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Ch11

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  • 1. Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • 2. Chapter 11 Study Questions What is leadership and how does it differ from management? What are situational contingency approaches to leadership ? What are attributional approaches to leadership? What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 2
  • 3. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Management promotes stability or enables the organization to run smoothly. Leadership promotes adaptive or useful changes. Persons in managerial positions may be involved with both management and leadership. Both management and leadership are needed for organizational success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 3
  • 4. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Leadership is a special case of interpersonal influence that gets an individual or group to do what the leader or manager wants done. Forms of leadership. – Formal leadership. – Informal leadership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 4
  • 5. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Approaches to leadership. – Trait and behavioral perspectives. – Situational contingency perspectives. – Attributional perspectives. – New leadership perspectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 5
  • 6. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Trait theories. – Assume that traits play a key role in: • Differentiating between leaders and nonleaders. • Predicting leader or organizational outcomes. – Great person-trait approach. • Earliest approach in studying leadership. • Tried to determine the traits that characterized great leaders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 6
  • 7. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Pick up Figure 11.1 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 7
  • 8. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Behavioral theories. – Assume that leader behaviors are crucial for explaining performance and other organizational outcomes. – Focus on leader behaviors rather than traits. – Major behavioral theories. • Michigan leadership studies. • Ohio State leadership studies. • Leadership Grid. • Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 8
  • 9. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Michigan leadership studies. – Employee-centered supervisors. • Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare. – Production-centered supervisors. • Place strong emphasis on getting the work done. – Employee-centered supervisors have more productive work groups than production- centered supervisors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 9
  • 10. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Ohio State leadership studies. – Consideration. • Concerned with people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers. – Initiating structure. • Concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda. – Effective leaders should be high on both consideration and initiating structure. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 10
  • 11. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Leadership Grid. – Developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. – Built on dual emphasis of consideration and initiating structure. – A 9 x 9 Grid (matrix) reflecting levels of concern for people and concern for task. • 1 reflects minimum concern. • 9 reflects maximum concern. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 11
  • 12. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Leadership Grid (cont.). – Five key Grid combinations. • 1/1 — low concern for production, low concern for people. • 1/9 — low concern for production, high concern for people. • 9/1 — high concern for production, low concern for people. • 5/5 — moderate concern for production, moderate concern for people. • 9/9 — high concern for production, high concern for people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 12
  • 13. Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory. – Focuses on the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers. – LMX dimensions determine followers’ membership in leader’s “in group” or “out group.” – Different relationships with “in group” and “out group.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 13
  • 14. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies. The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies. Major situational contingency theories. – Fiedler’s leadership contingency theory. – Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory. – House’s path-goal theory of leadership. – Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 14
  • 15. Study Question 2: What are the situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Key variables in Fiedler’s contingency model. – Situational control. • The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions. • Is a function of: – Leader-member relations. – Task structure. – Position power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 15
  • 16. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Key variables in Fiedler’s contingency model (cont.). – Least preferred co-worker (LPC) score reflects a person’s leadership style. • High-LPC leaders have a relationship-motivated style. • Low-LPC leaders have a task-motivated style. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 16
  • 17. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 17
  • 18. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory. – A leader’s use of directive or nondirective behavior depends on: • The leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency. • Stress. • Experience. • Group support of the leader. – Leader directiveness is most helpful for performance when the leader is competent, relaxed, and supported. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 18
  • 19. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? House’s path-goal theory of leadership. – Rooted in the expectancy model of motivation. – Emphasizes how a leader influences subordinates’ perceptions of both work goals and personal goals and the links, or paths, found between these two sets of goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 19
  • 20. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 20
  • 21. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Path-goal theory predictions. – Directive leadership will have a positive impact on subordinates when tasks are ambiguous and the opposite effect when tasks are clear. – Supportive leadership will increase the satisfaction of subordinates who work on tasks that are highly repetitive, unpleasant, stressful, or frustrating. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 21
  • 22. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Path-goal theory predictions (cont.). – Achievement-oriented leadership will encourage subordinates to strive for higher performance standards and to have more confidence in their ability to meet challenging goals when subordinates are working at ambiguous, nonrepetitive tasks. – Participative leadership will promote satisfaction on nonrepetitive tasks that allow for the ego involvement of subordinates. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 22
  • 23. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 23
  • 24. Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 24
  • 25. Study Question 3: What are attributionalapproaches to leadership? Attribution theory provides a competing perspective to the traditional leadership theory assumption that leadership and its substantive effects can be identified and measured objectively. Attribution theory suggests that leadership is influenced by attempts to understand causes of and assess responsibilities for behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 25
  • 26. Study Question 3: What are attributionalapproaches to leadership? Leadership prototypes. – People’s mental image of what a model leader should look like. – Mix of specific and general characteristics. – Prototypes may differ by country and national culture. – The closer that a leader’s behavior matches the prototype held by the followers, the more favorable the leader’s relations and key outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 26
  • 27. Study Question 3: What are attributionalapproaches to leadership? Exaggeration of the leadership difference. – Top leaders of organizations have little impact on profits and effectiveness compared to environmental and industry forces. – Much of the impact of top leaders is symbolic. – The romance of leadership refers to people attributing romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 27
  • 28. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Charismatic approaches to leadership. – Charismatic leaders, by force of their personal abilities, can have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. – Characteristics of charismatic leaders include: • High need for power. • High feelings of self-efficacy. • Conviction in the moral rightness of their beliefs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 28
  • 29. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Dark side versus bright side of charismatic leadership. – Dark side. • Emphasizes personalized power. • Leaders focus on themselves. – Bright side. • Emphasizes socialized power. • Leaders empower followers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 29
  • 30. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Conger and Kanungo’s three-stage charismatic leadership model. – Stage 1: the leader critically evaluates the status quo. – Stage 2: the leader formulates and articulates future goals and a idealized future vision. – Stage 3: the leader shows how the goals and vision can be achieved. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 30
  • 31. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 31
  • 32. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Transactional leadership. – Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers. – Leader-follower exchanges involve: • Use of contingent rewards. • Active management by exception. • Passive management by exception. • Abdicating responsibilities and avoiding decisions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 32
  • 33. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Transformational leadership. – Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests, generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission, and stir followers to look beyond self-interests. – Dimensions of transformational leadership. • Charisma. • Inspiration. • Intellectual stimulation. • Individualized consideration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 33
  • 34. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Leadership in self-managing work teams. – Leaders provide resources or act as liaisons with other units but without the trappings of authority associated with traditional first-line supervisors. – Conditions for creating and maintaining team performance. • Efficient, goal-directed effort. • Adequate resources. • Competent, motivated performance. • A productive, supportive climate. • Commitment to continuous improvement and adaptation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 34
  • 35. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Can people be trained in the new leadership? – People can be trained to adopt new leadership approaches. – Leaders can devise improvement programs to address their weaknesses and work with trainers to develop their leadership skills. – Leaders can be trained in charismatic skills. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 35
  • 36. Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Is new leadership always good? – Not always good. – Dark-side charismatics can have negative effects on followers. – Not always needed. – Needs to be used in conjunction with traditional leadership. – Applies at all levels of organizational leadership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 36
  • 37. COPYRIGHTCopyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express writtenpermission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for furtherinformation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own useonly and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes noresponsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of theseprograms or from the use of the information contained herein. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 37