing instrument is stable and consistent when used across theboard (Creswell, 2008). The types of different reliability that exist include; test-
  4. 4. retest reliability, Alternative forms reliability, alternate forms and test-retestreliability, inter-rater reliability, and internal consistency reliability. Test-retestreliability is actively used when participants are asked to take a test, and thenthey retake the test in constant intervals for reliability. In alternative formsreliability, there are two separate instruments that are given to the participants(some of the group getting test A, some getting test B), however they examinethe same types of variables; the researchers then correlate how the participantsdid on both tests to test for reliability because the same concepts are beingtested. Alternate forms and test-retest reliability is a combination of the first twotest in which the first test is given, and then in a second retesting, the alternateform is used for all participants. Inter-rater reliability is used when a group maybe making observations and are using a scale to answer questions about theirenvironment. Once the observation is completed, the group reconvenes, at whichtime they share their scores with one another in order to make sure that thescores are somewhat in line with one another, if not they have a chance todiscuss why they may have rated an aspect of the observation so high or low.Internal consistency reliability is concerned with making sure someone wouldcomplete items at the beginning of a survey in the same manner and methodthey would complete it in the end. To check for such reliability, the Kuder-Richardson split half test and the Spearman-Brown formula can be utilized. The validity of measurement is also extremely important when conductinga study. Validity ensures valid scores that could otherwise be skewed by thingssuch as: a poorly designed study, participant fatigue, stress, and
  5. 5. misunderstanding of questions on the instrument, inability to make usefulpredictions from scores, poorly designed questions or measures of variables, andinformation that has little use and application (Creswell, 2008). The types ofvalidity that exist within the confines of research include; content validity,criterion-related validity, and construct validity. Content validity deals with howwell do the questions present possibilities of all the answers. If the questiondoesn’t fully frame potential answers, there could be a loss of vital information intranslation that could have been vital to the study. Criterion-related validitydetermines whether the scores from the instrument are good predictors of someoutcome they are expected to predict (Creswell, 2008). The two types ofcriterion-related validity include predictive and concurrent. And lastly there isconstruct validity, which is created by determining if scores are significant,meaningful, useful, and have a purpose.3. Define the purpose and use of correlation research and distinguish explanatory and prediction designs. Correlational research at its very essence serves a function of trying topredict scores and explain relationships amongst variables (Creswell, 2008,p.356). The function of correlational statistics is to describe and try to measurethe relationships that exist between any two given variables of the research. Thistype of research is suitable when experiments cannot be performed (Schmidt,2000), whether it is for ethical or practical reasoning. The key component forcorrelational research with two variables is to determine the common variance
  6. 6. (Creswell, 2008). The key concept behind common variance is having the abilityto be able to make an educated guess about one of the variables by havingsignificant information pertaining to the other variable. In determining thecorrelations that exist, there are two measures that must be considered. Directionrefers to whether or not the correlation is a negative or positive correlation(Siegel,). In a positive correlation, it is seen that a positive variable has a positiveeffect on the other variable; conversely a negative variable has a negative effecton the other variable. Negative correlations can be seen when one variable hasan inverse effect on the other; a negative variable has a positive impact on theother variable or a positive variable having a negative effect on the othervariable. The other measure that must be taken into account is strength ofrelationship. The strength of the relation is quantified on a scale of 1.00, wherethere is no relationship between the two variables, to -1.00, where the variableshave a perfect relationship, having a direct effect on one another. Utilization of correlational research can be very useful when the main goalof your research include the desire to observe the relationships between two ormore dependent variables. More importantly, if you want to determine if thevariables influence one another (Creswell, 2008) one of the unique features ofthis type of research is the fact that it allows you to predict an outcome (Creswell,2008). It is a very useful method when you know that running the correlationalstatistical test will be of useful application in your work (Creswell, 2008). For thistype of research to ensue, there are two primary designs that are used; theexplanatory design and the prediction design. In explanatory research design,
  7. 7. the researcher’s primary goal is to explore in depth as to how the two or morevariables covariate to one another (Creswell, 2008). In using this design, therehas to be at least two variables to investigate correlation between, theparticipants are usually analyzed as one single group, and the data is collectedfor the research at one time. In prediction research design; the key motivatingfactor is to determine which variable or variables are the predictor variables(Creswell, 2008 ). A predictor variable is a variable that can be used to make ahighly educated guess regarding what is referred to as a criterion variable. Forexample, the amount of time spent with a tutor may be a predicting variable indetermining an outcome such as course grade. Some of the key differencesbetween the two include the fact that in prediction research design, there are twoinstances of data measuring/collection (explanatory has one). Another keydifference is that in explanatory research you usually make interpretations anddraw conclusions from the test results, whereas in explanatory research, futureperformance is predicted based on the effectiveness of the predictor variables.(Creswell, 2008).Define ethnographic research, identify when to use it, and describe thesteps in an ethnography study. An ethnographic research design is one that is centered around beingable to explicate, thoroughly document, and analyze the inner workings of aparticular culture. In order to do so, there has to be a significant time commitment
  8. 8. from the researcher(s) in order to achieve an accurate and detailed data set.Things that must be accounted for in this type of research include being able todescribe, analyze, and interpret the culture’s shared patterns of behavior, beliefs,and language (Creswell, 2008). In this type of research, the researcher orresearch team must be meticulous in its approach to capture the needed data. Inorder to gather this sensitive data, there is lots of interviewing, observing, anddocument gathering (Creswell, 2008) that transpires. The work is a critical anddiversely utilized tool, described by Fetterman (1998) as “The art and science ofdescribing a group or culture, The description may be of a small tribal group in anexotic land or a classroom in middle-class suburbia.” The use of ethnographic research is useful in a variety of cases. Insummation, it can be used to explicate (with the permission of the group) aculture’s foundation and day-to-day development. However it is stated byCreswell (2008), that the research is extremely important when a betterunderstanding of that particular culture can have an impact on a far more vastissue that may be taking place. For example, if you were to conduct aethnographic research around a patient of Alzheimer’s , including the patientthemselves, as well as the supporting cast (family, medical representatives, etc.),you would gain a great knowledge base. You would begin to understand thepatterns that exists within their life cycle, their beliefs, as well as medical staffand family, and you would be able to understand some of the language andjargon that helps to exclusively deal with this issue. In turn, you will be able toprovide a accurate account of what may (not all), Alzheimer’s patients may
  9. 9. experience in their journey. There are three types of ethnographic studies thatcan be performed; realist ethnographies, case studies, and criticalethnographies. This research could provide a blueprint for further support forresearch by other researchers. In conducting any of these three types of studies,it is imperative that you pay close attention to the methods by which it should beconducted. Five steps can ensure that a quality ethnographic study will beconducted. Initially, the researcher(s) must identify what the Intent of the research isand determine the type of design that will be utilized. It is crucial that theresearcher understand explicitly what the intent of the research is and how theybelieve it will have a viable impact on an issue. Once this is determined, it is keyto utilize the correct type of ethnographic study; the three all have differentiatingcomponents that allow them to fit the particular culture you seek to study.Secondly, one must discuss approval and access consideration. In doing this,you are identifying the type of purposeful sampling you will be utilizing to answeryour research question. To do this, you must find an appropriate site as well as agatekeeper (Creswell, 2008). The gatekeeper’s function is to actively provideaccess to your site and participants (Creswell, 2008). It is of extreme importancethat you do your best to be as little of a distraction to the site as possible andprovide a secure level of anonymity for all participants involved in your study. Thethird step in this process is to make sure that you use the appropriate datacollection procedures in your project. In your data collection, you should beintentional and exhaustive in your efforts. Rather it be the time spent building
  10. 10. rapport with the culture you’re examining, collecting various forms of datathrough several outlets, or being a collaborator with the participants; you shouldbe very thorough, as it aids you greatly in the last two proceeding steps.Sequentially, you must analyze and interpret the data within your design. Youshould read through all of your data thoroughly (interviews, observations, fieldnotes, transcripts, etc.) , in order to help you develop a greater understanding ofthe overall study. You must be able to identify emerging themes, as they can begreat indicators for your studies. Lastly, you must write and report your research,which is consistent with the research you conducted. This report must beobjective in nature, and you must be able to keep your own personal opinionsand biases in the background of this report (Creswell, 2008). Additionally,discussion at the end of the study should indicate how the research adds to theknowledge base about the culture. (Creswell, 2008)

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