• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Ch07
 

Ch07

on

  • 706 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
706
Views on SlideShare
706
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
46
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Ch07 Ch07 Presentation Transcript

    • Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    • Chapter 7 Study Questions How are motivation, job satisfaction, and performance related? What are job-design approaches? How are technology and job design related? What alternative work arrangements are used today? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 2
    • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performancerelated? Job satisfaction. – The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. – Job satisfaction can be assessed: • By managerial observation and interpretation. • Through use of job satisfaction questionnaires. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 3
    • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performancerelated? Implications of key work decisions for job satisfaction. – Joining and remaining a member of an organization. • Satisfied workers have better attendance and less turnover. – Working hard in pursuit of high levels of task performance. • Three alternative relationships between performance and satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 4
    • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performancerelated? Argument: satisfaction causes performance. – Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance, make them happy. – Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 5
    • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performancerelated? Argument: performance causes satisfaction. – Managerial implication — help people achieve high performance, then satisfaction will follow. – Performance in a given time period is related to satisfaction in a later time period. – Rewards link performance with later satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 6
    • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performancerelated? Argument: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance. – Managerial implications. • Proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both satisfaction and performance. • High job satisfaction and performance-contingent rewards influence a person’s work performance. • Size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 7
    • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performancerelated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 8
    • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 9
    • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Scientific management. – Sought to improve work efficiency by creating small, repetitive tasks and training workers to do these tasks well. – Job simplification. • Standardizes work procedures and employs people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks. • Intent is to increase efficiency, but it may be decreased due to the motivational impact of unappealing jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 10
    • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Job enlargement and job rotation. – Job enlargement. • Increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers. – Job rotation. • Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks. – Enlargement and rotation use horizontal loading to increase job breadth. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 11
    • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Job enrichment. – The practice of enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job. – Adds planning and evaluating duties to the job content. – Uses vertical loading to increase job depth. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 12
    • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Ways to increase job depth. – Allow workers to plan. – Allow workers to control. – Maximize job freedom. – Increase task difficulty. – Help workers become task experts. – Provide performance feedback. – Increase performance accountability. – Provide complete units of work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 13
    • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Concerns about job enrichment. – Job enrichment can be very costly. – Controversy concerning whether pay must be increased when jobs are enriched. • Herzberg’s argument regarding the impact of competitive pay and enriched jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 14
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 15
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics. – Skill variety. • Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual. – Task identity. • Degree to which the job requires the completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work; one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 16
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). – Task significance. • Degree to which the job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general. – Autonomy. • Degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it out. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 17
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). – Job feedback. • Degree to which carrying out the work activities provides direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done. . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 18
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Motivating potential score. – Combined together, the core job characteristics create a motivating potential score (MPS). – MPS indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people. – A job’s MPS can be raised by enriching the core characteristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 19
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Critical psychological states. – When the core characteristics are highly enriched, three critical psychological states are positively influenced. • Experienced meaningfulness of work. • Experienced responsibility for work outcomes. • Knowledge of actual results of work activities. – Positive psychological states create positive work outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 20
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states, which in turn will create positive work outcomes only when: – Employee growth-need strength is high. – The employee has the requisite knowledge and skill. – Employee context satisfaction exists. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 21
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Social information processing theory. – Social information in organizations influences the way people perceive their jobs and respond to them. – Research evidence shows that both social information and the core characteristics are important determinants of how people perceive their jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 22
    • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Managerial and global implications of enriching jobs. – Not everyone’s job should be enriched. – Job enrichment can apply to groups. – Culture has a substantial impact on job enrichment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 23
    • Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Sociotechnical systems. – Reflects the importance of integrating people and technology to create high-performance work systems. – Essential for new developments in job design, given the impact of computers and information technology in the modern workplace. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 24
    • Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Flexible manufacturing systems. – Adaptive computer-based technologies and integrated job designs that are used to shift work easily and quickly among alternative products. – Workers develop expertise across a wide range of functions. – Jobs offer a wealth of potential for enriched core job characteristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 25
    • Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Workflow and process reengineering. – Process reengineering is the analysis, streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions and tasks required to reach a work goal. – This approach for improving workflows and job designs is driven by one question: • What is necessary and what else can be eliminated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 26
    • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks. – Any scheduling of work that allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days. – “4/40” is most common form. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 27
    • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks (cont.). – Advantages. • For workers: added time off. • For organizations: lower absenteeism and improved recruiting of new employees. – Disadvantages. • For workers: increased fatigue and family adjustment problems. • For organizations: work scheduling problems, customer complaints, and possible union opposition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 28
    • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Flexible working hours. – Gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of their work commitments. – Advantages: • For workers: shorter commuting time, more leisure time, more job satisfaction, and greater sense of responsibility. • For organizations: less absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover; more commitment; and higher performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 29
    • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Job sharing. – One full-time job is assigned to two or more persons who divide the work according to agreed-upon hours. – Advantages. • For workers: less burnout and higher energy level. • For organizations; attracting talented people who who would otherwise be unable to work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 30
    • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Work at home and the virtual office. – Telecommuting. • Work done at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced communication linkages with a central office or other employment locations. – Variants of telecommuting. • Flexiplace. • Hoteling. • Virtual office. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 31
    • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Advantages of telecommuting. – For workers: flexibility, comforts of home, and choice of work locations consistent with one’s lifestyle. – For organizations: costs savings, efficiency, and improved employee satisfaction. Disadvantages of telecommuting. – For workers: isolation from co-workers, decreased identification with work team, and technical difficulties with computer linkages. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 32
    • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Part-time work. – Temporary part-time work. • An employee is classified as temporary and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. – Permanent part-time work. • An employee is classified as a permanent member of the workforce and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 33
    • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Advantages of part-time work. – For workers: appeals to people who want to supplement other jobs or do not want full-time work. – For organizations: lower labor costs, ability to better accommodate peaks and valleys of business cycle, and better management of retention quality. Disadvantages of part-time work. – For workers: added stress and potentially diminished performance if holding two jobs, failure to qualify for benefits, and lower pay rates than full-time counterparts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 34
    • COPYRIGHTCopyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express writtenpermission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for furtherinformation should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own useonly and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes noresponsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of theseprograms or from the use of the information contained herein. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 35