Role of personalities in pakistan movementDocument Transcript
Contents Introduction Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Maulana Shaukat Ali Mohammad Ali Jouhar Allama Iqbal Quaid-e-Azam Liaquat Ali Khan
Role of Personalities in Pakistan MovementintroductionThe Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan refers to the successful historical movement againstBritish and Indian to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the separation ofthe north-western region of the Indian subcontinent.This movement was led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, along with other prominent founding fathers ofPakistan including Allama Iqbal, Liaqat Ali Khan.The founder of that word “Pakistan” is Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. The movement ultimately achieved success in 1947 and it named Pakistan. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Sir Syed Ahmed Khan is also known as the Syed Ahmed Taqvi. They was the indian educator andpolitician and islamic reformer. They born in Dehli,Mugal Emperor.Movements done by the Sir Syed Ahmed 1. Aligarh Movement 2. Aligarh musllim theory 3. Two Nation theoryAfter the war of independence 1857 the condition of the muslim was too bad. The muslims remain kingfor centuries before british. British were silent because they snatch the government. They damage thepolitical and sociological condition of the muslims. Hindus were also against muslims and they were withthe British.British Movements 1. They murder about the 5lakh muslims. 2. They snatch their properties. 3. Make bad economy. 4. They occupied on trade. 5. They drop the muslims from the army.Sir syed was the protector of the muslims they make muslims heart strong.Sir syed put a movement"Movement Aligarh".There were two purpoes of it. 1. Education 2. Friendship of muslims and british.In the 1832 they make English language more important than persian language.Through the English themuslims cant get any knowledge. sir syed gave them idea to learn the english.
1st movement of the Sir syed is that they made the school in "Illah Abad". After this they made a newschool in "Gazi Poor". In which they can learn english.Sir syed gave them the idea of the Two nation theory.They says that the hindus and the muslims are thetwo different religion their traditioins and cultures are different they cant live together.Two Nation TheorySir Syed Ahmed Khan, the pioneer of two nation theory, used the word ‘two nation’ for Hindus andMuslims after being convinced of the Hindus and Congress hatred, hostility and prejudice for theMuslims.The entire freedom movement revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir SyedAhmed Khan. He considered all those lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of Indian Association he said:“I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word‘Nation’ I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We, Hindus and Muslims live together on thesame soil under the same government. Our interests and problems are common, and therefore, Iconsider the two factions as one nation.”Sir Syed Ahmed Khan did his best to make the Muslims realize their differences with the Hindus withregard to religions, social and language, rational and international identity and for this purpose hediverted attention of the Indian Muslims towards a new idea of “Two Nation” or “Two entities.”After Hindi-Urdu controversy Sir Syed felt that it was not possible for Hindus and Muslims to progress asa single nation. He said:“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and wayof life was quite distinct from each other.” Maulana Shaukat AliShaukat Ali was born in 1873 in Rampur state in what is today Uttar Pradesh. He was educated at theAligarh Muslim University. He was extremely fond of playing cricket, captaining the university team.Mahatma Gandhi brought him into politics.Ali served in the civil service of United Provinces of Oudh and Agra from 1896 to 1913.Shaukat Ali helped his brother Mohammed Ali publish the Urdu weekly Hamdard and the English weeklyComrade. In 1919, while jailed for publishing what the British charged as seditious materials andorganizing protests, he was elected as the first president of the Khilafat conference. He was re-arrestedand imprisoned from 1921 to 1923 for his support to Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congressduring the Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1922). His fans accorded him and his brother the title ofMaulana. In March 1922, he was in Rajkot jail.Along with his brother, Shaukat Ali grew disilliusioned with the Congress and Gandhis leadership. Heopposed the 1928 Nehru Report, demanding separate electorates for Muslims, and attended the first
and second Round Table Conferences in London. His brother died in 1931, and Ali continued on andorganized the World Muslim Conference in Jerusalem.In 1936, Ali joined the All India Muslim League and became a close political ally of and campaigner forMuhammad Ali Jinnah, the future founder of Pakistan. He served as member of the Central Assemblyfrom 1934 to 1938. He travelled over the Middle East, building support for Indias Muslims and thestruggle for independence.Shaukat Ali died in 1938. Mohammad Ali JouharMohammad Ali Jouhar was an Indian Muslim leader, activist, scholar, journalist and poet, and wasamong the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement.He was the sixth Muslim to become the President of Indian National Congress and it lasted only for fewmonths. He was one of the founders of the All India Muslim League and he was also the formerpresident of the All India Muslim League.Mohammed Ali had attended the founding meeting of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka in 1906, andserved as its president in 1918. He remained active in the League till 1928.Ali represented the Muslim delegation that travelled to England in 1919 in order to convince the Britishgovernment to influence the Turkish nationalist Mustafa Kemal not to depose the Sultan of Turkey, whowas the Caliph of Islam. British rejection of their demands resulted in the formation of the Khilafatcommittee which directed Muslims all over India to protest and boycott the government.Now accorded the respectful title of Maulana, Ali formed in 1921, a broad coalition with Muslimnationalists like Shaukat Ali, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari and Indiannationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi, who enlisted the support of the Indian National Congress and manythousands of Hindus, who joined the Muslims in a demonstration of unity.Ali also wholeheartedly supported Gandhis call for a national civil resistance movement, and inspiredmany hundreds of protests and strikes all over India. He was arrested by British authorities andimprisoned for two years for what was termed as a seditious speech at the meeting of the KhilafatConference. He was elected as President of Indian National Congress in 1923. Allama Iqbal Allama Iqbal, great poet-philosopher and active political leader, was born at Sialkot, Punjab, in 1877.Iqbal received his early education in the traditional maktab. Later he joined the Sialkot Mission School,from where he passed his matriculation examination. In 1897, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts Degreefrom Government College, Lahore.
Two years later, he secured his Masters Degree and was appointed in the Oriental College, Lahore, as alecturer of history, philosophy and English. He later proceeded to Europe for higher studies. Havingobtained a degree at Cambridge, he secured his doctorate at Munich and finally qualified as a barrister.He returned to India in 1908. Besides teaching and practicing law, Iqbal continued to write poetry. Heresigned from government service in 1911 and took up the task of propagating individual thinkingamong the Muslims through his poetry.While dividing his time between law and poetry, Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim League. He didnot support Indian involvement in World War I, as well as the Khilafat movement and remained in closetouch with Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindusand was disappointed with the League when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional dividesbetween the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.In November 1926, with the encouragement of friends and supporters, Iqbal contested for a seat in thePunjab Legislative Assembly from the Muslim district of Lahore, and defeated his opponent by a marginof 3,177 votes.Iqbal says that the muslims and the hindus are living together but their customs and traditions aredifferent from each other they cant live together.These are the two different religions.They have to gettheir own country in which they can lead their lifes according to their religions.Some points for seprate Nation 1. Nogation of nation 2. Islam do not believe on the nationalism base. 3. There is no sepratoin between religion and politics in islam. 4. Islamic state is a welfare state. 5. Criticism on national democracy. 6. Islam can solve economic problems. 7. Islam is the complete code of life 8. Creatoin of Pakistan is the step towards pan_islamnism.1930 Allama Iqbal AddressThe Allahabad Address, notable for Conception of Pakistan, was the Presidential Address by Allama Iqbalto the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930, at Allahabad, India. Here hepresented the idea of a separate homeland for Indian Muslims which was ultimately realised in the formof Pakistan.I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into asingle State.
The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups. The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is, therefore, perfectly justified. Quaid-e-AzamBorn on 25th Dec 1876.Died on September 11, 1948.Also known as Baba-e-Quam.Jinnah As a LeaderJinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistans independence onAugust 14, 1947, and as Pakistans first Governor-General from August 15, 1947 until his death onSeptember 11, 1948.Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress initially expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslimunity and helping shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Muslim League and the Indian NationalCongress; he also became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. He proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in aself-governing India.Jinnah Act as a LeaderJinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law-violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which Jinnah disapproved of.Unlike most Congress leaders, Gandhi did not wear western-style clothes, did his best to use an Indianlanguage instead of English, and was deeply rooted to Indian culture. Gandhis local style of leadershipgained great popularity with the Indian people. Jinnah criticised Gandhis support of the Khilafat Movement, which he saw as an endorsement ofreligious zealotry. By 1920, Jinnah resigned from the Congress, with a prophetic warning that Gandhismethod of mass struggle would lead to divisions between Hindus and Muslims and within the twocommunities. Becoming president of the Muslim League, Jinnah was drawn into a conflict between apro-Congress faction and a pro-British faction.Demand for Pakistan "We are a nation", they claimed in the ever eloquent words of the Quaid-i-Azam-"We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art andarchitecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code,customs and calendar, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; in short, we have our owndistinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of international law, we are a nation".
The formulation of the Muslim demand for Pakistan in 1940 had a tremendous impact on the natureand course of Indian politics. On the one hand, it shattered for ever the Hindu dreams of a pseudo-Indian, in fact, Hindu empire on British exit from India: on the other, it heralded an era of Islamicrenaissance and creativity in which the Indian Muslims were to be active participants. The Hindureaction was quick, bitter, malicious.Equally hostile were the British to the Muslim demand, their hostility having stemmed from their beliefthat the unity of India was their main achievement and their foremost contribution. The irony was thatboth the Hindus and the British had not anticipated the astonishingly tremendous response that thePakistan demand had elicited from the Muslim masses.Above all, they failed to realize how a hundred million people had suddenly become supremelyconscious of their distinct nationhood and their high destiny. In channelling the course of Muslim politicstowards Pakistan, no less than in directing it towards its consummation in the establishment of Pakistanin 1947, non played a more decisive role than did Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah.Quaid & Two nation theory 1. Concept of seprate nation 2. Pakistan is the demand for islam 3. Soverignity of God 4. Islamic concept of democracy 5. National integration 6. Safeguard of minorties 7. Urdu language 8. Defence 9. Bright future Liaquat Ali KhanNawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, the second son of Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, was born on October 1, 1896,in a Madal Pathan (Nausherwan) family. He graduated in 1918 from M. A. O. College, Aligarh. After hisgraduation, he was offered a job in the Indian Civil Services, but he rejected the offer that he wanted toserve his nation. In 1921, he obtained a degree in Law from Oxford and was called to Bar at InnerTemple in 1922.On his return from England in 1923, Liaquat Ali Khan decided to enter politics with the objective ofliberating his homeland from the foreign yoke. Right from the very beginning, he was determined toeradicate the injustices and ill treatment meted out to the Indian Muslims by the British. In his early life, Liaquat Ali, like most of the Muslim leaders of his time, believed in Indian Nationalism.But his views gradually changed. The Congress leaders invited him to join their party, but he refused andjoined the Muslim League in 1923. Under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam, the Muslim League held itsannual session in May 1924 in Lahore. The aim of this session was to revive the League. Liaquat Ali Khanattended this conference along many other young Muslims.
Liaquat Ali started his parliamentary career from the U. P. Legislative Assembly in 1926 as anindependent candidate. Later he formed his own party, The Democratic Party, within the LegislativeAssembly and was elected as its leader. He remained the member of the U. P. Legislative Council till1940 when he was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly.He took active part in legislative affairs. He was one of the members of the Muslim League delegationthat attended the National Convention held at Calcutta to discuss the Nehru Report in December 1928.Liaquat Ali’s second marriage took place in 1933. His wife Begum Ra’ana was a distinguished economistand an educationist who stood by her husband during the ups and downs of his political career. Sheproved to be a valuable asset to his political career as well as his private life. Quaid-i-Azam in those dayswas in England in self-exile. The newly wed couple had a number of meetings with the Quaid andconvinced him to come back to India to take up the leadership of the Muslims of the region.When Quaid-i-Azam returned to India, he started reorganizing the Muslim League. Liaquat was electedas the Honorary Sectary of the party on April 26, 1936. He held the office till the establishment ofPakistan in 1947. In 1940, he was made the deputy leader of the Muslim League Parliamentary party.Quaid-i-Azam was not able to take active part in the proceedings of the Assembly on account of hisheavy political work thus the whole burden of protecting Muslim interests in the Assembly fell onLiaquat Ali’s shoulders. Liaquat Ali was also the member of Muslim Masses Civil Defense Committee,which was formed to keep the Muslims safe from Congress activities and to strengthen the League’smission.Liaquat Ali Khan won the Central Legislature election in 1945-46 from the Meerut Constituency in U. P.He was also elected Chairman of the League’s Central Parliamentary Board. After independence,Quaid-i-Azam and Muslim League appointed Liaquat to be the head of the Pakistan Government. Beingthe first Prime Minister of the country, He had to deal with a number of difficulties facing Pakistan in itsearly days. Liaquat Ali Khan helped Quaid-i-Azam in solving the riot and refugee problem and setting upan effective administrative system for the country. After the death of Quaid-i-Azam, Liaquat tried to fill the vacuum created by the departure of the Fatherof the Nation. Under his premiership, Pakistan took its first steps in the field of constitution making, aswell as foreign policy. He presented the Objectives Resolution in the Legislative Assembly. The housepassed this on March 12, 1949. Under his leadership a team also drafted the first report of the BasicPrinciple Committee. His efforts in signing the Liaquat-Nehru pact pertaining to the minority issue in1950 reduced tensions between India and Pakistan. In May 1951, he visited the United States and setthe course of Pakistan’s foreign policy towards closer ties with the West.RefrencePakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed Khan)Pakistan Studies (Muhammad Hussain Chaudary)