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Ch19 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • 2. Chapter 19 Study Questions What is organizational culture? How do you understand an organizational culture? How can the organizational culture be managed? How can you use organizational development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 2
  • 3. Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Organizational culture. – The system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members. – Called corporate culture in the business setting. – No two organizational cultures are identical. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 3
  • 4. Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? External adaptation. – Involves reaching goals and dealing with outsiders regarding tasks to be accomplished, methods used to achieve the goals, and methods of coping with success and failure. – Important aspects of external adaptation. • Separating eternal forces based on importance. • Developing ways to measure accomplishments. • Creating explanations for not meeting goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 4
  • 5. Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? External adaptation involves answering important goal-related questions regarding coping with reality. – What is the real mission? – How do we contribute? – What are our goals? – How do we reach our goals? – What external forces are important? – How do we measure results? – What do we do if specific targets are not met? – How do we tell others how good we are? – When do we quit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 5
  • 6. Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Internal integration. – Deals with the creation of a collective identity and with finding ways of matching methods of working and living together. – Important aspects of working together. • Deciding who is a member and who is not. • Developing an understanding of acceptable and unacceptable behavior. • Separating friends from enemies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 6
  • 7. Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Internal integration involves answering important questions associated with living together. – What is our unique identity? – How do we view the world? – Who is a member? – How do we allocate power, status, and authority? – How do we communicate? – What is the basis for friendship? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 7
  • 8. Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Subculture. – A group of individuals with a unique pattern of values and philosophy that are not inconsistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy. Counterculture. – A group of individuals with a pattern of values and philosophy that outwardly reject the surrounding culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 8
  • 9. Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Problems associated with subcultural divisions within the larger culture. – Subordinate groups are likely to form into a counterculture pursuing self-interests. – The firm may encounter extreme difficulty in coping with broader cultural changes. – Embracing natural divisions from the larger culture may lead to difficulty in international operations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 9
  • 10. Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Taylor Cox’s five step program. – Step 1: The organization should develop pluralism. – Step 2: The organization should fully integrate its structure. – Step 3: The organization must integrate the informal networks. – Step 4: The organization should break the linkage between naturally occurring group identity and organizational identity. – Step 5: The organization must actively work to eliminate identity-based interpersonal conflict. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 10
  • 11. Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 11
  • 12. Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Sagas. – Heroic accounts of organizational accomplishments. Rites. – Standardized and recurring activities that are used at special times to influence organizational members. Rituals. – Systems of rites. Cultural symbols. – Any object, act, or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 12
  • 13. Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Culture often specifies rules and roles. – Rules. • The various types of actions that are appropriate. – Roles. • Where individual members stand in the social system. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 13
  • 14. Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Shared values. – Help turn routine activities into valuable and important actions. – Tie the organization to the important values of society. – May provide a very distinctive source of competitive advantage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 14
  • 15. Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Characteristics of strong corporate cultures. – A widely shared real understanding of what the firm stands for, often embodied in slogans. – A concern for individuals over rules, policies, procedures, and adherence to job duties. – A recognition of heroes whose actions illustrate the company’s shared philosophy and concerns. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 15
  • 16. Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Characteristics of strong corporate cultures (cont.). – A belief in ritual and ceremony as important to members and to building a common identity. – A well-understood sense of the informal rules and expectations so that employees and managers know what is expected of them. – A belief that what employees and managers do is important and that it is essential to share information and ideas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 16
  • 17. Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Organizational myths. – Unproven and often unstated beliefs that are accepted uncritically. – Myths enable managers to redefine impossible problems. – Myths can facilitate experimentation and creativity. – Myths allow managers to govern. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 17
  • 18. Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? National culture influences. – Widely held common assumptions may be traced to the larger culture of the host society. – National cultural values may become embedded in expectations of organization members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 18
  • 19. Study Question 3: How can theorganizational culture be managed? Strategies for managing corporate culture. – Managers help modify observable culture, shared values, and common assumptions directly. – Use of organizational development techniques to modify specific elements of the culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 19
  • 20. Study Question 3: How can theorganizational culture be managed? Why a well-developed management philosophy is important. – Establishes generally understood boundaries on all members of the firm. – Provides a consistent way for approaching new and novel situations. – Helps hold individuals together by showing them a known path to success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 20
  • 21. Study Question 3: How can theorganizational culture be managed? Strategies for building, reinforcing, and changing organizational culture. – Directly modifying the visible aspects of culture. – Changing the lessons to be drawn from common stories. – Setting the tone for a culture and for cultural change. – Fostering a culture that addresses questions of external adaptation and internal integration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 21
  • 22. Study Question 3: How can theorganizational culture be managed? Mistakes that managers can make in building, reinforcing, and changing culture. – Trying to change people’s values from the top down: • While keeping the ways in which the organization operates the same. • Without recognizing the importance of individuals. – Attempting to revitalize an organization by dictating major changes and ignoring shared values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 22
  • 23. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organization development (OD). – The application of behavioral science knowledge in a long-range effort to improve an organization’s ability to cope with change in its external environment and to increase its internal problem-solving capabilities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 23
  • 24. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizational development. – Designed to work on both issues of external adaptation and internal integration. – Used to improve organizational performance. – Seeks to achieve change so the organization’s members maintain the culture and longer-run organizational effectiveness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 24
  • 25. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Underlying assumptions of OD. – Individual level. • Respect for people and their capabilities. – Group level. • Belief that groups can be good for both people and organizations. – Organizational level. • Respect for the complexity of an organization as a system of interdependent parts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 25
  • 26. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organization development goals. – Outcome goals. • Mainly deal with issues of external adaptation. – Process goals. • Mainly deal with issues of internal integration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 26
  • 27. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? In pursuing outcome and process goals, OD helps by: – Creating an open problem solving climate. – Supplementing formal authority with knowledge and competence. – Moving decision making where relevant information is available. – Building trust and maximizing collaboration. – Increasing the sense of organizational ownership. – Allowing people to exercise self-direction and self- control. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 27
  • 28. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Action research. – The process of systematically collecting data on an organization, feeding it back to the members for action planning, and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data after the planned actions have been taken. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 28
  • 29. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 29
  • 30. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 30
  • 31. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizationwide OD interventions. – Survey feedback. • Collection and feedback of data to organization members for action planning purposes. – Confrontation meetings. • Activities for quickly determining how an organization can be improved and taking initial actions for betterment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 31
  • 32. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizationwide OD interventions (cont.). – Structural redesign. • Realigning the organization’s structure or major subsystems. – Collateral organization. • Using representative organizational members in periodic small group problem-solving sessions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 32
  • 33. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Group and intergroup OD interventions. – Team building. • Activities to improve the functioning of a group. – Process consultation. • Activities to improve the functioning of key group processes. – Intergroup team building. • Activities to improve the functioning or two or more groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 33
  • 34. Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Individual OD interventions. – Role negotiation. • Clarifying expectations in working relationships. – Job redesign. • Creating long-term congruence between individual goals and organizational career opportunities. – Career planning. • Structured opportunities for individuals to work with managers or staff experts on career issues. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 34
  • 35. COPYRIGHTCopyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express writtenpermission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for furtherinformation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own useonly and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes noresponsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of theseprograms or from the use of the information contained herein. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 35