Mathematic form1

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Mathematic form1

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Secondary SchoolsCurriculum SpecificationsMATHEMATICSForm 1Curriculum Development CentreMinistry of Education Malaysia2002
  2. 2. CONTENTSPageWHOLE NUMBERS 1NUMBER PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES 4FRACTIONS 10DECIMALS 15PERCENTAGES 18INTEGERS 19ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 21BASIC MEASUREMENTS 23LINES AND ANGLES 26POLYGONS 28PERIMETER AND AREA 30SOLID GEOMETRY 32
  3. 3. 11. Learning Area: Whole NumbersLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Understand theconcept of wholenumbers.Count; read and write wholenumbers in words or numerals.Students read and write wholenumbers while counting from agiven initial value to a final value ina certain specified interval.e.g. i. Count on in tens from 20 to100.ii. Count back in hundredsfrom 1200 to 200.Estimate values, including that ofreal-life situations by rounding.i. Count, read and write whole numbers.ii. Identify place value and value of eachdigit in whole numbers.iii. Round whole numbers.Emphasise therelationshipbetweenrounding andestimation.WholenumberPlace valueDigitIntervalRoundEstimateNearestLargerLargestSmallerSmallestNearest ten,hundred,thousand…hundredthousand.
  4. 4. 2Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary2. Perform computationsinvolving additionand subtraction ofwhole numbers tosolve problems.3. Perform computationsinvolvingmultiplication anddivision of wholenumbers to solveproblems.Explore addition and subtractionusing standard algorithm (rules ofcalculations), estimation, mentaland speed computation or pencil-and-paper.Use calculators to compare andverify answers.Students pose and solve problemsrelated to addition and subtractionof whole numbers.Explore multiplication and divisionusing standard algorithm (rules ofcalculations), estimation, mentaland speed computation or pencil-and-paper.Use calculators to compare andverify answers.Students explore the relationshipbetween multiplication and division.Students pose and solve problemsrelated to multiplication anddivision of whole numbers.i. Add whole numbers.ii. Solve problems involving addition ofwhole numbers.iii. Subtract whole numbers.iv. Solve problems involving subtractionof whole numbers.i. Multiply two or more whole numbers.ii. Solve problems involvingmultiplication of whole numbers.iii. Divide a whole number by a smallerwhole number.iv. Solve problems involving division ofwhole numbers.Addition andsubtractionshould begin withtwo numbers.Emphasise thatsubtraction is theinverse ofaddition.Emphasise that:The quotientof a numberdivided byzero isundefined.The quotientof zerodivided byany number(except zero)is zero.AddAdditionSubtractSubtractionMultiplyMultiplicationDivideDivisionRegroupAlgorithmEstimateEstimationMental andspeedcomputationComputeQuotientUndefinedInverseSumDifference
  5. 5. 3Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary4. Perform computationsinvolving combinedoperations ofaddition,subtraction,multiplication anddivision of wholenumbers to solveproblemsStudents explore combinedoperations of whole numbers byusing standard algorithm (rules ofcalculations), estimation, pencil-and-paper or calculator.Solve problems related to real-lifesituations.Students use calculators tocompare and verify answers.i. Perform computations involving anycombination of addition, subtraction,multiplication and division of wholenumbers, including the use ofbrackets.ii. Solve problems involving combinedoperations of addition, subtraction,multiplication and division of wholenumbers, including the use ofbrackets.Emphasise onthe order ofoperations andthe use ofbrackets.MultiplyMultiplicationDivideDivisionEstimateComputeSolveBracketOrder ofoperationsCombinedoperationCombination
  6. 6. 42. Learning Area: Number Patterns and SequencesLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Recognise and extendnumber patterns andsequences formed bycounting on andcounting back inintervals of any size.Relate number sequence topatterns in real-life situations.e.g. Odd numbers are used asaddresses of houses on one side ofthe road and even numbers on theother.Use calculators to skip count(generate number sequences),explore number patterns, and solveproblems.i. Describe the pattern of a givennumber sequence.ii. Extend number sequences.iii. Complete missing terms in givennumber sequences.iv. Construct number sequences basedon given patterns.Do not includenegativenumbers.2. Recognise odd andeven numbers andmake generalstatements aboutthem.Explore general statements aboutodd and even numbers such as:a. The sum of odd and evennumbers.b. The product of odd and evennumbers.c. The difference between oddand even numbers.i. Identify and describe odd and evennumbers.ii. Make general statements about oddand even numbers.NumbersequencePatternTermSumProductDifferenceCount onCount backOddEvenSubtractMultiplyConstruct
  7. 7. 5Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary3. Understand thecharacteristics ofprime numbers.Use calculators or computerprogrammes to explore primenumbers.Use sieve of Eratosthenes togenerate prime numbers less than100.i. Identify the characteristics ofprime numbers.ii. Determine whether a givennumber is a prime number.iii. Determine all the prime numbersless than 100.Emphasise thatNumber 1 is not aprime number.4. Understand thecharacteristics anduse the knowledge offactors of wholenumbers.Determine factors of wholenumbers by exploring andinvestigating.i. List factors of whole numbers.ii. Determine whether a number is afactor of another whole number.Emphasise that 1and the numberitself are factorsof any number.Prime numberFactorPrime Factor5. Understand thecharacteristics anduse the knowledge ofprime factors ofwhole numbers.Students explore and investigateto determine prime factors ofwhole numbers.State any given whole number asa product of its prime factors.i. Identify prime factors from a list offactors.ii. Find prime factor(s) of wholenumbers.iii. Determine whether a number is aprime factor of another wholenumber.
  8. 8. 6Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary6. Understand and usethe knowledge ofmultiples of wholenumbers.Students use the divisibility test of2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and theircombinations.e.g.30 can be divided by 6.Therefore itcan be divided by 2 and 3 andvice-versa.i. List the multiples of wholenumbers.ii. Determine whether a number isthe multiple of another number.Emphasise thatthe list ofmultiples of anumber is also anumbersequence.Use smallnumbers todevelop theconcept.MultipleDivisibleDivisibility testCommonmultipleLowestCommonMultiple (LCM)Sequence
  9. 9. 7Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary7. Understand thecharacteristics anduse the knowledge ofcommon multiplesand LowestCommon Multiple(LCM) of wholenumbers.Students find common multiplesand LCM by listing down themultiples of each given number.e.g.Multiples of 4 : 4, 8, 12, ……Multiples of 6 : 6, 12, ……Common Multiples of 4 and 6:12, 24, 36, 48, ……which are the multiples of 12.Use the method of “primefactorisation” to find commonmultiples and LCM.e.g.4 = 2 x 26 = 2 x 3Therefore the LCM of 4 and 6 is2 x 2 x 3 = 12.i. Find the common multiples of twoor three whole numbers.ii. Determine whether a number isthe common multiple of two orthree given numbers.iii. Determine the LCM of two or threegiven numbers.Emphasise that alist of commonmultiples is also anumbersequence.Use smallnumbers todevelop theconcept
  10. 10. 8Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyUse algorithm to find the LCM.8. Understand and usethe knowledge ofcommon factors andHighest CommonFactors (HCF) ofwhole numbers.Students list down all the factors ofeach given number and identify thesame factors for each number.Students explore, identify anddetermine common factors ofwhole number.i. Find common factors of two or threewhole numbers.ii. Determine whether a number is acommon factor of two or three givenwhole numbers.iii. Determine the HCF of two or threegiven numbers.CommonFactorHighestCommonFactor (HCF)4, 62, 31, 32231, 1LCM = 2 x 2 x 3= 12
  11. 11. 9Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents find the HCF by listingdown all the factors of each givennumber.Explore, identify and determine theHCF of whole numbers.Use the method of primefactorisations to find the commonprime factors and hence HCF.e.g.12 = 2 x 2 x 318 = 2 x 3 x 3Common Prime Factors: 2 and 3The HCF: 2 x 3 = 6Use algorithm to find HCF.
  12. 12. 103. Learning Area: FractionsLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Understand and usethe knowledge offractions as part of awhole.Use concrete materials anddrawings to demonstrate theconcept of fractions such as:a. Folding a ribbon to find one-third of its length.b. The number of girls ascompared to the whole class.c. Folding papers.i. Read fractions.ii. Describe fractions as parts of awhole.iii. Represent fractions withdiagrams.iv. Write fractions for givendiagrams.54read as:Four over five2215read as: Fifteenover twenty twoUse the termsnumerator anddenominator.2. Understand and usethe knowledge ofequivalent fractions.Use concrete materials anddrawings to demonstrate theconcept of equivalent fractions.Use paper folding to explain andexplore:Why63is the same as21.Compare the values of twofractions by converting them tofractions with the samedenominator or the samenumerator.i. Find equivalent fractions for agiven fraction.ii. Determine whether two givenfractions are equivalent.iii. Compare the values of two givenfractions.iv. Arrange fractions in order.v. Simplify fractions to the lowestterms.Use number lines,concrete materials orthe concept ofequivalent fractionsto compare fractions.FractionDenominatorNumeratorEquivalentfractionsLowest termsArrangeOrder
  13. 13. 11Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary3. Understand theconcept of mixednumbers and theirrepresentations.Use concrete materials, drawingsand number lines to representmixed numbers.Identify the use of mixed numbersin everyday situations.i. Recognise mixed numbers.ii. Represent mixed numbers withdiagrams.iii. Write mixed numbers based ongiven diagrams.iv. Compare and order mixednumbers on number lines.Mixed numberProperfractionImproperfractionNumber lineDenominator4. Understand theconcept of properfractions andimproper fractions.Use concrete materials anddrawings to demonstrate therelationship between mixednumbers and improper fractions.Use calculators to explore therelationship between mixednumbers and improper fractions.i. Recognise proper and improperfractions from given fractions.ii. Change mixed numbers intoimproper fractions.iii. Change improper fractions intomixed numbers.
  14. 14. 12Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary5. Understand theconcept of additionand subtraction offractions to solveproblems.Use concrete materials, drawingsand symbols to demonstrate theprocess of addition and subtractionof fractions.Add and subtract fractions bywriting the fractions in theirequivalent forms with commondenominators including the use ofLCM.Perform addition and subtraction ofmixed numbers by:i) Adding and subtracting wholenumbers and fractionsseparately.ii) Writing mixed numbers in theform of improper fractions.Pose and solve problems related toeveryday situations.i. Perform addition involving:a. Fractions with commondenominators.b. Fractions with differentdenominators.c. Whole numbers andfractions.d. Fractions and mixednumbers.e. Mixed numbers.ii. Perform subtraction involving:a. Fractions with commondenominators.b. Fractions with differentdenominators.c. Whole numbers andfractions.d. Fractions and mixednumbers.e. Mixed numbers.iii. Solve problems involvingcombined operations of additionand subtraction of fractions.Addition andsubtraction involvingnot more than threenumbers.MixedNumberAddSubtractFractionSimplefractionLowest termEquivalentfractions
  15. 15. 13Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary6. Understand theconcept ofmultiplication anddivision of fractionsto solve problems.Use concrete materials, drawingsand symbols to explore andinvestigate the process ofmultiplication and division offractions.Examples of multiplication:a. A whole number times afraction.3 x433 x43=49= 241b. A whole number times a mixednumber.4 x 1214 x 121= 4 x23=212= 6i. Multiply:a. A whole number by afraction or mixed number.b. A fraction by a wholenumber.c. A fraction by a fraction(include mixed numbers).ii. Solve problems involvingmultiplication of fractions.iii. Divide:a. A fraction by a wholenumber.b. A fraction by a fraction.c. A whole number by afraction.d. A mixed number by a mixednumber.iv. Solve problems involvingdivision of fractions.Emphasisemultiplication offractions asrepeated addition ofthe fractionsDivision involving notmore than threenumbers includingwhole numbers,fractions and mixednumbers.MultiplyDivideMixedNumberRepeatedadditionNumerator
  16. 16. 14Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabularyc. A fraction times a fraction.654365x43=2415=857. Perform computationsinvolving combinedoperations ofaddition, subtraction,multiplication anddivision of fractionsto solve problems.Pose problems related to real-lifesituations.Use concrete materials anddiagrams to demonstratecomputations.i. Perform computations involvingcombined operations ofaddition, subtraction,multiplication and division offractions, including the use ofbrackets.ii. Solve problems involvingcombined operations ofaddition, subtraction,multiplication and division offractions, including the use ofbrackets.Limit the operationsto three numbersincluding wholenumbers and mixednumbers.Emphasise the orderof operations,including the use ofbrackets.MultiplicationAdditionSubtractionDivisionCombinedoperationMixed numberWholenumberBracket
  17. 17. 154. Learning Area: DecimalsLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Understand therelationship betweendecimals andfractions.Use concrete materials, drawings,calculators and symbols to explainthe relationship between decimalsand fractions.i. Represent fractions101and1001asdecimals and vice-versa.ii. Represent fractions withdenominators 10,100 and 1000 asdecimals.iii. Read and write decimals tothousandths.iv. Change fractions to decimals andvice-versa.0.3 read as: zeropoint three0.05 read as:zero point zerofive3.29 read as:three point twonine.FractionDecimalDenominatorTenthsHundredthsThousandthsNumber linePlace valueValue of adigitRoundingDecimal point2. Understand the conceptof place value andvalue of each digit indecimals.Use number lines to compare andorder decimals.i. State the place value and value ofeach digit in decimals.ii. Compare the values of two givendecimals.iii. Arrange decimals in order.iv. Round decimals to the nearest wholenumber or up to three decimal places.Emphasise therelationshipbetweenrounding andestimation.
  18. 18. 16Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary3. Understand the conceptof addition andsubtraction ofdecimals to solveproblems.Use concrete materials, drawingsand symbols.Solve problems related to everydaysituations.Use calculators or computers toverify answers.Use estimation strategies todetermine whether the solution isreasonable.i. Add decimals.ii. Solve problems involving addition ofdecimals.iii. Subtract decimals.iv. Solve problems involving subtractionof decimals.Include wholenumbers.Addition andsubtractionshould begin withtwo decimals.Limit to threedecimal places.AddSubtractDecimalMultiplyDivideMentallydivideMentallymultiplyReasonableEstimation4. Understand the conceptof multiplication anddivision of decimals tosolve problems.Relate to everyday situations.Use appropriate calculationmethods such as pencil-and -paper, calculators and computers.Mentally multiply decimals by 10,100 and 1000.Mentally multiply decimals by 0.1,0.01 and 0.001.Mentally divide decimals by 10,100 and 1000.Mentally divide decimals by 0.1,0.01 and 0.001.i. Multiply two or more decimals.ii. Solve problems involvingmultiplications of decimalsiii. Divide:a. A decimal by a whole number.b. A decimal by a decimal.c. A decimal by a fraction.iv. Solve problems involving division ofdecimals.For multiplicationand division,include wholenumbers.Begin with onedigit wholenumber
  19. 19. 17Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary5. Perform computationsinvolving combinedoperation of addition,subtraction,multiplication anddivision of decimals tosolve problems.Pose problems related to everydaysituations.i. Perform computations involvingcombined operations of addition,subtraction, multiplication and divisionof decimals, including the use ofbrackets.ii. Solve problems involving combinedoperations of addition, subtraction,multiplication and division of decimals,including the use of brackets.Emphasise theorder ofoperationsincluding the useof brackets.Include wholenumbers andfractionsAdditionSubtractionMultiplicationDivisionDecimalBracketCombinedoperation
  20. 20. 185. Learning area: PercentagesLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Understand theconcept ofpercentages and therelationship betweenpercentages andfractions or decimals.2. Performcomputations andsolve problemsinvolving percentages.Use concrete materials anddrawings to demonstratepercentages.e.g. Use ten by ten grids to discuss theequivalent percentages offractions and decimals. Forexample the fraction21has adecimal equivalent of 0.5, and 0.5has a percentage equivalent of50%. (21= 0.5 or 50%)Pose and solve problems involvingprofit and loss, simple interest,dividend, commission anddiscount.i. Express percentages as the numberof parts in every 100.ii. Change fractions and decimals topercentages and vice-versa.i. Find the percentage of a quantity.ii. Find the percentage one number is ofanother.iii. Find a number given the percentage.iv. Find the percentage of increase ordecrease.v. Solve problems involvingpercentages.Use the symbol% to representpercent.Includepercentageslarger than 100.30% of 240 = 723 of 12 = 25%8 is 20% of whatnumber? (40)Original amount: 15Increased to: 18Find percentage ofincrease.Original amount: 40Decreased to: 10Find percentage ofdecrease.PercentFractionDecimalIncreaseDecreaseDiscountProfitLossSimpleinterestDividendCommission
  21. 21. 196. Learning Area: IntegersLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Understand and usethe knowledge ofintegers.Introduce integers in context (e.g.temperatures, sea levels and floorsof building).Students complete sequences ofintegers, find the missing terms,and identify the largest and thesmallest value of integers fromgiven sets of integers.Given sets of integers, studentsorder them on number lines.i. Read and write integers.ii. Represent integers on number lines.iii. Compare the values of two integers.iv. Arrange integers in order.v. Write positive or negative numbers torepresent word descriptions.– 32 read as:negative thirty-two.– 5 is less than – 2–15 is greater than–25Words description:e.g.i. 30 metresbelow sealevel: – 30ii. Weight gain of2 kg: 2The number 0 isneither positivenor negative.IntegerNegativenumberPositivenumberNumber lineTemperatureSea levelFloors of abuildingLess thanGreater thanWordsdescriptionMissingtermsLargestSmallest
  22. 22. 20Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary2. Perform computationsinvolving additionand subtraction ofintegers to solveproblems.Use number lines to add andsubtract integers.Use concrete materials, drawings,and symbols (e.g. coloured chips)to demonstrate addition andsubtraction of integers.Use brackets to differentiatebetween operations and the signsof numbers.Solve problems related to real-lifesituations.i. Add integers.ii. Solve problems involving addition ofintegers.iii. Subtract integers.iv. Solve problems involving subtractionof integers.Begin addition andsubtraction usingtwo integers.– 8 – (– 7) read asnegative eightminus negativeseven.– 4 – 2 read asnegative four minustwo.Addition shouldinclude like andunlike signs.e.gLike signs:9+5, – 7+ (– 8)Unlike signs:3 + (– 4),(– 9) + 5Differentiatebetweenoperations andsigns.Relatesubtraction ofintegers toaddition.AddAdditionSubtractSubtractionMinusPlusIntegerNegativePositiveLike signsUnlike signs
  23. 23. 217. Learning Area: Algebraic ExpressionsLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to:1. Understand theconcept ofunknowns.2. Understand theconcept of algebraicterms.Use examples of everydaysituations to explain unknowns.e.g: Glass X contains y numbers ofmarbles.Which letter represents theunknown number?Give a list of terms and studentsselect algebraic terms with oneunknown.Students will be able to:i. Use letters to represent unknownnumbers.ii. Identify unknowns in givensituations.i. Identify algebraic terms with oneunknown.ii. Identify coefficients in given algebraicterms with one unknown.iii. Identify like and unlike algebraicterms with one unknown.iv. State like terms for a given term.An algebraic termis written as 3xnot x3A number, e.g 8 isalso a term.2xis a term.7p :The coefficient ofp is 7.UnknownTermAlphabetAlgebraictermMultiplicationCoefficientLike termsUnlike termsX
  24. 24. 22Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary3. Understand theconcept of algebraicexpressions.Use concrete materials todemonstrate the concept ofcombining like and unlike terms.e.g.i. 4s + 8s = 12sii. 5r – 2r = 3riii. 7g + 6h cannot be simplifiedbecause they are not like terms.iv. 3k + 4 + 6k – 3= 3k + 6k + 4 – 3= 9k + 1i. Recognise algebraic expressions.ii. Determine the number of terms ingiven algebraic expressions.iii. Simplify algebraic expressions bycombining the like terms.4p = p + p + p + pAlgebraicexpressionNumber oftermsLike termsUnlike termsSimplify
  25. 25. 238. Learning Area: Basic MeasurementsLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Understand theconcept of length tosolve problems.Measure the length of objectsaround the school compound.Students draw a line given itslength.Measure given lines using differentstandard units.i. Measure the length of objects.ii. Convert one metric unit to another.(mm, cm, m and km)iii. Estimate lengths of objects inappropriate units.iv. Use the four operations to solveproblems involving length.Emphasise theimportance ofusing standardmeasurement.Introduceinches, feet,yards, milesand nauticalmiles.2. Understand theconcept of mass tosolve problems.Relate to everyday situations. i. Measure the mass of objects.ii. Convert one metric unit to another.(mg, g, kg, tonne).iii. Estimate masses of objects inappropriate units.iv. Use the four operations to solveproblems involving mass.LengthMillimetreCentimetreMetreKilometreEstimateMeasureConvertMetric unitsMassMilligramsGramsKilogramsNautical mileInchFeetYard
  26. 26. 24Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary3. Understand theconcept of time inseconds, minutes,hours, days, weeks,months and years.Use calendars, clocks or stop-watches to discuss themeasurement of time for events.Suggest a unit to estimate ormeasure:i. The time it will take to eat lunch.ii. Your age.iii. How long it takes for water toboil?iv. How long it takes to run 100metres?Involve great events in history.i. Determine the appropriatemeasurement of time for certain events.ii. Convert measurement of time indifferent units (seconds, minutes, hours,days, weeks, months and years).iii. Estimate the time intervals of events.iv. Use the four operations to solveproblems involving time.1 millennium= 1000 years1 century= 100 years1 year= 12 months= 52 weeks= 365 days1 week= 7 days1 day= 24 hours1 hour= 60 minutes1 minute= 60 secondsTimeSecondMinuteHourDayWeekMonthYearCenturyMillenniumMeasurementLeap year
  27. 27. 25Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary4. Understand and usetimes in the twelve-hour and twenty-fourhour system to solveproblems.Use digital and analogue clocks.Read times from train or busschedules.Relate events to everydaysituations.i. Read and write times in twelve-hoursystem.ii. Read and write times in twenty-four-hour system.iii. Convert time in twelve-hour system totwenty-four hour system and vice-versa.iv. Determine the interval between twogiven times.v. Solve problems involving time.7.30 read asseven thirty;half past seven;thirty minutespast seven andthirty minutes toeight.Introduce a.m.and p.m.0350 read asthree fifty hour3.50 a.m. readas three fiftya.m. or threefifty in themorning.1900 read asnineteenhundred hours.Twelve hoursystemTwenty-fourhour systemTime IntervalTimeDigital clockAnalogueclock
  28. 28. 269. Learning Area: Lines and AnglesLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to:1. Understand theconcept of angles.Students identify angles in theclassroom. (e.g. corners of tables,blackboards, windows, clockhands, and opened doors).Students demonstrate the differenttypes of angles with their arms.Guide students on how to useprotractors to measure angles.Students should be able to:i. Recognise angles.ii. Denote and label angles.iii. Measure angles using protractors.iv. Draw angles using protractors.v. Recognise, compare and classifyangles as acute, right, obtuse andreflex.vi. Draw acute, right, obtuse andreflex angles using protractors.vii. Determine angles on straight linesequal 180°.viii. Determine one whole turn is 360°.An angle is formedby two straightlines that meet ata point called thevertex.Angles can benamed as BACor A or B A C.Use degree ( ° )as the unit ofmeasurement ofangles.One whole turn is360°.AngleLineProtractorLabelDenoteRight angleAcute angleReflex angleObtuse AngleOne whole turnVertexClassifyCompareDegreeVertexlineline) Angle
  29. 29. 27Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary2. Understand theconcept of parallel andperpendicular lines.Students identify perpendicular andparallel lines in the classroom (e.gedges of books, windows anddoors).i. Determine parallel lines.ii. Determine perpendicular lines.iii. State that the angles formed byperpendicular lines is 90°.Two lines areparallel if theynever intersect.A perpendicularline is a line thatmakes a 90° withanother line.Denote a 90°angle as:3. Understand and useproperties of anglesassociated withintersecting lines tosolve problems.Students investigate the propertiesof angles formed by intersectinglines.i. Identify intersecting lines.ii. Determine the properties ofvertical, complementary andsupplementary angles.iii. Determine the value of an angleon a line, given the adjacentangle.iv. Solve problems involving anglesformed by intersecting lines.ba dcVertical-anglepairs:a = db = cSum of adjacentangles on astraight line is180°(a + b =180°)Parallel linesPerpendicularlinesIntersectinglinesComplementaryangleSupplementaryangleAdjacent angleVerticallyopposite angle90°
  30. 30. 2810. Learning Area: PolygonsLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Understand theconcept of polygons.Use concrete materials such asprotractors, rulers, grid papers,geo-boards and computer softwareto explore the concept of polygons.Students explore the relationshipbetween the sides, diagonals andvertices of polygons.i. Recognise polygons.ii. Name polygons (triangle,quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon,heptagon and octagon).iii. Determine the number of sides,vertices and diagonals of givenpolygons.iv. Sketch polygons.2. Understand theconcept of symmetry.Students explore symmetry byusing mirrors, pattern blocks,folding papers or making inkblotdesigns.Students explore the importance ofsymmetry in everyday situations(e.g. pattern on buildings and tiles).i. Determine and draw the line(s) ofsymmetry of shapes.ii. Complete shapes given part of theshapes and the line of symmetry.iii. Draw designs using the concept ofsymmetry.Use capital lettersto name vertices.Shapes includepolygonsPolygonTriangleQuadrilateralPentagonHexagonHeptagonOctagonVerticesSidesDiagonalShapeSymmetryLine ofsymmetrySketch
  31. 31. 29Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:3. Identify and use thegeometric propertiesof triangles to solveproblems.Investigate the relationship betweenangles and sides of all types oftriangles.Use a variety of methods to find thesum of angles of triangles: e.galigning corners on a straight line,using protractors and geometrycomputer software.i. Determine and draw symmetry line(s)of given triangles.ii. Draw triangles using protractors andrulers.iii. State the geometric properties of thedifferent types of triangles and namethe triangles.iv. Determine that the sum of the anglesof a triangle is 180°.v. Solve problems involving triangles.4. Identify and use thegeometric properties ofquadrilaterals to solveproblems.Investigate the relationship betweenangles, sides and diagonals of alltypes of quadrilateral.Use a variety of methods to find thesum of angles of quadrilaterals: e.galigning corners on a point, usingprotractors and geometry computersoftware.i. Determine and draw symmetry line(s)of given quadrilaterals.ii. Draw a quadrilateral using protractorand ruler.iii. State the geometric properties of thedifferent types of quadrilaterals andname quadrilaterals.iv. Determine that the sum of the anglesof a quadrilateral is 360°.v. Solve problems involvingquadrilaterals.Types oftriangles:IsoscelestriangleEquilateraltriangleScalenetriangleAcute triangleRight-angledtriangleObtusetriangleTypes ofquadrilaterals:SquareRectangleRhombusParallelogramTrapeziumIsoscelesEquilateralScaleneAcutetriangleObtusetriangleRight-angledtriangleQuadrilateralSquareRectangleParallelogramTrapeziumRhombusDiagonalGeometricpropertiesAlignCorner
  32. 32. 3011. Learning Area : Perimeter and AreaLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to: Students will be able to:1. Understand the conceptof perimeter to solveproblems.Use square chips, tessellationgrids, geo-boards, grid-papers orcomputer software to explore theconcept of perimeter.Investigate and develop formula tofind the perimeter of a rectangle.i. Identify the perimeter of a region.ii. Find the perimeter of a regionenclosed by straight lines.iii. Solve problems involving perimeters.Shapes enclosedby straight linesand curves.Limit to straightlines.2. Understand the conceptof area of rectangles tosolve problems.Use unit squares, tessellation grids,geo-boards, grid-papers orcomputer software to explore theconcept of area.Investigate and develop formula tofind the area of a rectangle.Use unit square chips or tiles toinvestigate, explore and makegeneralisations about the:a. Perimeters of rectangles havingthe same area.b. Areas of rectangles having thesame perimeter.i. Estimate the area of a shape.ii. Find the area of a rectangle.iii. Solve problems involving areas.cm2read assquare cm.The area of a unitsquare is 1square unitArea of a righttriangle=21of the areaof a rectangle.PerimeterFormulaeMeasureFigureAreaSquare unitRegionEnclosed
  33. 33. 31Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary3. Understand theconcept of area oftriangles,parallelograms andtrapezium to solveproblems.Investigate and develop formulaeto find the areas of triangles,parallelograms and trapeziumsbased on the area of rectangle.Solve problems such as finding theheight or base of a parallelogram.i. Identify the heights and bases oftriangles, parallelograms andtrapeziums.ii. Find the areas of triangles,parallelograms and trapeziums.iii. Find the areas of figures made up oftriangles, rectangles, parallelogramsor trapeziums.iv. Solve problems involving the areas oftriangles, rectangles, parallelogramsand trapeziums.AreaTriangleTrapeziumParallelogramHeightBaseRectangleFigure
  34. 34. 3212. Learning Area: Solid GeometryLearning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note VocabularyStudents will be taught to:1. Understand geometricproperties of cubesand cuboids.Use concrete materials todemonstrate the concepts ofgeometric solids.Game: Searching out Solids.Make up sets of activity cardscontaining descriptions of solidssuch as:a. Exactly two faces that are thesame shape and size.b. All edges have the samelength.Students compete to search outsolids in the classroom based onthe descriptions.Investigate and explore therelationship between faces, edgesand vertices of cubes and cuboids.Compare and contrast betweencubes and cuboids.Ask students how they are alike ordifferent.Use concrete materials (openedboxes) to draw the layout of cubesand cuboids.Students will be able toi. Identify geometric solids.ii. State the geometric properties ofcubes and cuboids.iii. Draw cubes and cuboids on:a. Square grids.b. Blank papers.iv. Make models of cubes and cuboidsby:a. Combining given faces.b. Folding given layouts of solids.Geometric solidsincludeCubesCuboidsCylindersPyramidsConesSpheresFaceEdgeVertexVerticesCubeCuboidCylinderPyramidConeSphereSurface
  35. 35. 33Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and LearningActivitiesLearning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary2. Understand theconcept of volume ofcuboids to solveproblemsUse unit cubes or other concretematerials to let students explorethe concept of volumes.Investigate and develop formula tofind the volume of cuboids.i. Estimate the volume of cuboids.ii. Find the volume of cuboids.iii. Solve problems involving volume ofcuboids.cm3read ascubic cm.The volume of aunit cube is 1cubic unitVolumeCubic cmUnit cubeCuboid

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