Ch15

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Ch15

  1. 1. Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  2. 2. Chapter 15 Study Questions What is conflict? How can conflict be managed successfully? What is negotiation? What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 2
  3. 3. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Conflict occurs whenever: – Disagreements exist in a social situation over issues of substance. – Emotional antagonisms cause frictions between individuals or groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 3
  4. 4. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Types of conflict. – Substantive conflict. • A fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment. – Emotional conflict. • Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, etc. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 4
  5. 5. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict. – Intrapersonal conflicts. • Actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations. • Approach-approach conflict. • Avoidance-avoidance conflict. • Approach-avoidance conflict. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 5
  6. 6. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict (cont.). – Interpersonal conflict. • Occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another. – Intergroup conflict. • Occurs among members of different teams or groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 6
  7. 7. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict (cont.). – Interorganizational conflict. • Commonly refers to the competition and rivalry that characterize firms operating in the same markets. • Encompasses disagreements that exist between any two or more organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 7
  8. 8. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 8
  9. 9. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Potential benefits of functional conflict. – Surfaces important problems so they can be addressed. – Causes careful consideration of decisions. – Causes reconsideration of decisions. – Increases information available for decision making. – Provides opportunities for creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 9
  10. 10. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Potential disadvantages of dysfunctional conflict. – Diverts energies. – Harms group cohesion. – Promotes interpersonal hostilities. – Creates overall negative environment. – Can decrease work productivity and job satisfaction. – Can contribute to absenteeism and job turnover. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 10
  11. 11. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Culture and conflict. – Culture and cultural differences must be considered for their conflict potential. – Individuals who are not able to recognize and respect the impact of culture may contribute to emergence of dysfunctional situations – Cross-cultural sensitivity helps defuse dysfunctional conflict and capture advantages that constructive conflict may offer. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 11
  12. 12. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 12
  13. 13. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Causes of conflict. – Vertical conflict. • Occurs between hierarchical levels. – Horizontal conflict. • Occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level. – Line-staff conflict. • Involves disagreements over who has authority and control over specific matters. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 13
  14. 14. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Causes of conflict (cont.). – Role conflicts. • Occur when the communication of task expectations proves inadequate or upsetting. – Workflow interdependencies. • Occur when people or units are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals. – Domain ambiguities. • Occur as misunderstandings over such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 14
  15. 15. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Causes of conflict (cont.). – Resource scarcity. • When resources are scarce, working relationships are likely to suffer. – Power or value asymmetries. • Occur when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 15
  16. 16. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Indirect conflict management approaches. – Reduced interdependence. • Adjusting the level of interdependency among units or individuals when workflow conflicts exist. • Decoupling, buffering, and linking pin roles. – Appeal to common goals. • Focusing the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 16
  17. 17. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Indirect conflict management approaches (cont.). – Hierarchical referral. • Problems are referred up the hierarchy for more senior managers to reconcile. – Altering scripts and myths. • Superficial management of conflict by using behavioral routines that become part of the organization’s culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 17
  18. 18. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 18
  19. 19. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Lose-lose conflict. – Avoidance. • Everyone simply pretends that the conflict does not really exist and hopes that it will go away. – Accommodation or smoothing. • Involves playing down differences among the conflicting parties and highlighting similarities and areas of agreement. – Compromise. • Each party gives up something of value, but neither party’s desires are fully satisfied Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 19
  20. 20. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Win-lose conflict. – Competition. • One party achieves a victory through the use of force, superior skills, or domination. – Authoritative command. • Use of formal authority to dictate a solution and specify who gains what and who loses what. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 20
  21. 21. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Win-win conflict. – Collaboration or problem solving. • Recognition by all conflicting parties that something is wrong and needs attention, and it stresses gathering and evaluating information in solving disputes and making choices. • Collaboration and problem solving are preferred to gain true conflict resolution when time and cost permit. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 21
  22. 22. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Win-win solutions should: – Achieve each other’s goals. – Be acceptable to both parties. – Establish a process whereby both parties see a responsibility to be open and honest about facts and feelings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 22
  23. 23. Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Potential disadvantages of collaboration. – Collaboration requires time and energy. – Both parties to the conflict need to be assertive and cooperative. – Collaboration may not be feasible if the organization’s culture does not value cooperation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 23
  24. 24. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Negotiation goals and outcomes. – Substance goals. • Outcomes that relate to content issues. – Relationship goals. • Outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiations and any constituencies they represent are able to work with one another once the process is concluded. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 24
  25. 25. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Effective negotiation. – Occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or improved. – Criteria for an effective negotiation. • Quality. • Harmony. • Efficiency. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 25
  26. 26. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Ethical aspects of negotiation. – To maintain good working relationships, negotiators should strive for high ethical standards. – Negotiators’ rationalizations for questionable ethical behavior are offset by long-run negative consequences. – The unethical negotiator may be targeted for revenge. – Unethical negotiating actions may become habitual. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 26
  27. 27. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Organizational settings for negotiation. – Two-party negotiation. • Manager negotiates directly with one other person. – Group negotiation. • Manager is part of a group whose members are negotiating. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 27
  28. 28. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Organizational settings for negotiation (cont.). – Intergroup negotiation. • Manager is part of a group that is negotiating with another group. – Constituency negotiation. • Manager is involved in negotiation with other persons, with each party representing a broader constituency. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 28
  29. 29. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation. – Focuses on positions staked out or declared by the conflicting parties. – Parties try to claim certain portions of the existing pie. Integrative negotiation. – Sometimes called principled negotiation. – Focuses on the merits of the issues. – Parties try to enlarge the available pie. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 29
  30. 30. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation. – The key question is: “Who is going to get this resource?” – “Hard” distributive negotiation. • Each party holds out to get its own way. – “Soft” distributive negotiation. • One party is willing to make concessions to the other party to get things over. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 30
  31. 31. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Integrative negotiation. – The key question is: “How can the resource best be utilized?” – Is less confrontational than distributive negotiation, and permits a broader range of alternative solutions to be considered. – Opportunity for a true win-win solution. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 31
  32. 32. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Attitudinal foundations of integrative agreements. – Willingness to trust the other party. – Willingness to share information with the other party. – Willingness to ask concrete questions of the other party. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 32
  33. 33. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Behavioral foundations of integrative agreements. – Ability to separate the people from the problem. – Ability to focus on interests rather than positions. – Ability to avoid making premature judgments. – Ability to keep alternative creation separate from evaluation. – Ability to judge possible agreements on an objective set of criteria or standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 33
  34. 34. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Information foundations of integrative agreements. – Each party must know what he or she will do if an agreement can’t be reached. – Each party must determine what is personally important in the situation. – Each party must achieve an understanding of what the other party values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 34
  35. 35. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Common negotiation pitfalls. – Myth of the fixed pie. – Possibility of escalating commitment. – Negotiators often develop overconfidence in their positions. – Communication problems can cause difficulties during a negotiation. • Telling problem. • Hearing problem. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 35
  36. 36. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Third-party roles in negotiation. – Alternative dispute resolution. • A neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes. – Arbitration. • A third party acts as a “judge” and has the power to issue a decision that is binding on all disputing parties. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 36
  37. 37. Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Third-party roles in negotiation (cont.). – Mediation. • A neutral third party tries to engage disputing parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 37
  38. 38. COPYRIGHTCopyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express writtenpermission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for furtherinformation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own useonly and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes noresponsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of theseprograms or from the use of the information contained herein. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 38

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