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Ch16
 

Ch16

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    Ch16 Ch16 Presentation Transcript

    • Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    • Chapter 16 Study Questions What is organizational change? What change strategies are used in organizations? How is resistance to change best managed? How do organizations innovate? How does stress affect people in change environments? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 2
    • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Transformational change. – Results in a major overhaul of the organization or its component systems. – Described as radical change or frame-breaking change. – Organizations experiencing transformational change undergo a significant shift in basic characteristic features. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 3
    • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Incremental change or frame-bending change. – Part of the organization’s natural evolution in building on the existing ways of operating to enhance or extend them in new directions. – Introduction of new products, new technologies, and new systems and processes. – Continuous improvement through incremental change is an important asset. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 4
    • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Change agents. – Individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns of another person or social system. – Success of change efforts depends in part on change agents. – Being an effective change agent means being a great change leader. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 5
    • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Unplanned change. – Occurs spontaneously and without a change agent’s direction, and such change may be disruptive. – Appropriate goal is to act quickly to minimize the negative consequences and maximize any possible benefits. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 6
    • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Planned change. – The result of specific efforts by a change agent. – Direct response to someone’s perception of a performance gap. • A performance gap is the discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs. • Performance gaps represent problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 7
    • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Organizational forces for change. – Organization-environment relationships. – Organizational life cycle. – Political nature of organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 8
    • Study Question 1: What is organizationalchange? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 9
    • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Reasons for failure of transformational change. – No sense of urgency. – No powerful guiding coalition. – No compelling vision. – Failure to communicate the vision. – Failure to empower others to act. – Failure to celebrate short-term wins. – Failure to build on accomplishments. – Failure to institutionalize results. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 10
    • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Phases of planned change. – Unfreezing. • Preparing a situation for change by disconfirming existing attitudes and behaviors. – Changing. • Taking action to modify a situation by altering the targets of change. – Refreezing. • Maintaining momentum and eventually institutionalizing the change. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 11
    • Study Question 2: What changestrategies are used in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 12
    • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Resistance to change. – Any attitude or behavior that indicates unwillingness to make or support a desired change. – Alternative views of resistance. • Something that must be overcome for change to be successful. • Feedback that can be used to facilitate achieving change objectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 13
    • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Why people resist change. – Fear of the unknown. – Lack of good information. – Fear for loss of security. – No reasons to change. – Fear for loss of power. – Lack of resources. – Bad timing. – Habit. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 14
    • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Resistance to the change itself. – People may reject a change because they believe it is not worth their time, effort, or attention. – To deal with resistance to the change itself, all those affected should know how it satisfies the following criteria: • Benefit. • Compatibility. • Complexity. • Triability. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 15
    • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Resistance to the change strategy. – Force-coercion strategy. • Likely resistance among individuals who resent management by “command” or the use of threatened punishment. – Rational persuasion strategy. • Likely resistance when the data are suspect or the expertise of advocates is unclear. – Shared-power strategy. • Likely resistance if it appears manipulative and insincere. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 16
    • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Resistance to the change agent. – Resistance to the change agent is directed at the person implementing the change and often involves personality and other differences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 17
    • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? How to deal with resistance. – Education and communication. – Participation and support. – Facilitation and support. – Negotiation and agreement. – Manipulation and cooptation. – Explicit and implicit coercion. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 18
    • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 19
    • Study Question 4: How doorganizations innovate? Innovation. – The process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice. Product innovations. – The introduction of new or improved goods or services to better meet customer needs. Process innovations. – The introduction of new and better work methods and operations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 20
    • Study Question 4: How doorganizations innovate? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 21
    • Study Question 4: How doorganizations innovate? Features of innovative organizations. – Strategies and cultures that are built around a commitment to innovation. – Structures that support innovation. – Staffing with a clear commitment to innovation. – Top-management support for innovation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 22
    • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress. – A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 23
    • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Source of stress. – Stressors. • The wide variety of things that cause stress for individuals. – Types of stressors. • Work-related stressors. • Life stressors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 24
    • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Work-related stressors. – Task demands. – Role ambiguities. – Role conflicts. – Ethical dilemmas. – Interpersonal problems. – Career developments. – Physical setting. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 25
    • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Life stressors. – Family events. – Economic difficulties. – Personal affairs. – Individual’s needs. – Individual’s capabilities. – Individual’s personality. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 26
    • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress and performance. – Constructive stress (or eustress). • Moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization. – Destructive stress (or distress). • Low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization. – Job burnout. • A loss of interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 27
    • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress and health. – Stress can harm people’s physical and psychological health. – Health problems associated with stress. • Heart attack. • Stroke. • Hypertension. • Migraine headache. • Ulcers. • Substance abuse. • Overeating. • Depression. • Muscle aches. – Managers and team leaders should be alert to signs of excessive stress. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 28
    • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress management. – Stress prevention. • Taking action to keep stress from reaching destructive levels in the first place. – Once stress has reached a destructive point, special techniques of stress management can be implemented. – Stress management. • Begins with the recognition of stress symptoms and continues with actions to maintain a positive performance edge. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 29
    • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress management (cont.). – Personal wellness. • Pursuit of one’s job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program. – Employee assistance programs. • Provide help for employees who are experiencing personal problems and related stress. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 30
    • COPYRIGHTCopyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express writtenpermission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for furtherinformation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own useonly and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes noresponsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of theseprograms or from the use of the information contained herein. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 31