Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
830
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
66
Comments
0
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • 2. Chapter 12 Study Questions What are power and influence in an organization? How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization? What is empowerment? What is organizational politics? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 2
  • 3. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Power. – The ability to get someone to do something you want done. – The ability to make things happen in the way you want. Influence. – Expressed by others’ behavioral response to your exercise of power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 3
  • 4. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Position power derives from a person’s position in the organizational hierarchy. Types of position power. – Reward power. – Coercive power. – Legitimate power. – Process power. – Information power. – Representative power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 4
  • 5. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Reward power. – The extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. Coercive power. – The extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards and administer punishment to control other people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 5
  • 6. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Legitimate power. – The extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the boss has the “right of command” to control other people. Process power. – The control over methods of production and analysis that a manager has due to being in a position to influence how inputs are transformed into outputs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 6
  • 7. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Information power. – The access to and/or control of information. . Representative power. – The formal right conferred by the firm to speak for a potentially important group composed of individuals across departments or outside the firm. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 7
  • 8. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Personal power derives from individual sources. Types of personal power. – Expert power. – Rational persuasion. – Referent power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 8
  • 9. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Expert power. – The ability to control another person’s behavior through the possession of knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person does not have but needs. Rational persuasion. – The ability to control another person’s behavior by convincing the other person of the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 9
  • 10. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Referent power. – The ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 10
  • 11. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 11
  • 12. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Ways to build position power. – Demonstrating work unit relevance to organizational goals and needs. – Increasing task relevance of one’s own activities and work unit’s activities. – Attempting to define tasks so they are difficult to evaluate. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 12
  • 13. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Ways to build personal power. – Building expertise. • Advanced training and education, participation in professional associations, and project involvement. – Learning political savvy. • Learning ways to negotiate, persuade, and understand goals and means that others accept. – Enhancing likeability. • Pleasant personality characteristics, agreeable behavior patterns, and attractive personal appearance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 13
  • 14. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Ways that managers increase the visibility of their job performance. – Expanding contacts with senior people. – Making oral presentations of written work. – Participating in problem-solving task forces. – Sending out notices of accomplishment. – Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 14
  • 15. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Controlling decision premises. – Executives attempt to control, or at least influence, decision premises. – A decision premise is a basis for defining the problem and for selecting among alternatives. – Executives who want to increase their power will make their goals and needs clear and bargain effectively. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 15
  • 16. Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Common techniques for exercising relational influence. – Reason. – Friendliness. – Coalition. – Bargaining. – Assertiveness. – Higher authority. – Sanctions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 16
  • 17. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? Important practical issues in the exercise of power and formal authority. – Why should subordinates respond to a manager’s authority (or “right to command”)? – Given that subordinates are willing to obey, what determines the limits of obedience? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 17
  • 18. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? The Milgram experiments. – Designed to determine the extent to which people obey the commands of an authority figure, even if they believe they are endangering the life of another person. – The results indicated that the majority of the experimental subjects would obey the commands of the authority figure. – Basic conclusion was that people tend to comply with and be obedient to authority. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 18
  • 19. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? For a directive from a superior to be accepted as authoritative, the subordinate: – Can and must understand it. – Must feel mentally and physically capable of carrying it out. – Must believe that it is consistent with the organization’s purpose. – Must believe that it is consistent with his or her personal interests. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 19
  • 20. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? Zone of indifference. – In exchange for certain inducements, subordinates recognize the authority of the organization and its managers to direct their behavior in certain ways. – A zone of indifference is the range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond without subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 20
  • 21. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 21
  • 22. Study Question 3: What isempowerment? Empowerment. – The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work. – Provides the foundation for self-managing work teams and other employee involvement groups. – Empowerment emphasizes the ability to make things happen. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 22
  • 23. Study Question 3: What isempowerment? Changing position power. – Moving power down the hierarchy alters the existing pattern of position power. – Changing this pattern raises the following important questions: • Can “empowered” individuals give rewards and sanctions based on task accomplishment? • Has their new right to act been legitimized with formal authority? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 23
  • 24. Study Question 3: What isempowerment? Expanding the zone of indifference. – Management needs to recognize the current zone of indifference and systematically move to expand it. – Management should show how empowerment will benefit people and provide the needed inducement. – . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 24
  • 25. Study Question 3: What isempowerment? Power as an expanding pie. – Employees need to be trained to expand their power and their new influence potential. – The key is to change from a view stressing power over others to one emphasizing the use of power to get things done. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 25
  • 26. Study Question 3: What isempowerment? Power as an expanding pie. – Clearer definition of roles and responsibilities helps managers empower others. – All mangers need to emphasize different ways of exercising influence. – Special support may be needed for individuals to become comfortable. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 26
  • 27. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Machiavellian tradition of organizational politics. – Emphasizes self-interest and the use of nonsanctioned means. – Organizational politics is defined as the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned influence means. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 27
  • 28. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Alternate tradition of organizational politics. – Politics is a necessary function resulting from differences in the self-interests of individuals. – Politics is the art of creative compromise among competing interests. – Politics is the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 28
  • 29. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 29
  • 30. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Subunit power. – Line units are typically more powerful than are staff groups. – Units toward the top of the organizational hierarchy are often more powerful than those toward the bottom. – Power differentials are not as pronounced among units at or near the same level in an organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 30
  • 31. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Political actions for influencing lateral, intergroup relationships. – Workflow linkages. – Service linkages. – Advisory linkages. – Auditing linkages. – Approval linkages. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 31
  • 32. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Important aspects of corporate political strategy. – Absence of a political strategy can be damaging. – Corporate political strategy should be targeted toward turning the government from a regulator against industry to a protector of it. – Need to make decisions about when and how to get involved in the public policy processes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 32
  • 33. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Avoidance is quite common where the employee must risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction. Common techniques for avoiding action and risk taking. – Working to the rules. – Playing dumb. – Depersonalization. – Stalling. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 33
  • 34. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Common techniques for redirecting accountability and responsibility. – Passing the buck. – Buffing (or rigorous documentation). – Preparing a blind memo. – Rewriting history. – Redirecting. • Scapegoating. • Blaming the problem on uncontrollable events. • Escalating commitment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 34
  • 35. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Defending turf. – Defending turf is a time-honored tradition in most large organizations. – Defending turf results when: • Managers seek to increase their power by expanding the jobs their groups perform. • Competing interests exist among various departments and groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 35
  • 36. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Agency theory. – An important power problem arises from the separation of owners and managers. – Managers are “agents” of the owners. – Public corporations can function effectively even though its managers are self-interested. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 36
  • 37. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Key arguments of agency theory. – By protecting stockholder interests, all the interests of society are served. – Stockholders have a clear interest in greater returns. – Managers are self-interested and must be controlled. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 37
  • 38. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Types of controls instituted for agents. – Pay plan incentives that align the interests of management and stockholders. – The establishment of a strong, independent board of directors. – Stockholders with a large stake in the firm taking an active role on the board. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 38
  • 39. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Resource dependencies. – The firm’s need for resources that are controlled by others. The resource dependence of an organization increases as: – Needed resources become more scarce. – Outsiders have more control over needed resources. – There are fewer substitutes for a particular type of resource controlled by a limited number of outsiders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 39
  • 40. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Organizational governance. – The pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization. – Organizational governance establishes the following: • What is important. • How issues will be defined. • Who should and should not be involved in key choices • Boundaries for acceptable implementation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 40
  • 41. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Negative views of organizational governance. – Unbalanced organizational governance by some United States corporations may limit their ability to manage global operations effectively. – Organizational governance is too closely tied to the short-term interests of stockholders and the pay of the CEO. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 41
  • 42. Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Positive views of organizational governance. – The governance of U.S. firms extends well beyond the limited interests of the owners. – Organization governance should be based on three ethical criteria. – When the three ethical criteria cannot be fulfilled, the criterion of overwhelming factors should be invoked. – Choosing to be ethical often involves considerable personal sacrifice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 42
  • 43. COPYRIGHTCopyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express writtenpermission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for furtherinformation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own useonly and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes noresponsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of theseprograms or from the use of the information contained herein. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 43