Brief History of Pakistan Movement (1857 - 1947) By Pictorial
Personalities That were Involve In these Movements
Pakistan MovementThe Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan refers to the successful historical movement against Britishand Indian to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the separation of the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent.This movement was led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, along with other prominent founding fathers ofPakistan including Allama Iqbal, Liaqat Ali Khan.The founder of that word “Pakistan” is Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. The movement ultimately achieved success in 1947 and it named Pakistan.Some movements that happen for the seprate homeland. 1. 1857 War of Independence 2. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan 3. 1885 Formation of the Indian National Congress 4. 1906 Founding of the All-India Muslim League 5. 1914-18 World War I 6. 1919-23 Khilafat Movement 7. 1928 Nehru Report 8. 1929 Fourteen Points of Jinnah 9. 1930 Allama Iqbal Address 10. 1933 Now or Never Pamphlet 11. 1939-45 World War II 12. 1940 Pakistan Resolution 13. 1946 The Cabinet Mission 14. 1947 Creation of PakistanThese were the some movements through which Muslims passed for the demand of Islam or we can sayfor seprate country.Quaid was saya that Pakistan is the country in which the muslims can lead to their lifethrough the Islamic rules.
Explanation1857 War of Independence War of the independence was lastly fought by Indian muslims andhindus but after defeating war the muslims and hindus started thinking different.British army recruited thelocal Indians into their forces but with the passage of time the hindus ran away the british and hindus takethe whole charge of the Dehli city.Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal King, was compelled to lead the freedom fighters.The initial successof the fighters gave the boost to the war of independence.The Indian army captured the important towns of Haryana, Bihar and Mahdya Pardesh. After thesometime the british came back and they war on the shahi and they defeat them.Bahadur shah zafar hidehimself. British take the whole charge of the Dehli and they started to murder the peoples on large scaleand they also caught the Shah and he led his last breath in the Jail.After the War of Independence in 1857, the British government assumed sovereignty over the lands of theBritish East India Company. The British thus became masters of India, where for nearly 800 yearsMuslims had ruled. However, their attitude towards the Muslims was that of antipathy. According to Hunter, a prominent historian, “The Muslims of India are, and have been for many years, asource of chronic danger to the British power in India”.The british make the policy against the muslims and they gave them no rights.In the Dehli the britishsnatch approximately 20,000 “Inam commission” and they ruined many familes of the muslims. Thenewly introduced English system of education had many drawbacks for the Muslims, mainly because itmade no provisions for religious education. As a result, they stayed away from it.Thus, within a few years of loss of political power, the Muslims lost all avenues of employment, weredispossessed of their estates and deprived of the benefits of education.RefrencePakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed Khan)
Sir Syed Ahmed KhanSir Syed Ahmed Khan is also known as the Syed Ahmed Taqvi. They was the indian educator andpolitician and islamic reformer. They born in Dehli,Mugal Emperor.Movements done by the Sir Syed Ahmed 1. Aligarh Movement 2. Aligarh musllim theory 3. Two Nation theoryAfter the war of independence 1857 the condition of the muslim was too bad. The muslims remain kingfor centuries before british. British were silent because they snatch the government. They damage thepolitical and sociological condition of the muslims.Hindus were also against muslims and they were withthe British.British Movements 1. They murder about the 5lakh muslims. 2. They snatch their properties. 3. Make bad economy. 4. They occupied on trade. 5. They drop the muslims from the army.Sir syed wwas the protector of the muslims.they make muslims heart strong.Sir syed put a movement"Movement Aligarh".There were two purpoes of it. 1. Education 2. Friendship of muslims and british.In the 1832 they make English language more important than persian language.Through the English themuslims cant get any knowledge. sir syed gave them idea to learn the english.1st movement of the Sir syed is that they made the school in "Illah Abad". After this they made a newschool in"Gazi Poor".In which they can learn english.Sir syed gave them the idea of the Two nation theory.They says that the hindus and the muslims are thetwo different religion their traditioins and cultures are different they cant live together.RefrencePakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed Khan)Pakistan Studies (Muhammad Hussain Chaudary)http://www.ssuet.edu.pk/sirsyed/main.html
1885 Formation of the Indian National Congress : Indian national congress is one of the two majorpolitical parties in india and it is also known as the congress and the other one is (BJP) bhartiya jantaparty.Is is the largest democratic party in the world.Economic reforms and wanted a larger role in the making of British policy for India. In 1920 theCongress began a campaign of passive resistance, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, againstrestrictions on the press and political activities.Although the Congress claimed to represent all Indians, many Muslims, fearful of the vast Hindumajority, began to withdraw from the Congress.Refrencehttp://storyofpakistan.com/establishment-of-all-india-muslim-league/http://www.ismaili.net/histoire/history08/history824.html1906 Founding of the All-India Muslim League 1. The dec 30,1906 is the day in history of the indian muslims. 2. When the named seprate identity named all india muslims league.In the annual meeting of this about 3000 muslims present for their issues. 3. It was head by waqar ul mulk,nawab ul mulk and some other.sir agha khan who named is all indian muslim league they was declared as president. 4. First meeting of it was held in dec 20,1907 and it was succeded in getting freedom from british and hindus in later years.Refrencehttp://www.dostpakistan.pk/history/british-rule/233-all-india-muslim-league-1906.htmlhttp://www.ismaili.net/histoire/history08/history824.html
1914-18 World War I 1. It says that it was the great war from 1914-1918. 2. WWI saw the introduction of the machine gun and poison gas into battle. 3. Was an extremely bloody war, with huge losses of life and little ground lost or won.. 4. More than 9 million died on the battlefield due to growth of large army. 5. US was also the major cause of this.it has a bad impact on the economy and politics.Refrencehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_Ihttp://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwari/World_War_I.html1919-23 Khilafat MovementThe Khilafat Movement was clubbed with Non Co-operation Movement. For it was thought that anopportunity came for a Hindu- Muslim joint movement against the British government.In 1914 First world war peoples were against of English in which the Turkish was with the Germens.Butthey defeated with the ending of this war English try to disappear the Turkey through which Turkeybecome in danger.With the the Muslims started a movement in 1919 which is called the KhilafatMovement.Some purpose of this:Turkey Movement should remain.Muslims places should be in the protection of Turkish.Boundries of theTurkey remain those which were before the World War.The movement had thoroughly roused the country but made little impression upon the British. The Britishgovernment attached no importance to the demands of the Khilafatists.
Annoyed by the British attitude the Khilafat Conference at Karachi called upon the Muslim soldiers in theBritish Indian army to quit.However, abrupt suspension of the Non Co-operation and Khilafat along withit, created a different situation. The Khilafatists came to be sharply divided.A large number of them lost faith in Mahatma, and turned to the government for help.The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslimsin British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during theaftermath of World War I.RefrencePakistan Studies (Muhammad Hussain Chaudary)Pakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed Khan)1928 Nehru ReportAfter the Failure of Simon Commission in 1927 , the minister of India Lord Birkenhead ChallengedIndians by saying" IF THEY HAVE ANY POLITICAL CAPABILITY AND COMPETENCE THEN THEY SHOULDFORM A UNANIMOUS CONSTITUTION AND PRESENT IT TO US AND WE WILL IMPLEMENTIT "Answer the challenge of Lord BirkenheadFirst and Second All party Conference was Held at Delhi on 12 Feb and 19 May , 1928 It had only 2muslim representatives , namely Mr.Ali imam and Mr.Shoaib Qureshi . The Head of the constitutionalassembly was Pundit Moti Lal Nehru and his son Jawalal Nehru was the member of the commity . AfterStaying at allahabad for 3 monhs , the commity prepared a report . This report was called Nehru Report .SUGGESTIONS OF NEHRU REPORT 1. Ending of Separate Electorate . 2. Ending of more Muslim Seats than Population . 3. Ending of more Seats than Population . 4. Refusal to give 1/3 Representation to muslim in the center . 5. Separation of Sind From bombay (Mumbai) 6. Suggestions of Reforms in N.W.F.P province and Aviodness from Balouchistan . 7. Demand of Strong Central government . 8. Demand of ordering of the Colonial Rule
REATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE : The anti muslim suggestions of nehru report shattered the Lucknow pact and the Delhi proposal . Different muslim leaders expressed their views and feelings on the nehru report which are mentioned below :COMMENTS OF SIR AGHA KHAN : Sir agha khan said that " Any sensible person cannot think muslim will accept these insulting conditions "COMMENTS OF QUAID-E-AZAM : Quaid-e-azam on 22 dec , 1928 at a failure of calcutta convention and due to stubbornness commented on nehru report " From now the paths of Hindu and muslims are separate "In short all muslim leaders expressed great dislike to the nehru report , but it did not have any effect onHindus.Refrencehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nehru_Reporthttp://www.allamaiqbal.com/webcont/393/NehruReport%5B1928%5D.htmlhttp://notes-for-students.blogspot.com/2009/11/nehru-report.html1929 Fourteen Points of Jinnah 1. All the people should be aware of their rights all the people have the freedom of religion freedom of sense. 2. All cabinets at central or local level should have at least 1/3 Muslim representation. 3. All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality. 4. In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third. 5. Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate as at present, provided it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of a joint electorate.
6. Any territorial distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and the North West Frontier Province. 7. Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities. 8. No bill or any resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourth of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill resolution or part thereof on the ground that it would be injurious to the interests of that community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases. 9. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency. 10. Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan on the same footing as in the other provinces. 11. Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the other Indians, in all the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency. 12. The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institution and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies. 13. No cabinet, either central or provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers. 14. No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the States contribution of the Indian Federation.Refrencehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteen_Points_of_JinnahPakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed Khan)1930 Allama Iqbal AddressThe Allahabad Address, notable for Conception of Pakistan, was the Presidential Address by AllamaIqbal to the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930, at Allahabad, India.Here he presented the idea of a separate homeland for Indian Muslims which was ultimately realised inthe form of Pakistan.
1. I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State. 2. The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups. The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is, therefore, perfectly justified.Refrencehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allahabad_AddressPakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed Khan)Pakistan Studies (Muhammad Hussain Chaudary)1933 Now or Never PamphletNow or Never pamphlet is also called the “Pakistan Declaration”.Choudhry Rahmat Ali , one of the founders of Pakistan had designed a pamphlet. Now or never (28thJanuary 1933) in which Pakistan and its provinces was used for the first time. He was living in Englandthat time. Some of part of short letter3, Humberstone Road,Cambridge, England.28th January, 1933Dear Sir or Madam,I am enclosing herewith an appeal on behalf of the thirty million Muslims of PAKISTAN, who live in thefive Northern Units of India--Punjab, North-West Frontier (Afghan) Province, Kashmir, Sind, andBaluchistan. It embodies their demand for the recognition of their national status, as distinct from theother inhabitants of India, by the grant to Pakistan of a separate Federal Constitution on religious, socialand historical grounds.I shall be pleased if you will kindly acquaint me with your valuable opinion on theproposed solution of the great Hindu-Muslim problem. I trust that, vitally interested as you are in a justand permanent solution of that complex problem, the objects outlined in the appeal wiIl meet with yourfullest approval and active support.Yours truly,Rahmat Ali (Choudhary). (Founder, Pakiistan National Movement)Refrencehttp://storyofpakistan.com/chaudhry-rehmat-ali/
1939-45 World War II 1. It was under by the 1939 and ended in 1945. 2. In this included the all great powers. 3. 100 milions people serving in the military units. 4. It damages the economic and industrial.in the total war every person every business and every service was involved 5. It include the 61 countries in which involve 1.7 billio peoples. 50 milion peoples lost their lives and hundreds of milion people were injured.cause of the second world warThe Second World War was started by Germany in an unprovoked attack on Poland. Britain and Francedeclared war on Germany after Hitler had refused to abort his invasion of Poland.Refrencehttp://www.worldwar-2.net/http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/britain.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II1940 Pakistan ResolutionThe Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Lahore), commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution. It was aformal political statement adopted by the Muslim League. This was later interpreted as a demand for aseparate Muslim state, Pakistan. The resolution was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq.Although the name "Pakistan" had been proposed by Choudhary Rahmat Ali in his Pakistan Declaration.
In the words of Quaid-i-Azam: “Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies,social customs and literature. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine and, indeed, they belong to twodifferent civilizations that are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on lifeand of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from differentsources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes.The Statement of this Resolution is that :No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslimsunless geographical contiguousunits are demarcated into regions whichshould be so constituted with such territorial readjustments asmay benecessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped toconstitute independent states in which theconstituent units shall beautonomous and sovereign.Refrencehttp://storyofpakistan.com/lahore-resolution/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan_ResolutionPakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed Khan)1946 The Cabinet MissionAll of the British Government’s attempts to establish peace between the Congress and the Muslim Leaguehad failed.The Missions task was to try to bring the leaders of the principle Indian political parties toagreement on two matters: 1. The method of framing a constitution for a self-governing, independent India. 2. The setting up of a new Executive Council or interim government that would hold office while the constitution was being hammered out.Congress wanted a unified India and the Muslim League wanted a separate, independent Pakistan. Themain features of the Cabinet Mission were: 1. India would be granted the status of Federation consisting of Indian Princely States and the British provinces. 2. The Federal government would take hold of defense, foreign affairs and communication and the rest of the subjects would be the responsibility of the units of the Federation.
3. India would be divided into three groups. Group A was to consist of Bihar, Bombay, U.P. Madras, Orissa and C.P. group B comprised of Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and British Baluchistan while group C included Asam and Bengal. These groups were given the authority to frame their constitution jointly with the other provinces of their respective groups.A constituent assembly would consist of 389 members to draft the constitution out of whom 292 would befrom provinces. Out of these 292, 93 members would be from Princely States and 4 would be from theareas headed by Chief Commissioners.Refrencehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1946_Cabinet_Mission_to_Indiahttp://storyofpakistan.com/cabinet-mission-plan/http://www.allamaiqbal.com/webcont/393/CabinetMissionPlan%5B1946%5D.htmlPakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed Khan)1947 Creation of Pakistan The Indian Independence Act 1947 was as an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. and on the day of the 14 august the muslims of the hindustan get their own country in which they can lead their lifes according to the (Rule of Islam) that was all the due to the Quaid-e-azam muhammad ali jinnah. Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the Governor-General of Pakistan, and Liaquat Ali Khan became the Prime Minister of Pakistan.