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Encyclopedia of Gender and Society

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“Given both the interdisciplinarity of the field of gender scholarship and the immense significance of gender to both indviduals and societies, it is probably impossible to produce such a compendium. …

“Given both the interdisciplinarity of the field of gender scholarship and the immense significance of gender to both indviduals and societies, it is probably impossible to produce such a compendium. The editor, advisory team, and contributors are to be credited for tackling a project of such immense scope…O’Brien’s commitment to the possibility of a more-informed discourse on the highly complex and nuanced topic of gender and society promises to benefit a broad readership…Highly recommended for academic libraries of all sizes and for large public libraries."
—Booklist STARRED Review

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  • 1. E NC YC L OP E DI A OF Gender Society AND
  • 2. Editorial Board General Editor Jodi O’Brien Seattle University Associate Editors Eve Shapiro University of Connecticut Jessica Fields San Francisco State University Managing Editors Carly M. Chillmon University of California, Santa Barbara Shasti Conrad Seattle University Advisory Board Judith A. Howard University of Washington Nancy A. Naples University of Connecticut Peter M. Nardi Pitzer College Mary Romero Arizona State University
  • 3. E NC YC L OP E DI A OF Gender Society AND EDITED BY JODI O’BRIEN Seattle University 12 volumes &
  • 4. Copyright © 2009 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information: SAGE Publications, Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 E-Mail: order@sagepub.com SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 33 Pekin Street #02-01 Far East Square Singapore 048763 Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of gender and society/[edited by] Jodi O’Brien. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4129-0916-7 (cloth) 1. Women—Encyclopedias. 2. Men—Encyclopedias. 3. Social history—1970—-Encyclopedias. I. O’Brien, Jodi. HQ1115.E54 2009 305.309’04503—dc22 2008024802 This book is printed on acid-free paper. 08 09 10 11 12 10 9 Publisher/Acquisitions Editor: Assistant to the Publisher: Developmental Editor: Reference Systems Manager: Production Editor: Copy Editors: Typesetter: Proofreaders: Indexer: Cover Designer: Marketing Manager: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Rolf A. Janke Michele Thompson Sara Tauber Leticia Gutierrez Kate Schroeder Carla Freeman, Robin Gold C&M Digitals (P) Ltd. Sally Jaskold, Anne Rogers Joan Shapiro Gail Buschman Amberlyn Erzinger
  • 5. Contents Volume 1 List of Entries vii Reader’s Guide xiii About the Editor xxi Contributors xxiii Introduction xxix Entries A B C D E F G H I J K L 1 51 103 183 231 271 337 401 451 473 477 481 Volume 2 List of Entries vii Reader’s Guide xiii Entries M N O P Q R 497 589 617 625 689 699 Index S T U V W Y 931 727 825 865 871 877 927
  • 6. List of Entries Bachelors and Spinsters Balch, Emily Greene Barbie Bears Beauty Pageants Bem Sex Role Inventory Benedict, Ruth Benjamin, Harry Berdache (Two-Spirit) Bifurcated Consciousness Biological Determinism Bisexuality Blackburn, Molly Black Feminist Thought Bloomsbury Group Bluestocking Society Bodybuilding Body Hair Body Image Body Politics Boston Marriages Brazilian Federation for the Advancement of Women Breastfeeding Breast Implants Bridal Industry Buffy the Vampire Slayer Butch/Femme ABANTU for Development Abortion Abzug, Bella Access to Justice Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. See HIV/AIDS Activo/Passivo Sex Roles ACT UP Addams, Jane Adultery Advertising, Gender Images in Affirmative Action African American Feminist Thought. See Black Feminist Thought Ageism AIDS and International Women’s Health Aid to Families with Dependent Children All-China Women’s Federation All India Women’s Conference Alpha Male American Birth Control League American Civil Liberties Union American Men’s Studies Association American Woman Suffrage Association Androcentrism Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgyny Anthony, Susan B. Anti-Miscegenation Laws Anzaldúa, Gloria Arab Feminist Union Arranged Marriages Art, Gender Images in Asaf Ali, Aruna Assertiveness Training Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics (COYOTE) Camp Cancer Caregiving Caste Castration Celibacy Cervical Cancer Vaccination vii
  • 7. viii———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Chastity Cheerleading Children’s Literature, Gender Images in Child Support Chivalry Christian Coalition Christianity, Status of Women in Christianity and Homosexuality Chromosome Disorders Clergy Sex Scandals Coalition on Violence Against Women (Kenya) Cohabitation Colorism Comfort Women Commitment Ceremonies Committee on Women, Population, and the Environment Comparable Worth Compulsory Heterosexuality Concerned Women for America Consciousness-Raising Contraception Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Cooper, Anna Julia Cosmetic Surgery Courtly Love Courtship Crime and Criminal Justice, Gender and Cross-Dressing Cybersex Cyborg Manifesto Daughters of Bilitis Dawes Act. See Indian General Allotment Act Day, Dorothy Deadbeat Dads Death Penalty, Gender and the de Beauvoir, Simone Declaration of Sentiments Declaration of the Rights of Women Defense of Marriage Act Deities, Gender Images and Depression Development Alternatives With Women in a New Era Diaries Dieting Disability Discursive Theories of Gender Divine Feminine Spirituality Divorce Domestic Labor Domestic Partners/Civil Unions Domestic Technology Domestic Violence “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” “Down Low,” The Dowry/Daaj Dowry Prohibition Act Drag King Drag Queen Earhart, Amelia Mary Eating Disorders Economy: History of Women’s Participation Education: Chilly Climate in the Classroom Education: Gender Differences Eldercare Ellis, Havelock Emotion Work Equal Pay Act of 1963 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Erickson, Reed Ethics and Moral Development, Gender Differences in Ethnic Cleansing Eugenics Exercise and Fitness Extended Families Family, Organization of Family Law Family Medical Leave Act Family Wage Fatherhood Movements Federation of South African Women Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation Female Farming Systems Femicide Feminine Mystique Feminism and Militarization Feminist Activism in Latin America Feminist Bioethics Feminist Disability Theory Féministes Révolutionnaires Feminist Ethnography Feminist Magazines Feminist Methodology Feminist Sex Wars Feminization of Labor
  • 8. List of Entries———ix Feminization of Migration Femocrat Fertility Rates Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Rights/Public Fetus First, Ruth Footbinding Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act Freud, Sigmund Gandhi, Indira Priyadarshini Nehru Gangs, Boys Gangs, Girls Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation Gender and the Brain Gender and the Internet Gender Discrimination in Employment Gender Dysphoria Gender Identities and Socialization Gender Identity Disorder Gender Outlaw Gender Performance Gender Public Advocacy Coalition Genderqueer Gender Role Ideology and Intimacy Gender Roles on Television Shows Gender Stereotypes Gender Transgression Gender Wage Gap General Union of Palestinian Women Genetic Prenatal Testing Genocide GI Joe Gilman, Charlotte Perkins Glass Ceiling Global Care Chain Work Goldman, Emma Gynecology Hamer, Fannie Lou Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association Hay, Harry Health Care Systems, Hidden/Informal Health Disparities Hegemonic Masculinity Heterosexuality Heterosexual Privilege Hijra/Hejira Hip-Hop/Rap Hirschfeld, Magnus HIV/AIDS Homophobia Homosexuality Honor Killings Hormones Hormone Therapy Hostile Work Environment Household Livelihood Strategies Hull House Human Rights Campaign Human Trafficking. See Sexual Slavery Hysterectomy Hysteria Immigrant Households and Gender Dynamics Incest Indian General Allotment Act Indigenous Women’s Network Infant Mortality Rates Infertility Institution, Gender as International Women’s Day Intersectionality Intersexual, Intersexuality Jones, Mary Harris (Mother) Jorgensen, Christine Judaism, Gender Roles and Kamal, Sufia Kinsey, Alfred C. Komarovsky, Mirra Krafft-Ebing, Richard von Labor Force Participation Rates by Gender Language, Gender Differences Lesbian Lesbian Feminism Lesbian Separatism Lesbian Stereotypes Lookism Mail-Order Brides Male Circumcision Male Feminists ManKind Project, The Maquiladora Marcuse, Herbert Marriage
  • 9. x———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Marriage Promotion Act Married Women’s Property Acts Martineau, Harriet Masculinity Studies Mastectomy Masturbation Materialist Feminism Maternalism Maternity Leave Mate Selection Matrilineal Systems Mattachine Society Mead, Margaret Media and Gender Socialization Media and Gender Stereotypes Menopause Men’s Magazines Men’s Movements Menstruation Mental Health Mentors in Violence Prevention Model Mestiza Consciousness Microlending Midwifery Military, Women in Relation to Military, Women Serving in Military Families Military Masculinity Million Man March Misogyny Mommy Track Monogamy Mormons, Gender Roles and Morning-After Pill Motherhood Mother Teresa Naidu, Sarojini National American Woman Suffrage Association National Association for the Advancement of Colored People National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws National Association of Colored Women National Coalition of American Nuns National Congress of Mothers National Council of Negro Women National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs National Gay and Lesbian Task Force National Organization for Men Against Sexism National Organization for Women (NOW) National Woman’s Party National Women’s Political Caucus Nature/Nurture Debate New Reproductive Technologies NGOs and First- and Second-Generation Rights for Women NGOs and Grassroots Organizing Nightingale, Florence Nineteenth Amendment North American Man/Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition Nuns Occupational Segregation Oedipal Conflict Online Dating Orshansky, Mollie Parental Leave Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Passing Patriarchy Penile Erectile Dysfunction “Personal Is Political” Phallocentrism Planned Parenthood Federation of America Polyamory Polygamy Poor Women’s Grassroots Organizations in America Population Control Pornography, Contemporary-Mainstream Pornography, Legal and Political Perspectives Postcolonial/Subaltern Feminism Postmodern Feminism Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Poverty, Feminization of Pregnancy Premenstrual Syndrome Primetime Comedy Primetime Drama Prison and Parenting Prison Culture and Demographics Private/Public Spheres Privilege, Male Promise Keepers Psychoanalytic Feminism
  • 10. List of Entries———xi Queer Queer Studies Quilting Ramabai, Pandita Rankin, Jeannette Ransome-Kuti, Olufunmilayo Rape Rape, Statutory Rehabilitation Religion, Gender Roles in Reproductive Technologies. See New Reproductive Technologies Research, Gender Bias in Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan Rivera, Sylvia Romance and Relationships Romance Fiction Roosevelt, Eleanor Rosie the Riveter Sadomasochism Safer Sex Same-Sex Families Same-Sex Marriage Sanger, Margaret Sarria, José Sati Scientific Motherhood Self-Employed Women’s Association Self-Esteem Seneca Falls Convention Sentencing, Gender Differences Sex Education Sexism Sexology and Sex Research Sex-Radical Feminists Sex Tourism Sex Toys Sexual Activity: Age at First Intercourse Sexual Harassment Sexual Identities and Socialization Sexuality and Reproduction Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexual Rights and Citizenship Sexual Slavery Sex Versus Gender Categorization Sex Work (Prostitution) Shaarawi, Huda Shakti Shanthi Shari’a Shepard, Matthew Single-Parent Households Sociologists for Women in Society Sodomy Sperm Donors Sports and Homosexuality Standpoint Theory Stanton, Elizabeth Cady Sterilization Steroids Stone Butch Stratified Reproduction Suffrage Movement Suicide Superheroes Surfing Surrogacy Tea Rooms Tearoom Trade Teena, Brandon Teen Pregnancy Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Theology, Feminist Title IX Tomboy/Sissy Torture Toys Traditional Healing Transgender Transgender Political Organizing Transgender Studies Transnational Development, Women and Transsexual Transvestite Truth, Sojourner Two-Spirit. See Berdache (Two-Spirit) Uniform Marital Property Act United Nations Commission on the Status of Women United Nations Decade for Women United Nations Development Fund for Women Universal Human Rights Unwanted Births. See Pregnancy Veiling Viagra. See Penile Erectile Dysfunction Vindication of the Rights of Woman, A Violence Against Women Act
  • 11. xii———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Virginity Voodoo Welfare Reform Wet Nursing Wicca Witches Wollstonecraft, Mary Woman’s Peace Party Women, Food and Agriculture Network Women Against Violence Against Women Women and Islam Women and Militarization. See Feminism and Militarization Women and National Identity Women Artists Women in Science Women’s Christian Temperance Union Women’s Equity Action League Women’s Health Movements Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom Women’s Museums Women’s Peace Society Women’s Political Council Women’s Social and Political Union Women’s Social Movements, History of Women Studies Women’s World Banking Wonder Woman Workfare Yin-Yang
  • 12. Reader’s Guide This list is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. Some entry titles appear in more than one category. American Woman Suffrage Association Arabic Feminist Union Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) Bluestocking Society Brazilian Federation for the Advancement of Women Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics (COYOTE) Christian Coalition Coalition on Violence Against Women (Kenya) Committee on Women, Population, and the Environment Concerned Women for America Daughters of Bilitis Development Alternatives With Women in a New Era Federation of South African Women Féministes Révolutionnaires Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation Gender Public Advocacy Coalition General Union of Palestinian Women Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association Human Rights Campaign Indigenous Women’s Network Mattachine Society National American Woman Suffrage Association National Association for the Advancement of Colored People National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws National Association of Colored Women National Coalition of American Nuns National Congress of Mothers National Council of Negro Women National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs National Gay and Lesbian Task Force National Organization for Men Against Sexism National Organization for Women (NOW) National Woman’s Party National Women’s Political Caucus Arts, Popular Culture, and Sports Advertising, Gender Images in Art, Gender Images In Barbie Bodybuilding Buffy the Vampire Slayer Cheerleading Children’s Literature, Gender Images in Diaries Feminist Magazines Gender Roles on Television Shows GI Joe Hip-Hop/Rap Media and Gender Socialization Media and Gender Stereotypes Men’s Magazines Primetime Comedy Primetime Drama Quilting Romance Fiction Rosie the Riveter Sports and Homosexuality Superheroes Surfing Toys Women Artists Women’s Museums Wonder Woman Associations and Organizations ABANTU for Development ACT UP All-China Women’s Federation All India Women’s Conference American Birth Control League American Civil Liberties Union American Men’s Studies Association xiii
  • 13. xiv———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society North American Man/Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays Planned Parenthood Federation of America Promise Keepers Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan Self-Employed Women’s Association Sociologists for Women in Society United Nations Commission on the Status of Women Woman’s Peace Party Women, Food and Agriculture Network Women Against Violence Against Women Women’s Christian Temperance Union Women’s Equity Action League Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom Women’s Peace Society Women’s Political Council Women’s Social and Political Union Women’s World Banking Biographies Abzug, Bella Addams, Jane Anthony, Susan B. Anzaldúa, Gloria Balch, Emily Greene Benedict, Ruth Benjamin, Harry Blackburn, Molly Cooper, Anna Julia Day, Dorothy de Beauvoir, Simone Earhart, Amelia Mary Ellis, Havelock Erickson, Reed First, Ruth Freud, Sigmund Gandhi, Indira Priyadarshini Nehru Gilman, Charlotte Perkins Goldman, Emma Hamer, Fannie Lou Hay, Harry Hirschfeld, Magnus Jones, Mary Harris (Mother) Jorgensen, Christine Kamal, Sufia Kinsey, Alfred C. Komarovsky, Mirra Krafft-Ebing, Richard von Marcuse, Herbert Martineau, Harriet Mead, Margaret Mother Teresa Naidu, Sarojini Nightingale, Florence Orshansky, Mollie Ramabai, Pandita Rankin, Jeannette Ransome-Kuti, Olufunmilayo Rivera, Sylvia Roosevelt, Eleanor Sanger, Margaret Sarria, José Shaarawi, Huda Shepard, Matthew Stanton, Elizabeth Cady Teena, Brandon Truth, Sojourner Wollstonecraft, Mary Body Image, Health, and Illness Ageism AIDS and International Women’s Health Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Beauty Pageants Body Hair Body Image Body Politics Breast Implants Butch/Femme Cancer Castration Cervical Cancer Vaccination Chromosome Disorders Cosmetic Surgery Depression Dieting Disability Eating Disorders Emotion Work Eugenics
  • 14. Reader’s Guide———xv Exercise and Fitness Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation Feminist Magazines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Gender Transgression Gynecology Health Care Systems, Hidden/Informal Health Disparities Hegemonic Masculinity HIV/AIDS Hormones Hormone Therapy Hysterectomy Hysteria Infant Mortality Rates Infertility Intersexual, Intersexuality Lookism Male Circumcision Mastectomy Menopause Menstruation Mental Health Midwifery New Reproductive Technologies Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Pregnancy Premenstrual Syndrome Self-Esteem Sexually Transmitted Infections Steroids Suicide Traditional Healing Women’s Health Movements Yin-Yang Crime and Criminal Justice Access to Justice Crime and Criminal Justice, Gender and Death Penalty, Gender and the Domestic Violence Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Gangs, Boys Gangs, Girls Genocide Honor Killings ManKind Project, The Mental Health Mentors in Violence Prevention Model Prison and Parenting Prison Culture and Demographics Rape Rape, Statutory Rehabilitation Sentencing, Gender Differences Sexual Harassment Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexual Slavery Sex Work (Prostitution) Torture Economics, Environment, and Ecology Aid to Families with Dependent Children Comparable Worth Domestic Labor Economy: History of Women’s Participation Family Wage Female Farming Systems Feminization of Labor Feminization of Migration Gender Wage Gap Glass Ceiling Global Care Chain Work Health Care Systems, Hidden/Informal Health Disparities Hostile Work Environment Household Livelihood Strategies Immigrant Households and Gender Dynamics Infant Mortality Rates Labor Force Participation Rates by Gender Microlending Mental Health Mommy Track Occupational Segregation Poverty, Feminization of Private/Public Spheres Sex Work (Prostitution) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Welfare Reform Workfare
  • 15. xvi———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Gender Identities and Roles Affirmative Action Alpha Male Androcentrism Androgyny Assertiveness Training Bears Beauty Pageants Bem Sex Role Inventory Berdache (Two-Spirit) Bifurcated Consciousness Biological Determinism Butch/Femme Camp Compulsory Heterosexuality Consciousness-Raising Cross-Dressing Discursive Theories of Gender Drag King Drag Queen Ethics and Moral Development, Gender Differences in Feminine Mystique Footbinding Gangs, Boys Gangs, Girls Gender Dysphoria Gender Identities and Socialization Gender Identity Disorder Gender Outlaw Gender Performance Genderqueer Gender Role Ideology and Intimacy Gender Roles on Television Shows Gender Stereotypes Gender Transgression Glass Ceiling Hegemonic Masculinity Hijra/Hejira Hormones Hysteria Institution, Gender as Intersexual, Intersexuality Language, Gender Differences Lesbian Lesbian Separatism Lesbian Stereotypes Male Feminists Menstruation Military Masculinity Mommy Track Misogyny Nature/Nurture Debate Oedipal Conflict Passing Privilege, Male Self-Esteem Sexism Sexual Activity: Age at First Intercourse Sexual Identities and Socialization Sex Versus Gender Categorization Stone Butch Tomboy/Sissy Transgender Transsexual Transvestite Virginity International Development and Human Rights Asaf Ali, Aruna Caste Comfort Women Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Death Penalty, Gender and Dowry/Daaj Dowry Prohibition Act Eugenics Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation Female Farming Systems Femicide Feminist Activism in Latin America Feminization of Migration Footbinding Genocide Global Care Chain Work HIV/AIDS Honor Killings Immigrant Households and Gender Dynamics Infant Mortality Rates International Women’s Day Maquiladora Microlending Midwifery NGOs and First- and Second-Generation Rights for Women NGOs and Grassroots Organizing Population Control
  • 16. Reader’s Guide———xvii Pornography, Legal and Political Perspectives Postcolonial/Subaltern Feminism Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Rape Sex Tourism Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexual Rights and Citizenship Sexual Slavery Sex Work (Prostitution) Torture Transnational Development, Women and United Nations Development Fund for Women Politics, Public Policy, and Social Movements Abortion Affirmative Action Aid to Families with Dependent Children Anti-Miscegenation Laws Assertiveness Training Black Feminist Thought Bloomsbury Group Body Politics Consciousness-Raising Death Penalty, Gender and Declaration of Sentiments Declaration of the Rights of Women Defense of Marriage Act Disability “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Equal Pay Act of 1963 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Eugenics Family Law Family Medical Leave Act Feminism and Militarization Feminist Activism in Latin America Femocrat Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Rights/Public Fetus Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act Gender Discrimination in Employment Health Care Systems, Hidden/Informal HIV/AIDS Hull House Intersexual, Intersexuality Lesbian Feminism Lookism ManKind Project, The Marriage Promotion Act Married Women’s Property Acts Men’s Movements Mentors in Violence Prevention Model Military, Women in Relation to Military, Women Serving in Military Masculinity Million Man March New Reproductive Technologies NGOs and First- and Second-Generation Rights for Women NGOs and Grassroots Organizing Nineteenth Amendment “Personal Is Political” Poor Women’s Grassroots Organizations in America Pornography, Legal and Political Perspectives Population Control Seneca Falls Convention Sentencing, Gender Differences Sex-Radical Feminists Sexuality and Reproduction Sex Work (Prostitution) Suffrage Movement Surrogacy Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Title IX Transgender Political Organizing Uniform Marital Property Act United Nations Decade for Women Universal Human Rights Vindication of the Rights of Woman, A Violence Against Women Act Welfare Reform Workfare Women and National Identity Women’s Political Council Women’s Social Movements, History of Race and Ethnicity Access to Justice Activo/Passivo Sex Roles Anti-Miscegenation Laws Anzaldúa, Gloria Berdache (Two-Spirit) Black Feminist Thought Body Politics Caste Colorism
  • 17. xviii———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Death Penalty, Gender and “Down Low,” The Ethnic Cleansing Eugenics Gangs, Boys Gangs, Girls Genocide Global Care Chain Work Health Care Systems, Hidden/Informal Health Disparities Hijra/Hejira Hip-Hop/Rap HIV/AIDS Immigrant Households and Gender Dynamics Indian General Allotment Act Intersectionality Kamal, Sufia Lookism Mail-Order Brides Maquiladora Mestiza Consciousness Million Man March Naidu, Sarojini National Association for the Advancement of Colored People National Association of Colored Women National Council of Negro Women Postcolonial/Subaltern Feminism Prison Culture and Demographics Ramabai, Pandita Ransome-Kuti, Olufunmilayo Sarria, José Sati Self-Esteem Sentencing, Gender Differences Shaarawi, Huda Stratified Reproduction Sufia Kamal Torture Traditional Healing Truth, Sojourner Relationships, Marriage, and the Family Adultery Aid to Families with Dependent Children Arranged Marriages Bachelors and Spinsters Bisexuality Boston Marriages Bridal Industry Caregiving Child Support Chivalry Cohabitation Commitment Ceremonies Courtly Love Courtship Deadbeat Dads Divorce Domestic Labor Domestic Partners/Civil Unions Domestic Violence Dowry/Daaj Eldercare Emotion Work Extended Families Family, Organization of Family Law Family Medical Leave Act of 1963 Family Wage Fatherhood Movements Feminization of Migration Gender Stereotypes Global Care Chain Work Gynecology Hegemonic Masculinity Household Family and Medical Leave Act Household Livelihood Strategies Immigrant Households and Gender Dynamics Incest Infertility Mail-Order Brides Marriage Marriage Promotion Act Married Women’s Property Act Maternalism Maternity Leave Mate Selection Matrilineal Systems Midwifery Military Families Monogamy Motherhood Online Dating Parental Leave Patriarchy Polyamory Polygamy Poverty, Feminization of
  • 18. Reader’s Guide———xix Pregnancy Prison and Parenting Private/Public Spheres Romance and Relationships Same-Sex Families Same-Sex Marriage Sati Sexuality and Reproduction Sexually Transmitted Infections Single-Parent Households Sperm Donors Surrogacy Veiling Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Uniform Marital Property Act Welfare Reform Workfare Wet Nursing Religion, Mythology, and Spirituality Christianity: Status of Women in Christianity and Homosexuality Clergy Sex Scandals Deities, Gender Images and Divine Feminine Spirituality Honor Killings Hysteria Judaism, Gender Roles and Mormons, Gender Roles and Nuns Polygamy Religion, Gender Roles in Shakti Shanthi Shari’a Theology, Feminist Traditional Healing Voodoo Wicca Witches Women and Islam Yin-Yang Cyborg Manifesto Depression Domestic Technology Education: Chilly Climate in the Classroom Education: Gender Differences Feminist Bioethics Feminist Disability Theory Feminist Ethnography Feminist Methodology Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Gender and the Brain Gender and the Internet Genetic Prenatal Testing Gynecology HIV/AIDS Hormone Therapy Hysterectomy Masculinity Studies Materialist Feminism Menopause Mental Health Midwifery New Reproductive Technologies Population Control Postmodern Feminism Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Premenstrual Syndrome Psychoanalytic Feminism Queer Studies Research, Gender Bias in Scientific Motherhood Sex Education Sexology and Sex Research Sexually Transmitted Infections Standpoint Theory Steroids Traditional Healing Transgender Studies Women in Science Women’s Health Movements Women Studies Sexuality and Reproduction Science, Research, Education, and Technology Breast Implants Cancer Chromosome Disorders Abortion Activo/Passivo Sex Roles Bisexuality Breastfeeding Celibacy Chastity
  • 19. xx———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Compulsory Heterosexuality Contraception Cybersex “Down Low,” The Feminist Sex Wars Fertility Rates Heterosexuality Heterosexual Privilege Homophobia Homosexuality Incest Infertility Lesbian Masturbation Mate Selection Morning-After Pill Nature/Nurture Debate New Reproductive Technologies Penile Erectile Dysfunction Phallocentrism Polyamory Pornography, Contemporary-Mainstream Pornography, Legal and Political Perspectives Queer Sadomasochism Safer Sex Sexology and Sex Research Sex-Radical Feminists Sex Toys Sexual Activity: Age at First Intercourse Sexual Identities and Socialization Sexuality and Reproduction Sexual Rights and Citizenship Sexual Slavery Sodomy Sperm Donors Sports and Homosexuality Sterilization Stratified Reproduction Surrogacy Tea Rooms Tearoom Trade Teen Pregnancy Virginity
  • 20. About the Editor Jodi O’Brien is the Louis B. Gaffney Professor of Arts and Sciences and chair of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at Seattle University. Her work focuses on social differences and inequality with an emphasis on gender, race/ethnicity, social class, sexuality, and religion. Her books include Everyday Inequalities (1998), Social Prisms: Reflections on Everyday Myths and Paradoxes (1999), and The Production of Reality (2006). Her most recent articles focus on religion and sexuality and the politics of same-gender marriage. She is currently working on a research project exploring the experiences of transgender inmates in California prisons. She is a founding member and past chair (2001–2002) of the American Sociological Association’s Section on Sexualities and recently completed a term as the president of the Pacific Sociological Association (2007–2008). xxi
  • 21. Contributors Roger A. Adkins University of Oregon Kristin Aune University of Derby Amy Blackstone University of Maine Randy Albelda University of Massachusetts, Boston Orit Avishai University of California, Berkeley Sandra L. Bloom CommunityWorks Abdallah Mohammed Badahdah University of North Dakota Sara J. Bocciardi Bassett University of San Francisco Kristen Barber University of Southern California Elizabeth Borland College of New Jersey Kegan M. Allee University of California, Santa Barbara Medora W. Barnes University of Connecticut Sunita Bose State University of New York at New Paltz Rustem Ertug Altinay Bogazici University, Istanbul Rebecca Barnes University of Nottingham Tanetta E. Andersson Case Western Reserve University Dipannita Basu Pitzer College Penelope Andrews City University of New York, Queens College Brett Genny Beemyn University of Massachusetts, Amherst Amy Armenia Hofstra University Tanja Bekhuis TCB Research Janet Armentor-Cota California State University, Bakersfield Michelle Bemiller Kansas State University Linda Czuba Brigance State University of New York at Fredonia Bonnie Berry Social Problems Research Group Adriane Brown Ohio State University Susan Bewley Elyshia Aseltine University of Texas at Austin Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust Karl Bryant State University of New York at New Paltz Chris Ashford University of Sunderland Denille H. Bezemer Reed College Shelley Budgeon University of Birmingham Nancy Alexander Southern Connecticut State University Elizabeth Mitchell Armstrong Princeton University Hamida Bosmajian Seattle University Deirdre Bowen Seattle University Mary Kay Brennan Seattle University Tristan S. Bridges University of Virginia xxiii
  • 22. xxiv———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Daniel Burland University of Massachusetts Catherine A. Cottrell Arizona State University Danielle Dirks University of Texas at Austin Margaret Burland Dartmouth College Stacia Creek Southern Illinois University Patricia Drew University of California, Santa Barbara Jillian Crocker University of Massachusetts, Amherst Alesha Durfee Arizona State University Rebecca J. Culyba Emory University Lauren E. Eastwood State University of New York at Plattsburgh Misty Curreli Stony Brook University of New York Robert Caputi University of California, Santa Barbara Astrid Eich-Krohm University at Albany, State University of New York J. Douglas Dailey Texas A&M University Colin Carman University of California, Santa Barbara Shamita Das Dasgupta Manavi, Inc. & Praxis International, Inc. Anne F. Eisenberg State University of New York at Geneseo Marie Cartier Claremont Graduate University Andrea Dassopoulos Christina Burton California State University, Fullerton Margaret M. Caffrey University of Memphis Paul E. Calarco, Jr. University at Albany, State University of New York Eileen J. Cheng Pomona College Lindsey Churchill Florida State University Mark Cohan Seattle University Rachel Cohen Brunel Business School Carrie L. Cokely Meredith College Lynn Comerford California State University East Bay Catherine Connell University of Texas at Austin Erin Connell Carleton University Carolyn Corrado University at Albany, State University of New York California State University, Bakersfield N. Ann Davis Pomona College Shannon N. Davis George Mason University Joanna R. Davis University of California, Santa Barbara Marc Jung-Whan de Jong University of Southern California Kylan Mattias de Vries Southern Illinois University Carbondale Jackie Eller Middle Tennessee State University Jean Elson University of New Hampshire Cynthia Fuchs Epstein City University of New York Emily Fairchild Indiana University Sylvanna M. Falcón University of California, Santa Barbara Daniel Farr College of Saint Rose Mishel Filisha University at Albany, State University of New York Deborah Finding London School of Economics Mary Jo Deegan University of Nebraska–Lincoln Julie Fish De Montfort University Marjorie L. DeVault Syracuse University Mako Fitts Seattle University
  • 23. Contributors———xxv Melissa Fugiero University of Massachusetts, Amherst Stacie Robyn Furia University of California, Santa Barbara Stanley O. Gaines, Jr. Brunel University Gabriella Gutiérrez y Muhs Seattle University Siân Harris Newcastle University Laura Harrison Indiana University Brian Heaphy University of Manchester Erica Hunter University at Albany, State University of New York Alishia Huntoon Oregon Institute of Technology Mary C. Ingram-Waters University of California, Santa Barbara Carol Brooks Gardner Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis Marcia Hernandez University of the Pacific Nilufer A. Isvan Human Services Research Institute Anita Ilta Garey University of Connecticut Amie Hess New York University Nalini Iyer Seattle University Caroline E. Gates Roger Williams University Melissa J. Hicks Southern Illinois University Carbondale Joyce P. Jacobsen Wesleyan University Marcella C. Gemelli Arizona State University Stacy Gillis Newcastle University Lori B. Girshick Chandler-Gilbert Community College Deborah B. Gould University of Pittsburgh Marilyn L. Grady University of Nebraska–Lincoln Laura Anne Grindstaff University of California, Davis Joshua Grove University at Albany, State University of New York Katja M. Guenther California State University, Fullerton Danielle Antoinette Hidalgo University of California, Santa Barbara Liz Highleyman Independent Scholar Bridget D. Hilarides Reed College Michael R. Hill University of Nebraska–Lincoln Susan W. Hinze Case Western Reserve University Robert T. Hitlan University of Northern Iowa Ann E. Hoover Purdue University Aleksandra Horvath European University Institute Colette Jacquot University of Texas at Arlington Jennifer Jaffer University of Washington Diederik Floris Janssen Independent Scholar Jessica Johnston University of Missouri–St. Louis Marianne Joyce University of Massachusetts, Amherst Nazneen Kane University of Maryland Gunnur Karakurt Purdue University Sya Buryn Kedzior University of Kentucky Elisabeth K. Kelan London Business School Kathleen Guidroz Mount St. Mary’s University Leslie Hossfeld University of North Carolina Wilmington Christopher J. Kelly Boston College Elaine Gunnison Seattle University Li-Ching Hung Mississippi State University Kimberly Carter Kelly University of Georgia
  • 24. xxvi———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Reese Carey Kelly University at Albany, State University of New York Rosalind A. Lazar Columbia University Paulette Kidder Seattle University Lisa Leitz University of California, Santa Barbara Mine Özyurt Kιlιç Bilkent University Margareta Lelea University of California, Davis Maki Kimura Open University Kari Lerum University of Washington, Bothell Sibyl Kleiner Indiana University Denise R. Letendre University of Connecticut Jennifer M. Knack University of Texas at Arlington Gary W. Lewandowski, Jr. Monmouth University Alexandra M. Kokoli Robert Gordon University Michelle Lilly University of Michigan Katherine Koppelman Seattle University Katerina Liskova Masaryk University Mary P. Koss University of Arizona Sharmila Lodhia University of California, Los Angeles Katy Nicole Kreitler University of San Francisco John Krinsky City College of New York Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld Arizona State University Rachael B. Kulick University of Minnesota Robert Kulpa University College London Samantha Kwan University of Houston Gareth Longstaff Newcastle University Ami Lynch George Washington University Vicky M. MacLean Middle Tennessee State University Susan P. Mains University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica Shell Majury University at Albany, State University of New York William D. Marelich California State University, Fullerton Jessica Marion Temple University Susan Markens City University of New York, Lehman College Gina Masequesmay California State University, Northridge Teresa Mayer University of San Francisco Heather McLaughlin University of Minnesota Heather Lee Miller Historical Research Associates, Inc. Theodora R. Moses Rowan University Suzanne E. Moshier University of Nebraska at Omaha JoAnne Myers Marist College Cheryl G. Najarian University of Massachusetts Lowell Anjana Narayan California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Matt Newman Arizona State University Austin Lee Nichols University of Florida Jimmie Manning Northern Kentucky University Shayla C. Nunnally University of Connecticut Molly Monahan Lang Bloomsburg University Lory Manning Women’s Research & Education Institute Stacey J. Oliker University of Wisconsin– Milwaukee Heather Laube University of Michigan–Flint Katherine Cumings Mansfield University of Texas at Austin Kathryn C. Oleson Reed College Nicole LaMarre University at Albany, State University of New York
  • 25. Contributors———xxvii Kristine A. Olsen University of Connecticut Vincent Anthony Pizzuto University of San Francisco Catherine O’Rourke University of Ulster, Magee Campus Nnamdi Pole Smith College Catherine M. Orr Beloit College Terri Power Bath Spa University Sharon S. Oselin University of California, Irvine Tony Purvis Newcastle University Connie G. Oxford State University of New York at Plattsburgh Cheryl L. Radeloff Minnesota State University, Mankato Melanie Panitch Ryerson University Sarah L. Rasmusson College of New Jersey Suzan Parker University of Washington, Bothell Rishi Rattan University of Illinois College of Medicine Julie Shayne University of Washington, Bothell Corinne Reczek University of Texas at Austin Jennifer Shea University of Massachusetts, Boston Vrushali Patil Florida International University Wendy M. Paulson University of California, Irvine Diana M. Pearce University of Washington Natalie M. Peluso University of Connecticut Suzanne Pennington University at Albany, State University of New York Gary K. Perry Seattle University Bill E. Peterson Smith College Debby A. Phillips Seattle University John R. Phillips Forrest Ridge School Leslie Houts Picca University of Dayton Jovan Pino California State University, Bakersfield Megan Reid University of Texas at Austin Ryan Claire Reikowsky University of Arizona Daniel M. Santore University at Albany, State University of New York Kristen Schilt University of California, Los Angeles Beth E. Schneider University of California, Santa Barbara Astrid Schütz Chemnitz University of Technology Julie Shapiro Seattle University Christine Shearer University of California, Santa Barbara Frank Ridzi Le Moyne College Cynthia Siemsen California State University, Chico Timothy D. Ritchie University of Southampton Horacio Sierra University of Florida Karen Esther Rosenberg University of Washington Kimberly Simmons University of South Carolina Kathryn W. Ross Middle Tennessee State University Roona Simpson University of Edinburgh Teal Kristen Rothschild Roger Williams University Raghu N. Singh Texas A&M University–Commerce Sarah B. Rowley Indiana University Karen Manners Smith Emporia State University Lisa Rubin New School for Social Research Carrie Lee Smith Millersville University Deborah Santiago-Cintrón Excelencia in Education Cary Stacy Smith Mississippi State University
  • 26. xxviii———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society Tiffany Marie Smith Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis Natalie Smoak Illinois Wesleyan University Candis Steenbergen Concordia University Rita Stephan University of Texas Amy L. Stone Trinity University Elizabeth Strober Seattle University Jennifer K. Stuller Independent Scholar Gayle A. Sulik Texas Woman’s University Claire F. Sullivan University of Maine Nayer Taheri Muslim Chaplain, Unitarian Universalist Kimberly G. Tauches University at Albany, State University of New York Iman Tavassoly Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Yvette Taylor Newcastle University Robert Teixeira York University Valorie D. Thomas Pomona College Tracie Welser Polk Community College Chauntelle Anne Tibbals University of Texas at Austin Cherie D. Werhun University of Winnipeg Louise Tondeur Roehampton University Rebecca Whisnant University of Dayton Nicole Trabold University at Buffalo Jan Whitaker Independent Scholar Mary Nell Trautner University at Buffalo Ruth Charmaine White Seattle University Linda A. Treiber Kennesaw State University Risa Whitson Ohio University Charles M. Tung Seattle University L. Susan Williams Kansas State University Anne M. Valk Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Beth Williford Purdue University Deborah K. van den Hoonaard St. Thomas University Rebecca Willman University of South Florida Kate Viernes University of San Francisco Kristina B. Wolff University of Maine at Farmington Mary E. Virnoche Humboldt State University Michelle Diane Young University of Texas at Austin William E. Wagner III California State University, Channel Islands Nicole P. Yuan University of Arizona Wendy A. Walsh University of New Hampshire Jane Ward University of California, Riverside Carolyn A. Weber Seattle University Devon Thacker University of Colorado at Boulder Stacy Weida Indiana University Wendy Theodore University of Arizona Rebecca L. Weiler Purdue University James Thing University of Southern California Betty L. Wells Iowa State University Riva R. Zeff Seattle University Sianna A. Ziegler Reed College Laura Zilney Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality
  • 27. Introduction We are continually and inescapably immersed in gender, so much so that we take it for granted without fully realizing its impact on our lives. As gender scholar Judith Lorber once remarked, talking about gender is like fish talking about water. When a child is born, the first question we ask is, “What is it?” We expect that everyone understands that the question is about the baby’s gender. When we do pause to consider what gender is and how it affects us, we may be surprised at the extent to which gender is everywhere and influences every aspect of society. For decades, scholars of gender have been documenting and analyzing the various ways in which gender shapes individual lives, cultural beliefs and practices, and social and economic organization. Once they become aware of its significance, students of gender find themselves thinking about everything from why the labels “men” and “women” on public restrooms evoke such a sense of forbidden territory (we don’t have similar separation in our homes), to why banks and funding agencies prefer to lend money to women rather than men in developing countries. women and men concentrated in different employment sectors, why do men suffer different kinds of disease and depression than women do, and how are women and men affected differently by globalization). Organization of the Encyclopedia Gender is so significant in the ways it shapes individuals and societies that it isn’t possible to cover every aspect of gender scholarship in a single venue. Our intent with this encyclopedia is to provide users with a “gender lens” on society by focusing on significant gender scholarship within commonly recognized areas of social research. Accordingly, the material in this encyclopedia focuses on basic aspects of social life from the most individual (self and identity) to the most global (transnational economics and politics). The specific categories covered in the encyclopedia include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Field Gender scholarship is based on the premise that gender is one of the primary organizational categories of human social life (other significant and interrelated categories of social organization include economic class, race/ethnicity, age, and nationality). In addition to its importance as the central aspect of personal experience and identity, gender can be studied as a social factor that has tremendous impact on economic, cultural, religious, legal, and political institutions. Gender scholars explore questions ranging from the ways in which individual lives are shaped by gender (our ideas about who we think we can be and what we think we should do) to ways in which social institutions reflect gender patterns (for instance, why are Art, Popular Culture, and Sports Associations and Organizations Biographies Body Image, Health, and Illness Crime and Criminal Justice Economics, Environment, and Ecology Gender Identities and Roles International Development and Human Rights Politics, Public Policy, and Social Movements Race and Ethnicity Relationships, Marriage, and the Family Religion, Mythology, and Spirituality Science, Research, Education, and Technology Sexuality and Reproduction Together, these categories encompass the most commonly understood aspects of social life. Within each category, the user will find new information on well-known subjects, surprising information that may xxix
  • 28. xxx———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society counter common assumptions, and information on areas of study in which the impact of gender has been traditionally overlooked. For example, the entries on Cheerleading and GI Joe provide both a history of these gender stereotypical subjects and a framework that allows the reader to view the subjects in novel ways. The entry on Fetal Rights/Public Fetus describes the ways in which medical technology has broadened our knowledge of fetal development, resulting in an emphasis on fetal personhood and, consequently, a greater involvement of the public in determining fetal rights. The entry on Global Care Chain Work reveals the ways in which women working as nannies from developing countries import love and care to wealthy nations but leave a nurturing gap at home. Contemporary scholarship on topics such as the Death Penalty, Microlending, and Cancer indicates ways in which these areas reflect gender differences that have a significant impact. We have also included several “framing” essays representing the organizing categories listed earlier. These essays are longer entries that provide an overview of the area and summarize commonly used concepts and directions of research. These framing essays can be used as a basis for reading related topics and understanding how they fit in contemporary gender scholarship. The material in the encyclopedia reflects the most cutting-edge discussion and scholarship on contemporary issues and debates regarding gender and society. For instance, gender scholars widely accept that the nature-nurture debate is a false dichotomy. The most up-to-date knowledge on gender identities and expression, as well as sexual practices and forms of family organization, indicate that biology, culture, and environment (e.g., diet, medical care, housing, economic stability) are interconnected in complex ways that defy simple explanations. The complexity and nuances of these contemporary frameworks are reflected in many of the entries dealing with topics of sexuality and gender identity. Gender and society is a complex subject. One of the central contributions of the encyclopedia is the framework of analysis that can be seen when reading across several areas and topics. These frameworks reflect an emerging consensus on both the significance of the various areas covered and increasing sophistication in addressing the complexities of gender in ways that are comprehensible, relevant, and useful. This consensus does not necessarily mean complete agreement on how gender influences self and society, but it does reflect cumulative knowledge among scholars on the necessity of a “gender lens” in understanding human development and social life. How the Encyclopedia Was Created The encyclopedia was developed in six steps. Step 1. We knew from the outset that it would not be possible to provide a comprehensive compendium of all the scholarship on gender and society. Accordingly, we assembled a panel of advisory experts to develop an organizational plan for the encyclopedia. This advisory team consisted of senior gender scholars, all of whom have published several books and articles in the field, edited major journals in the field, held positions of leadership in the genderrelated professional organizations of their discipline, and trained at least one generation of graduate students in areas related to gender and society. Step 2. A planning meeting was convened at Sage and all members of the advisory team attended. During this meeting we articulated the following as a basis for organizing the encyclopedia: • Provide users with a “gender lens” on significant topics dealing with the individual and society. • Identify the most commonly recognized aspects of social life to serve as the basis for organizing the selection of topics (this became the Reader’s Guide). • Identify “area experts” for each of the areas of organization. Step 3. We then contacted the people who had been identified as area experts and asked them to suggest topics that they thought should be included in the list of entries (i.e., the headword list). We also asked them to suggest possible contributors to write the suggested entries. The initial headword list, consisting of approximately 570 anticipated entries, was created through this process. It’s noteworthy that during this phase, an initial “buzz” began to develop about the encyclopedia, and we received several helpful emails from people around the world with suggestions for entries that might otherwise have gone overlooked. Step 4. The advisory team and the area experts compiled lists of first-choice contributors to author the
  • 29. Introduction———xxxi entries, and we began the massive task of contacting these people. The initial rate of acceptance was very high and when authors were unavailable to write the entry themselves, they graciously suggested colleagues with similar training and expertise or volunteered to supervise senior-level graduate students in writing the entry. As a result, we are confident that the entries in this encyclopedia represent the most up-todate, cutting-edge scholarship in each of the various areas covered. Most contributors are at academic institutions in the United States and the United Kingdom, but several come from other countries. Creating the headword list and selecting contributors presented considerable challenges in that we wanted to be as comprehensive as possible but do so within the limits of reason given the enormity of our topic. Our method, as reflected in steps 1 through 4, was to make use of the “weak ties” theory of social networks. In other words, we began with an initial team of advisors whose expertise was known to us and then made use of their networks of expertise, thus ensuring a broad reach among scholars working on gender and society around the world. The result is a list of contributors who are sources of the most up-todate knowledge and training in the field and who share a common understanding of contemporary issues and debates in a way that may be the closest approximation to date of a cumulative, collaborative understanding of gender and society. In short, one of the central contributions of the encyclopedia is the list of contributors and the collective voice reflected here in framing the future of this area of scholarship. Step 5. Contributors were provided with basic guidelines and instructions for writing their entries. In particular, they were encouraged to write in a manner that was thorough and accurate but nontechnical and accessible to general readers. Throughout each step, some headwords were either dropped or combined because of redundancy. Step 6. The editor and the associate editors reviewed all entries and requested revisions as necessary to complete the final manuscript. Acknowledgments The scope of this project has been immense. Its completion reflects the combined efforts of many people who were instrumental at various stages throughout the process. Rolf Janke and Jerry Westby envisioned the possibility of this encyclopedia and convinced me that it was doable. Their enthusiasm and encouragement has been unwavering. Diana Axelsen is an editor par excellence and her expertise and insights have been invaluable. I owe much to her keen editorial sensibilities. Kate Schroeder (production editor) and Sara Tauber (developmental editor) have been wonderfully helpful and professional in overseeing the final production of the manuscript. The editorial team, including Carla Freeman and Robin Gold (copy editors), Sally Jaskold and Anne Rogers (proofreaders), and Joan Shapiro (indexer) have done an incredible job attending to the myriad details of this project. In working with them, I have been constantly amazed at all the little, but significant, things they suggest to improve the quality of the encyclopedia. Michele Thompson (assistant to the publisher) and Leticia Gutierrez (systems coordinator) have responded to all of my queries and concerns (and there have been many) with grace and efficiency. Many thanks to all of you on the Sage production team. From the beginning, Judy Howard, Nancy Naples, Peter Nardi, and Mary Romero have been superb colleagues. As advisory editors, they deserve credit for envisioning the working format of the project and assembling the impressive list of contributors represented here. The day-to-day work that has been foundational in completing the project has been handled by the associate editors, Eve Shapiro and Jessica Fields, and the managing editors, Shasti Conrad and Carly Chillmon. This encyclopedia would not have been possible without them. Thanks team! George Ritzer is to blame for talking me into considering this project in the first place, and the following friends, colleagues, and confidantes have each contributed tremendously through pep talks, brainstorms, and ongoing support: Michele Berger, Margaret Breen, Maria Bullon, Wendy Chapkis, Maggie Chon, Sarah Fenstermaker, Gabriella Gutierrez Muhs, Nalini Iyer, Val Jenness, Peter Kollock, Katerina Liskova, Christopher McAuley, Ken Plummer, Jeanette Rodriguez, Leila Rupp, Beth Schneider, Arlene Stein, Verta Taylor, and Yvette Taylor. Seattle University supported the project with funding for research and travel. I am grateful to my colleagues there and especially to the students I teach who remind me continuously of the importance of a gender lens for understanding the complex world in which we live.
  • 30. xxxii———Encyclopedia of Gender and Society My parents also deserve a special note of recognition for showing me, perhaps unintentionally, how to navigate the constraints and limitations imposed by gendered expectations. They really believed that their six daughters (and one son) could be and do anything. I can’t thank them enough for their ongoing and affirming support. The information and ideas provided here are inspired by the countless women and men who everyday and throughout history challenge systems of inequality and discrimination. This spirit of education, justice, and humanity is reflected in the energy and dedication of the contributors. It has been an honor to collaborate with them in this endeavor. Finalmente, mi gratitud profunda para mi compañera hermosa. Gracias por compartir conmigo esta experiencia de vida y siempre inspirarme para seguir hacia el nivel más alto como ser humano. Eres una nepantlera divina. Contigo y caminando de tu mano. Jodi O’Brien
  • 31. A ABANTU FOR gender and social change, providing participants with a basic understanding of gender concepts, and HIV/AIDS in the Workplace, a longer, 9-day program that serves to promote nondiscriminatory policy development for the protection and support of HIVinfected workers. DEVELOPMENT ABANTU for Development, established in 1991 in London by African women, is an international nongovernmental organization. Abantu means “people” in several African languages, and this aptly named title captures the essence of the organization’s peoplecentric philosophy for participation and involvement to positively effect change. ABANTU’s vision statement focuses on recognizing gender discrimination as the key obstacle to sustainable development and social justice. ABANTU is an African- and gender-focused organization whose desired outcome is to empower African people, especially women, to participate at all levels, be it local, national, regional, or international, in policy making and decision making that ultimately impacts their lives both socially and economically. ABANTU maintains four key areas of focus: gender and poverty, gender and conflict, gender and governance, and gender and ICTs (information and communication technologies). The organization’s main goal is to ensure the advancement of women’s interests in a way that is equally beneficial to men and women, using three primary modes of exposure. Research, Publication, and Communications ABANTU provides an assortment of reports and activities derived from its research and publishes a quarterly newsletter. ABANTU News imparts additional tools for empowerment and includes a wide variety of topics, including impact on women’s issues during upcoming elections and openly reporting on sexual assault awareness to promoting good health practices. Advocacy, Public Awareness, and Networking Seminars, public policy forums, and consultations with policymakers and other women’s groups provide content for advocacy campaigns. Various forms of media are enlisted, including ABANTU’s own radio program, called Gender Forum. ABANTU has successfully collaborated with other African and international nongovernmental organizations in various issues concerning gender development, including the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and the Organization of African Unity (OAU), and is currently the only African nongovernmental organization to have gained the United Training and Capacity Building Through utilization of adult learning techniques and recognition of learning differences between genders, ABANTU trainers strive to simultaneously educate and solicit participant contribution. Examples of past workshops include 1-day sessions that focus on 1
  • 32. 2———Abortion Nations Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Commission (ECOSOC). This special status allows ABANTU to attend all United Nations meetings. ABANTU’s main offices are located in the United Kingdom, Kenya, and Tanzania. Additional regional offices include the United Kingdom, covering activities in Europe, and an office in Nairobi, covering activities in East and South Africa. In 1997, an additional regional office opened in Accra, Ghana, to further the focus in West Africa. ABANTU (ROWA) also has a presence in Nigeria. Jennifer Jaffer Further Readings ABANTU for Development. (2006, February). ABANTU News, 4. Web Sites ABANTU: http://www.abantu.org ABANTU for Development (ROWA): http://www.abantu-rowa.org ABORTION The term abortion is defined as an induced or spontaneous expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus of a pregnant woman. In the United States, abortion refers to a medical procedure that terminates a pregnancy, while spontaneous abortions are more commonly called miscarriages. This entry explores the procedures and political controversies of abortion and the abortion debate as generally understood in the United States. In 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court granted women the right to obtain “safe and legal abortions” in the landmark case, Roe v. Wade. A woman’s right to abort a pregnancy was designated a right to privacy protected under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Under Roe v. Wade, women may seek legal abortions at any time during the first and second trimester of pregnancy, and in the third trimester (or after a fetus becomes viable) only if the life or health of a woman or fetus is in danger. Thirty-five years after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains a divisive issue in present-day politics and society. Contemporary women’s rights advocates often focus energies on the preservation of abortion rights, while politically conservative—and often religious—groups work to hinder access of abortion services available to women. Political parties and government officials commonly run campaigns that include speaking out in support of or in opposition to legal abortion. The National Abortion Federation estimates that annually, 1.3 million U.S. women terminate their pregnancies through surgical or medical abortion and approximately 35 percent of American women will have an abortion in their lifetimes. The World Health Organization estimates that 50 million abortions are performed globally each year. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that about 88 percent of abortions occur during the first trimester and approximately 98 percent of abortions take place in the first half of a woman’s pregnancy. Surgical Abortions Surgical abortions are the safest and most common type of abortion procedure. Surgical abortions, known to medical professionals as dilation and extraction (D&X) or dilation and evacuation (D&E) abortions, are performed by using a series of dilators to open the cervix and inserting a small tube or curette attached to a vacuum aspirator, which removes the contents of the uterus. Surgical abortions can be performed at any time during a woman’s pregnancy. The CDC maintains that surgical abortions are safe and effective medical procedures, safer even than giving birth after carrying a pregnancy to term. They state that “less than one in 100 abortions results in serious complications, and less than one in 100,000 abortions have complications that result in death.” Common complications following surgical abortions include infections (typically treated with antibiotics), incomplete abortions or the formation of blood clots requiring follow-up aspiration procedures, and perforation of the uterine wall. D&X procedures and “intact” D&E procedures performed during the late-second and third trimesters are best known in contemporary culture as partial-birth abortions, a term coined by abortion opponents. Such procedures require a doctor to collapse the head of a fetus before bringing it into the birth canal for aspiration. Though abortion doctors have argued this to be the safest procedure for women undergoing latesecond and third trimester abortions, abortion foes maintain that the procedure is inhumane. In 2000, the
  • 33. Abortion———3 Supreme Court heard arguments in Stenberg v. Carhart to review a partial-birth abortion ban proposed in Nebraska and found it unconstitutional, as it lacked exceptions for cases in which a woman’s health or life was in danger. Despite this, President George W. Bush signed the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban of 2003 without provisions for health exceptions. In 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the updated ban in Gonzales v. Carhart and Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., making the procedure illegal in the United States. Medical Abortions Medical abortions were approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 2000 and are generally known as the abortion pill, or RU-486. The clinical name for a medical abortion is Mifeprex. In medical abortions, women ingest pills containing mifepristone and misoprostol to induce an abortion, resembling a spontaneous miscarriage. Though women must take the pills over a series of days and may be required to make three or more doctor’s office visits, many women prefer this less invasive procedure, most of which takes place at home. Medical abortions have been approved by the FDA only through the first 9 weeks of pregnancy. Complications from medical abortions occur in less than 0.5 percent of women, the most common being an incomplete abortion or excessive bleeding, requiring a follow-up surgical aspiration procedure. Other common complications can result in uterine infections and are easily treated with antibiotics. illegal abortions. The World Health Organization estimates that 68,000 women die annually in regions without access to safe and legal procedures. Pro-life is a term adopted by those who oppose abortion. Pro-life individuals acknowledge an embryo or fetus as a life developing within a pregnant woman. Many pro-life individuals claim their stance as a moral or religious one and view abortions as murderous acts. They frequently argue that adoption and parenthood are alternatives to abortion that can be chosen to protect the life of an unborn child, and they speak out against birth control and safer-sex education in favor of abstinence-only education by promoting virginity until marriage. They contend that a culture promoting abstinence-only education will decrease the number of sexually active individuals, thus contributing to a decrease of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. It is important to note that pro-choice and pro-life are propaganda terms that have been successfully utilized to imply a certain message or political stance. Though some pro-choice individuals refer to abortion opponents as “anti-choice” or “anti-woman,” abortion opponents claim that women have more choices than abortion, such as adoption or parenthood, and that their concern is for the mental and physical health of women. Similarly, pro-life individuals often claim that supporters of abortion are “anti-life” or “proabortion,” though most pro-choice advocates argue that they support the right of women to choose among parenthood, abortion, or adoption and are not advocating one over another. Instead, they believe women should make their own health-related decisions. Limitations on Obtaining Abortions The Abortion Debate: Pro-Choice Versus Pro-Life Pro-choice is a term adopted by supporters of legal abortion, inferring that women should have the right to choose abortion, carry a pregnancy to term, and make other choices regarding their reproductive health. Prochoice individuals commonly support initiatives to make birth control and safer-sex education and funding available to mass populations to help prevent unplanned pregnancy, thus ultimately lowering the number of necessary abortions. Supporters of abortion also contend that if abortion were outlawed, women would continue to seek ill