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A group of words with a verb, making sense. Assertive/affirmative/positive/Declaratory sentence: making statements and assertions, Interrogative sentences, asking questions, Imperative sentences, expressing commands/requests, Exclamatory sentences, expressing feelings/emotions/sentiments.
In a sentence, we have a subject to speak about and we predicate or say about the subject (Predicate). Subject sometimes comes at the end: Here comes the bus . In imperative sentences, the subject is left out: Thank him (You).
Phrase gives no complete sense: e.g. in the corner.
Countable nouns : books, chairs etc. Uncountable : milk, sugar etc. Plural of countable nouns is made by adding s,es,en etc., y is changed to ies. Some plurals remain same fish - fish and fishes, sheep, deer remain same, some nouns are used as plural - scissors, spectacles etc. Maths, electronics is used as singular. Formula is formulae or formulas, index-indices
Adjective of quality or Descriptive adjective : It shows the kind or quality of a person, object or thing: He is an honest man. These adjectives show ‘of what kind?’ Adjectives formed from proper nouns is called Proper adjective : This is a grammar of the English language.
Degrees of adjectives : Positive or first degree involves no comparison as, He is a good boy. Comparative or Second degree: When two objects are compared as, He is better than the other. Superlative or third degree: when an object, a person or thing is compared with the entire class: He is the best of all boys.
Reflexive pronoun : When the action done by the subject turns back or reflects upon the subject: I hurt myself. Emphatic pronoun : When compound pronouns are used for emphasis as: I will do it myself .
Demonstrative pronoun : Pointing to objects to which they refer as: This is my book.
Reciprocal pronoun : The brothers quarreled with each other .
Relative pronoun : I met Ajmal who had just returned (nominative), These are the boys whose exercises are done well (genitive), These are the boys whom all praise ( accusative), few and short are the prayers (which ) we said. (omission), who so digs a pit shall fall therein. (compound)
A transitive verb is that which denotes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object; ( The boy laughs at him , The boy walks the horse ); whereas an intransitive verb denotes an action which does not pass over to an object, or which expresses a state or being: The boy laughs loudly, The horse walks.
It is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another verb. It shows the time, frequency, degree or quantity, place, affirmation or negation, reason and manner in which the action has taken place, as: I have heard it before (time), I have told you twice (frequency), He was too careless. (degree) He works over here ( place), Yes , I did, No, I didn’t (affirmation and negation),
Some adverbs sometimes seem to be used as adjectives when some participle or adjective is understood; as: the then King ( the king then reigning). ‘The’ is not used as definite article, but an old demonstrative pronoun used as an adverb as: The more the merrier ( how much the more by so much the merrier.
Nouns expressing adverbial relations or time, place, distance,weight,measurement, value, degree, or the like, are often used as adverbs: The siege lasted a week . This is known as adverbial accusative.
Sometimes verbs are used as Adverbs: Smack went the whip.
It shows the relation between two nouns, adjective and noun and verb and noun: There is a cow in the field, he is fond of tea, the cat jumped off the chair . Simple prepositions are: at, by. for, from, etc. Compound prepositions are: within, outside underneath etc . Phrase preposition: In course of time , he saw his mistake. Participle prepositions: Concerning (about) yesterday’s fire, there are many rumors in the bazar. Special prepositions: I cannot accept less than forty rupees for this article, What can he do but (except) die.
‘ a’ is a weakened form of the preposition on: Her wages are ten rupees a day, I meet him once a week. We should not use infinitive as: He is addicted to gambling (not to gamble) exception: He is afraid of telling the truth, he is afraid to tell the truth. Prepositions may not be inserted where they are not required: Where have you been to (‘to’ is not required).
Conjunction shows time: I would die before I lie, he may enter, as he is my friend( reason), we eat so that we may live ( purpose), he was so tired that he could scarcely stand ( result), Ajmal will go if Ashraf goes ( condition), a book is a book although there’s nothing in it ( concession), he is stronger than Ali (is).
Certain words are used both as prepositions and conjunctions:
Stay till Monday (prep.), we shall stay till you return ( conj), he died for his country (prep.), I must stay here, for such is my duty (conj), He stood before the painting (Prep), look before you leap ( conj), the dog ran after the boy (prep), we came after they had left (conj),
Infinitive without ‘to’ is also used after some verbs: You should work hard, He can speak five languages You must come in time. You had better ask permission, I had rather play than work, I would die rather than suffer so.
Present participle: It partakes of the nature of both verb and adjective. In other words, it is partly a verb and partly an adjective: Hearing (verb) the noise, the boy woke up, He needs hearing (adj.)aids.
Past participle: It represents a completed action or state of the thing spoken of:
Deceived by his friends, he lost all hope, time misspent is time lost.
It is used as the subject of a verb, and hence does the work of a noun. it is a verb-noun or gerund: Reading is his favorite pastime. Like a noun, is the object of a verb: I like reading poetry. Like a noun,it is governed by a preposition, but like a verb, it takes an object: He is fond of hoarding money. Def: A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in ‘ing’ and has the force of a noun and a verb.
Since gerund and infinitive have the force of a noun and a verb, they have the same use: To see is to believe, Seeing is believing. Compound gerund is formed by placing a past participle after the gerund: I heard of his having gained a prize.
Since present participle and gerund end in ‘ing’, their use be distinguished:
He is fond of playing cricket (Gerund)
Playing cricket, he gained health.( participle)
I hope you will excuse my leaving early (possessive case) I hope you will excuse me leaving early. (objective case).
Dir: Jo asked, “ How are you? Indir: Jo asked how I was. Dir: I said, “ I am angry.”
Indir: I said that I was angry.
Adverbial changes: here – there/ in that place, now – then/at that time, today – that day, yesterday – the day before, the day before yesterday – two days before, tomorrow – the day after, the day after tomorrow – in two days,
The main reporting verbs are tell, say. agree, refuse, offer, promise, carry an infinitive: Harry said, “ I shall invite them.” – Harry agreed to invite them. Accuse, admit, apologize for, deny carry ‘ing’ form:
Verbs used in indirect: commands/requests/advices are: tell, ask, advise, command, forbid, invite, order, remind, request, warn etc.
I said to him, “Please tell the truth." I advised him to tell the truth/ I said to him, “Don’t do this.” I forbade him to do that/ He said to him, “ Don’t call her.” - He warned him not to call her.
he said to the shoemaker you are a big blockhead you have done the reverse of what i desired you i told you to make one of the shoes larger than the other and instead you have made one of them smaller than the other
11.An axe to grind 12.To turn one’s back upon 13.to the backbone 14.to go to the bad 15.bad blood, 16.bad debts 17.bag and baggage18. into the bargain19.to beard the lion in his den 20. To beat about the bush 21. Beau ideal 22. As you make your bed you must lie on it 23.a bed of roses 24.to have a bee in one’s bonnet, 25. to beg the question, 26. to bell the cat
27.To bid fair 28. to kill two birds with one stone 29. birds of feather 30. a black sheep 31.a wet blanket 32. a bit of one’s mind 33. to make one’s blood creep 34. once in a blue moon 35. to keep body and soul together 36. a bone of contention 37. in the good books of 38. to have a second string to one’s bow 39. bread and butter, 40.to break the ice
41.To make a clean breast of 42.To hold a brief for another 43.To bring the house down 44.New brooms sweep clean 45. To nip in the bud 46. To take the bull by the horn. 47. To burn one’s fingers 48. To burn the candle at both ends 49.To bury the hatchet. 50.To mean business 51.To mind one’s own business 52.Fine (or fit) words butter no parsnips
53. To butter one’s bread on both sides 54. To know the side on which one’ bread is buttered. 55.To hold a candle to any person 56.If the cap fits, wear it 57. To make capital out of anything 58. To play one’s cards badly 59. To play one’s cards well 60. To throw up the cards 61.To carry all before one 62. To carry the day 63. Carried away by one’s feelings
64. To put the cart before the horse 65.A casting vote 66.To build castles in the air
67.To let the cat out of the bag 68. A cat-and-dog life 69.To rain cats and dogs. 70.To make a cat’s paw of 71. By a long chalk 72.The chapter of accidents 73.To chew the cud 74.To count the chickens before they are hatched 75.A chip of the old block 76. Child’s play
77.To show a clean pair of heels 78.To be in the clouds 79. Under a cloud 80. To carry coals to New Castle 81.To heap coals of fire on one’s head 82. The coast is clear 83. To cut one’s coat according to one’s cloth 84. To turn one’s coat 85. A cock -and- bull story 86.To pay a man back in his own coin 87. To compare notes 88.To cool one’s heels
89.To keep one’s own counsel 90. To keep one’s countenance 91. His countenance fell 92. Crocodile tears 93. To cry over split milk 94.French leave 95. To take fancy to 96. To take up the cudgels on behalf of another 97. To cudgel one’s brains 98. In one’s cups 99.To cut the Gordian knot 100. To speak daggers 101.At daggers drawn.
102.The sword of Damocles 103. Between the devil and the deep sea. 104.Fair and square. 105.At a white heat 106. elixir of life 107.Equal to the occasion 108.To fall flat 109. To make both ends meet.110.A small fry 111. Out of bounds 112. To play second fiddle 113.To be on the horns of dilemma 114.To be in the field
115.Alpha and omega 116. To make a bee line for 117.To follow suit 118.In hot water 119.To lead by the nose 120. To turn over a new leaf 121. A left handed compliment 122.On its last leg 123. The lion’s share 124. Null and void 125.In a nutshell 126.By long odds 127.Pros and cons 128.To claim one’s pound of flesh 129. To settle an old score 130. To talk shop
131. The last straw 132.To face the music 133. Bad blood 134.To make both ends meet 135. To strike a bargain 136. To take by storm 137. To take the wind out of another’s sails 138. To win laurels 140.With flying colors 141. To keep the ball rolling 142.A fool’s paradise 143. To the letter 143.To be out of pocket 144. To fall foul of 145. To give ear to
146. Flesh and blood 147. A bar to148. To be behind the scene 148. To be at one’s beck and call 149.To clip one’s wings 150.In the nick of time 151. At one’s wit’s ends. 152. To turn a deaf year 153. A storm in a teacup. 154.To throw out of gear. 155. To spread like a wild fire 156.To blink the fact 157.To fake up 158. To give up 159. To fall to the ground
160. To carry through 161. To break down 162. To give out 163. To fall back upon 164. To give away 165. To go through 166. To look after 167. To give way 168. To take to 169. To take up 168. To run out 169. To put off 170.A bed of roses 171. To put up with 172. A voice in the wilderness 173. A chip of the old block 174. To eat a humble pie 175. A bone of contention
176. A fish out of water 177. To see eye to eye 178. A dead letter 179. A red letter day 180. To be hand and glove 181. To flog a dead horse 182. By fits and starts 183.A right hand man 184. A wet blanket 185. To steal a march 186. In cold blood 187. To fight shy of 188.To hit the nail on the head 189. To have too many irons in the fire 190. To talk through one’s hat
It is not luck but labor that makes men luck says an american writer is ever waiting for something to turn up labor with keen eye and strong will always turns up something luck lies in bed and wishes the postman would bring him news of a legacy labor turns out at six and with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the foundation of a competence luck whines labor whistles
1.To go to the bad 2. Bag and baggage 3 A bone of contention 4. After a man’s soul or heart 5 To the back bone 6. To bury the hatchet 7. To beg the question 8. To have a second string 9. To give oneself airs 10. to burn the candle at both ends 11. To have a bee in one’s bonnet 12. To take the bull by the horn 13.To turn one’s back upon 14.A bed of roses
15.An axe to grind 16.To make a clean breast of 17. A beau ideal 18. New brooms sweep clean. 19. Apple of one’s eye. 20. To bring the house down. 21.to nip in the bud 22.To beat about the bush 23.To keep up appearance 24. Into the bargain 25. Animal spirits 26 As you make your bed so you lie on it. 27. Alma mater 28. All and sundry. 29. To hold a brief for another
31. To bell the cat 32. To cut one’s coat according to cloth 33. To kill two birds with one stone 34. To take up the cudgels on behalf of another 35. To heap coals on one’s head 36. A wet blanket 37. A bit of one’s mind 38. To make one’s blood creep 39.Once in a blue moon 40. Body and soul together.
what do you want i asked as he came into the room its none of your business he replied rapidly walking across the floor i jumped to my feet and before he could escape i seized him by his collar come now i said you are going to answer my question respectfully or not