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  • 1. Increase Your Word Power
  • 2. Books to change your life and work. Accessible, easy to read and easy to act on – other titles in the How To series include: Polish Up Your Punctuation & Grammar Master the basics of the English language and write with greater confidence Improving Your Spelling Boost your word power and your confidence Improving Your Written English How to ensure your grammar, punctuation and spelling are up to scratch Writing an Essay How to improve your performance in coursework and examinations Writing Your Dissertation How to plan, prepare and present successful work The A–Z of Correct English How to avoid common errors in English The How To series now contains around 200 titles in the following categories: Business & Management Career Choices Career Development Computers & the Net Creative Writing Home & Family Living & Working Abroad Personal Development Personal Finance Self-Employment & Small Business Study Skills & Student Guides For full details, please send for a free copy of the latest catalogue: How To Books 3 Newtec Place, Magdalen Road Oxford, OX4 1RE email: info@howtobooks.co.uk http://www.howtobooks.co.uk
  • 3. Increase Your Word Power ANGELA BURT How To Books
  • 4. Published by How To Books Ltd, 3 Newtec Place, Magdalen Road, Oxford OX4 1RE, United Kingdom. Tel: (01865) 793806. Fax: (01865) 248780. email: info@howtobooks.co.uk www.howtobooks.co.uk All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or stored in an information retrieval system (other than for purposes of review) without the express permission of the publisher in writing. # Copyright 2001 Angela Burt Angela Burt has asserted the right to be identified as the author of this work, in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Edited by Francesca Mitchell Cover design by Shireen Nathoo Design Cover image PhotoDisc Produced for How To Books by Deer Park Productions Typeset by PDQ Typesetting, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs. Printed and bound by Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire NOTE: The material contained in this book is set out in good faith for general guidance and no liability can be accepted for loss or expense incurred as a result of relying in particular circumstances on statements made in the book. Laws and regulations are complex and liable to change, and readers should check the current position with the relevant authorities before making personal arrangements.
  • 5. Contents Introduction vii Unit 1 Dictionary Practice 1 Unit 2 Thesaurus and Dictionary Practice 6 Unit 3 People 12 Unit 4 Occupations 21 Unit 5 Sexist and Non-sexist Language 27 Unit 6 Animals, Birds and Insects 32 Unit 7 Confusables 44 Unit 8 Eponyms 57 Unit 9 Americanisms 81 Unit 10 Foreign Words and Phrases in English 89 Unit 11 Proverbs 116 Unit 12 Prefixes 130 Unit 13 Suffixes 144 Unit 14 Word Roots 156 Appendix A Some spelling rules when adding suffixes 171 Answers 174
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  • 7. Introduction This book has been written for students and general readers who love words and who would like to study them more closely in a structured way. It offers help and support to all those who are enthusiastic about extending the range of their vocabulary and who want to use words more precisely. For example, Unit 7 will help you distinguish between ‘perspicacity’ and ‘perspicuity’ along with many other confusing pairs. Look at Unit 10 if you are sometimes at a loss when foreign words and phrases are used. You will be reassured to see the most popular ones listed alphabetically (and translated!). Units 12, 13 and 14, among others, will help you see how many of our most difficult words have been derived. Once you understand the etymology, these words are demystified forever. For example, once you are familiar with the Greek root khronos (=time), then you have the key to the English words chronic, chronicle, chronological, chronometer, anachronism, synchronise and so on. And you are clear why a chronic illness is one that lasts a long time and is not necessarily serious. And in Unit 8, it’s fun finding out who or what gave their names to the bikini, the fuchsia, nicotine, salmonella, sideburns and so on, and how the adjectives ‘maudlin’ and ‘tawdry’ have come down to us. There are fourteen units. All but the first two introductory ones are arranged alphabetically for ease of reference. The book is very much a reference book as well as a practical self-help manual. ‘Test Your Word Power’ activities are included for useful and entertaining consolidation practice wherever appropriate and the answers to all the questions are given at the back of the book. There is, in addition, an appendix which covers the spelling rules for adding endings to words (useful when working through Unit 13). There is so much unnecessary anguish over spelling words like pin +ing, pine +ing, arrive +al, sincere +ly, budget +ing and forget +able. The rules are straightforward and the few exceptions are given. You are advised to acquire a good dictionary if you haven’t got one already to derive the fullest benefit from the activities. (See advice on choosing a dictionary in Unit 1.) A thesaurus is also a wise investment for anyone seriously interested in words. (See advice on vii
  • 8. INTRODUCTION buying a thesaurus in Unit 2.) I very much hope that all who use this book will find it enjoyable as well as instructive and that it will whet your appetite for further exploration. Angela Burt viii
  • 9. Unit 1: Dictionary Practice It you are really serious about wanting to extend your vocabulary, you will need a good up-to-date dictionary that reflects current usage and includes recent additions to the language. If you need to replace a dictionary, spend some time comparing different dictionaries in a good bookshop. See which one you are most comfortable with as you search for words. See which one gives the clearest definitions, with guidance about usage and information about the origin of the word. You may like to test several by looking up the same word in each of them, perhaps ‘syllogism’ or ‘sesquipedalianism’ or any other word of your choice! " Regard the purchase of the best dictionary that you can afford as an investment. Have it to hand as you explore the units in this book. You will be ready to embark on a never-ending adventure with words. " Use your dictionary to establish the meaning of the words in the following test. The answers are in the back of the book and you can keep your score. If your dictionary is adequate to your needs, you should score a total of 50/50. " It would be unwise to work through subsequent units without replacing your dictionary if your score is significantly lower than full marks in this first unit. TEST YOUR WORD POWER Tick the one definition that you think comes closest to the meaning of each of the words on the left. 1. onerous (a) (b) (c) absolutely reliable burdensome single-minded & & & 2. banal (a) (b) (c) poisonous commonplace impossible & & & 1
  • 10. Unit 1 practicable extravagant ridiculous & & & 4. surreptitious (a) (b) (c) illegal stealthy delicious & & & 5. iridescent shining with all the colours of the rainbow pertaining to transport effective at thoroughly disinfecting surfaces 3. feasible (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) & & & 6. cursory (a) (b) (c) rapid blasphemous curved & & & 7. perfunctory (a) (b) (c) fragrant superficial official & & & 8. plausible (a) (b) (c) elastic convincing playful & & & 9. rabid (a) (b) (c) doubting mad short-sighted & & & (a) (b) (c) worthless neat hackneyed & & & 10. trite Match each word from the box with its definition. accolade alliteration autobiography ecstasy histrionics 2 inebriation inventory obituary ostentation soliloquy
  • 11. Dictionary Practice 11. 12. a list of articles, together with the description and quantity of each __________ a person’s life story which has been written by himself or herself __________ 13. a speech made by a character in a play when alone on the stage __________ 14. a showy display meant to impress __________ 15. a public tribute __________ 16. rapturous delight __________ 17. a brief account of a person’s life printed on the occasion of his or her death __________ 18. the repetition of one letter or sound in a series of words __________ 19. state of drunkenness, intoxication __________ 20. exaggerated dramatic behaviour __________ Use each of the words below in a separate sentence that shows you understand meaning and usage. 21. cynic __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 22. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ disinterested __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 23. allusion __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 3
  • 12. Unit 1 24. ironical __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 25. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ infer __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 26. vehement __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 27. aggravate __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 28. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ literally __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 29. sceptical __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 30. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ conscientious __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Three of the words in each group of four below are closely related in meaning. Underline the odd one out. 31. 32. despotic, eccentric, overbearing, tyrannical irascible, cantankerous, diffident, choleric 33. denigrate, ruminate, cogitate, speculate 4
  • 13. Dictionary Practice 34. 35. reprimand, admonish, castigate, exonerate expensive, exotic, exorbitant, extortionate 36. rancour, asperity, aneurysm, acrimony 37. 38. abrogate, arrogate, appropriate, usurp bucolic, eclectic, rustic, pastoral 39. 40. frustrate, foil, thwart, renege garrulous, avaricious, loquacious, talkative Match up the architectural terms in the box with the appropriate definitions. architrave bargeboard cornice dado dormer eaves gable joists lintel mullion 41. horizontal timber or stone above a door or a window __________ 42. vertical triangular piece of wall at end of ridged roof __________ 43. upright window set into a sloping roof __________ 44. moulded frame around a door or window __________ 45. timbers on which floorboards are laid __________ 46. wood along the edge of a gable __________ 47. vertical bar dividing the panes of a window __________ 48. projecting lower edge of a roof __________ 49. horizontal decorative moulding along the top of an internal wall __________ 50. lower part of an interior wall when of a different texture or colour __________ Score:___ /50 5
  • 14. Unit 2: Thesaurus and Dictionary Practice A thesaurus lists words similar in meaning to a given word (synonyms) and some thesauruses also list opposites (antonyms). Used in conjunction with a good dictionary, a thesaurus can be invaluable. It can prompt your memory when you can’t think of the exact word you need or it can suggest an alternative when you want to avoid repetition. Here is a typical entry. look: behold, contemplate, descry, discern, examine, eye, fix the eye on, gape, gaze, give attention to, glance, glimpse, goggle, inspect, leer, observe, ogle, peek, peep, peer, pry, regard, scan, scrutinise, see, sight, spy, squint, stare, study, survey, turn the eyes upon, view, watch As you can see, a thesaurus doesn’t distinguish between the shades of meaning of such related words. A dictionary will do this. to glance: to take a quick look to glimpse: to see momentarily or partially to goggle: to stare with the eyes wide open If you don’t have a thesaurus and want to buy one, spend some time looking at a range of them. Most are arranged alphabetically; the most famous, Roget’s Thesaurus, is arranged thematically. Sample by looking up a word like ‘look’ or ‘walk’ in each of them. Choose the one you are most comfortable with. It’s going to become a good friend. ‘Thesaurus’ comes from the Greek word thesauros meaning ‘treasure house’. You will find a thesaurus can be just that. Your thesaurus and your dictionary will help you with the following test. 6
  • 15. Thesaurus and Dictionary Practice TEST YOUR WORD POWER Replace the underlined words below with five words or phrases that are close in meaning. Kevin threw the brick with all his might at the window. 1. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 2. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 3. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 4. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 5. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ It’s a fallacy that everyone can learn to sing. 6. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 7. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 8. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 9. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 10. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ Carmel was delighted at the birth of her first grandchild. 11. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 12. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 13. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 14. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 15. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ Please give me an honest answer. 16. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 17. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 18. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 19. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 20. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 7
  • 16. Unit 2 The Minister’s involvement in the scandalous affair is only now coming to light. 21. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 22. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 23. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 24. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ 25. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ With each group of words below, show how each word in the group has its own distinctive meaning and which common meaning all four words share. 26. gulp ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 27. pant ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 28. puff ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 29. wheeze ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 30. common meaning: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 31. awe ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 32. esteem ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 33. homage ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 34. veneration ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 35. common meaning: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 36. hilarious ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 37. ridiculous ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 38. uproarious ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 39. witty ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 40. common meaning: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 41. irascible ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 42. irritable ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 8
  • 17. Thesaurus and Dictionary Practice 43. morose ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 44. splenetic ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 45. common meaning: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 46. fee ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 47. honorarium ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 48. salary ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 49. wage ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 50. common meaning: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Explain the difference between these pairs: 51. a band _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 52. an orchestra _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 53. a catalogue _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 54. a programme _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 55. a pie _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 56. a tart _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 57. a casserole _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 58. a stew _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 59. an apron _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 60. a pinafore _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Give a synonym (a word similar in meaning) for each of the words below. The first letter is given in each case. 61. notorious i____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 62. prohibit f____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 63. ostentatious s____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 64. clandestine s____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 9
  • 18. Unit 2 65. novice b____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 66. stay r____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 67. sleepy s____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 68. abstain r____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 69. intrepid f____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 70. adhere s____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ Choose words from the box which are most nearly the opposite of the ten words below it. failure wealth release joy retreat enthusiastic parsimonious voracious occasional permanent 71. generous ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 72. abstemious ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 73. temporary ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 74. frequent ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 75. apathetic ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 76. advance ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 77. grief ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 78. success ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 79. poverty ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 80. capture ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Give the word most nearly opposite in meaning to each of these ten adjectives (describing words). The first letter has been given in each case. 81. prolix s____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 82. vague p____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 10
  • 19. Thesaurus and Dictionary Practice 83. modest b____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 84. rural u____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 85. harmonious d____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 86. voluntary c____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 87. fertile b____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 88. innocent g____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 89. serious f____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ 90. synthetic n____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _ Match up the words in Column A with their opposites in Column B. Draw a line to join them. A B 91. lethargic lasting 92. repellent mature 93. base obscure 94. heedless automatic 95. callow unadulterated 96. ephemeral alluring 97. renowned wary 98. ¨ naıve energetic 99. manual sophisticated 100. immaculate filthy Score:___ /100 11
  • 20. Unit 3: People WORDS DESCRIBING PEOPLE There is a huge and wonderfully subtle range of words to draw upon when you want to choose a word to describe how someone looks, behaves or reacts. Look closely at this alphabetical list, which includes nearly six hundred of them. Check the meaning of any unfamiliar words and be alert to exactly how they are used when you hear them spoken or see them written. In the course of time, you will make all of them your own and use them with confidence and accuracy. abashed accommodating acquiescent affluent agog ambidextrous amorous antagonistic ardent assertive august authoritative abject accomplished adamant aggressive alluring amenable anaemic apathetic arrogant assiduous austere avaricious abrasive acerbic adroit aghast aloof amiable animated apoplectic articulate astute autocratic avid abstemious acrimonious affable agile altruistic amoral anorexic apprehensive ascetic audacious authoritarian avuncular barbaric belligerent biassed blithe boorish brawny bumptious barbarous benevolent bigoted blunt bountiful brazen burly bashful berserk bipartisan bold bourgeois brusque buxom bellicose besotted ´ blase bombastic brash bulimic cadaverous cantankerous cavilling cerebral chauvinistic circumspect callous capricious celebrated charismatic chivalrous coercive callow captious celibate chary choleric combative candid cavalier censorious chaste churlish compassionate 12
  • 21. People compatible congenial contrite costive credulous curt complacent conscientious contumacious covetous crestfallen complaisant conservative convivial crass crotchety compliant constant corpulent craven culpable dapper decadent deferential demure despondent didactic diplomatic dishevelled dispirited distraught doleful dour dynamic dastardly deceased deft depraved despotic diffident discerning disingenuous dissipated docile dominant downcast dyslexic debauched decorous degenerate deranged destitute dilatory disconsolate disinterested dissolute dogged domineering downtrodden debonair defensive dejected desolate devious diligent disgruntled dispassionate disreputable dogmatic doughty droll ebullient effeminate egoistical eligible eminent enterprising euphoric extroverted eccentric effusive egotistical eloquent empathic epicurean evasive exuberant ecstatic egregious elated emaciated enervated equable exacting effete egocentric elegant emasculated enigmatic erudite exemplary facetious fastidious fervent filial fluent forthright frenetic frugal facile famous fervid flamboyant foolhardy fractious frigid frumpish fallible febrile fickle flawless forlorn frail frivolous farouche feckless fiery flippant formidable fraternal froward garrulous genial guileless gauche genteel gullible gaunt glib gawky gregarious haggard haughty headstrong hedonistic 13
  • 22. Unit 3 heedless hostile hidebound hypercritical hirsute hypocritical histrionic hysterical iconoclastic ignominious immodest implacable improvident incompatible indifferent indomitable inept infirm inimitable insouciant intractable introverted irate idealistic illegitimate impassive importunate imprudent inconstant indigenous indulgent infamous inflexible innovative insubordinate intransigent inured irrepressible idiosyncratic illiterate impecunious impoverished inarticulate incorrigible indigent industrious infantile ingenuous inscrutable insular intrepid invincible itinerant ignoble illustrious imperturbable impotent incoherent indefatigable indolent inebriated infantine ingratiating insolvent intestate introspective irascible jaded jocular judicious jaundiced jovial jejune jubilant jocose judgmental lachrymose lascivious lenient libidinous lithe laconic lax lethargic licentious litigious lackadaisical lecherous lewd lissom loquacious languorous legitimate liberal literate lugubrious machiavellian malevolent materialistic mendacious militant morbid myopic magisterial malicious maudlin mercenary misanthropic moronic magnanimous manic meek mercurial misogynistic morose maladroit manipulative melancholic meticulous moralistic munificent ¨ naıve neurasthenic notorious narcissistic neurotic nubile nefarious nonchalant negligent nonplussed obdurate obnoxious obtuse obese obsequious officious objective obsessive omnipotent oblivious obstreperous omniscient 14
  • 23. People opinionated overweening opulent orotund otiose pacific paternal pedagogic pensive peripatetic pertinacious petulant plaintive pliant prejudiced priggish profligate provocative pubescent puny pallid paternalistic pedantic penurious personable perverse philanthropic platitudinous portly prescient proactive prolific prudent puerile pusillanimous paranoid patriarchal peerless peremptory perspicacious pessimistic phlegmatic plausible pragmatic presumptive prodigal promiscuous prudish punctilious parsimonious patrician peevish perfidious pert petite placid plebeian precocious presumptuous proficient prosaic prurient punctual quarrelsome quizzical queasy querulous quixotic raddled rash reckless remorseful resolute rigid rueful raffish raucous reclusive remorseless resourceful rigorous ruthless rancorous reactive redoubtable reprehensible reticent robust rapacious recalcitrant refractory resilient ribald rotund sadistic sanctimonious sardonic scurrilous senile servile slapdash sly solvent splenetic staid sterling suave sagacious sanguine saturnine sedate sensual shiftless slatternly smug somnolent spruce stalwart stoical submissive sage sapient sceptical seditious sensuous shifty slender ´ soignee sophisticated spry staunch stolid subservient sallow sarcastic scrupulous sedulous serene shrewd slothful solicitous spartan squeamish steadfast strait-laced subversive 15
  • 24. Unit 3 sullen sycophantic supercilious surly sybaritical taciturn testy torpid trenchant telepathic tetchy tractable truculent tenacious thrifty tranquil tendentious timorous tremulous unabashed uxorious unctuous unkempt urbane vacuous vehement vigilant vivacious voluptuous vainglorious venerable vindictive vociferous voracious valiant veracious virile volatile vulnerable vapid verbose vituperative voluble waspish wily wary wistful wayward woebegone wilful xenophobic zealous TEST YOUR WORD POWER Explain the difference in meaning between the words in these pairs: 1. authoritarian __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 2. authoritative __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 3. celibate __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 4. chaste __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 5. dominant __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 6. domineering __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 7. hypercritical __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 8. hypocritical __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 9. sensual __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ sensuous __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 10. 16
  • 25. People Find the adjective in the box that best describes how each of these ten people looks. brawny buxom cadaverous corpulent emaciated gaunt obese petite rotund slender 11. Bridget is tall and attractively thin. __________ 12. Matthew is muscular and strong. __________ 13. Geoffrey’s pale, thin and corpse-like appearance shocked everyone. __________ 14. Danielle is undeniably round and plump.__________ 15. Helen is daintily built. __________ 16. Brendan was rendered thin and feeble by his long illness. __________ 17. Sheila is large, plump and comely. __________ 18. Angela is very fat indeed. __________ 19. Years of heavy drinking and lack of exercise have made Cyril unpleasantly stout. __________ 20. Some people find Eric’s thin, lean and haggard features very attractive. __________ Tick one definition which you think comes closest to the meaning of each of the words on the left. 21. splenetic (a) (b) (c) splendid athletic bad-tempered & & & 22. garrulous (a) (b) (c) talkative on the defensive over-confident & & & 17
  • 26. Unit 3 23. hedonistic (a) (b) (c) generous intelligent pleasure-seeking & & & 24. supercilious (a) (b) (c) disdainful very stupid out-of-work & & & 25. cantankerous (a) (b) (c) competent quarrelsome vain & & & 26. zealous (a) (b) (c) with unreserved energy with bitter envy with deep regret & & & 27. droll (a) (b) (c) half-hearted amusing in a wry way kind and supportive & & & 28. ascetic (a) rigidly abstemious and selfdenying passionate about the arts suffering from an advanced rheumatic condition (b) (c) 29. meticulous & (b) (c) 30. fallible (a) & & able to use either hand with ease showing compassion very precise about detail & & & (a) (b) (c) liable to make mistakes sinful untruthful & & & Find in the box a word that is similar in meaning and a word which is opposite in meaning for each of the words below. courteous diligent famous frenetic inconstant 18 lazy loyal notorious rude tranquil
  • 27. People Similar 31.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ serene Opposite 32.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ fickle 33.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ 34.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ illustrious surly 35.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ 37.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ 36.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ 38.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ industrious 39.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ 40.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ Choose the word from the box that best describes each of these people: laconic lethargic materialistic mercenary misanthropic 41. Lynn is unemotional and not easily excited. Lynn is. 42. ¨ naıve phlegmatic sadistic sarcastic sceptical ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Francis takes pleasure in watching others suffer. Francis is ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 43. Blanche places a higher value on possessions and on worldly success than on spiritual values. Blanche is ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 44. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ . Danielle is unsophisticated and trusting and doesn’t understand how her actions may be misinterpreted. Danielle is ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 46. . Jack is unwilling to believe what has been said despite all the salesman’s efforts. Jack is 45. . . Terry has a wonderfully terse way of expressing himself. He never wastes words. Terry is ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ . 19
  • 28. Unit 3 47. Bruce has such a biting, hurtful, teasing way of talking to people. Bruce is 48. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Pauline’s motives are wholly actuated by the hope of making money. Pauline is ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 49. . Phyllis lacks energy and drive. She seems half-asleep most of the time. Phyllis is ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Check your answers with the answers at the back of the book. Score: 20 . I’m afraid Georgina has no love for her fellow men and women and avoids them if she can. Georgina is ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 50. . /50 .
  • 29. Unit 4: Occupations We have a truly rich range of suffixes (word endings) to indicate job titles in English. The list below includes the most common ones with some examples. It is not exhaustive. You can add to it yourself from your own experience. Notice that some of the suffixes sound notoriously similar and can present spelling difficulties: " accountant and lieutenant but superintendent " adviser but solicitor " astronomer but ambassador Notice too that some of the job titles included below are specifically male or female titles. Recent decades have witnessed a social revolution in the workplace, and assumptions about which jobs are suitable for men and which for women have had to be dramatically revised. Job titles like headmistress, usherette, masseuse, businessman, executrix and yachtswoman are becoming unacceptable to many. Such suffixes are asterisked to indicate that care needs to be taken. Neutral alternatives to gender-specific titles are examined in the next unit. -ain (French) captain, chaplain -al (Latin) admiral, cardinal, corporal, general, marshal -an (Latin) -ant (Latin) artisan, publican, sacristan accountant, adjutant, assistant, attendant, commandant, lieutenant, merchant, sergeant -ary (Latin) actuary, emissary, missionary, plenipotentiary, secretary, visionary advocate, curate, delegate, legate, magistrate -ate (Latin) -ee (French) -eer (French) bargee, employee, referee, trustee auctioneer, engineer, mountaineer, muleteer, pioneer, puppeteer, volunteer -enne* (French) comedienne 21
  • 30. Unit 4 -ent (Latin) -er (Anglo-Saxon) agent, president, student, superintendent adviser, archer, astrologer, astronomer, baker, barrister, biographer, boxer, butcher, carpenter, chandler, cleaner, draper, dressmaker, driver, farmer, geographer, grocer, hairdresser, indexer, labourer, lawyer, lecturer, lexicographer, manager, miner, minister, newscaster, officer, ostler, pawnbroker, philosopher, photographer, plasterer, plumber, porter, preacher, proofreader, reporter, stationer, stoker, teacher, trumpeter, waiter, writer -ess* (French) abbess, actress, authoress, conductress, deaconess, goddess, governess, heiress, manageress, poetess, prioress, prophetess, sculptress, seamstress, waitress -et, -ete (Greek) poet, prophet, athlete -ette* (French) -eur (French) majorette, suffragette, usherette coiffeur, entrepreneur, masseur -euse* (French) -ey (uncertain) coiffeuse, masseuse attorney, flunkey, jockey -herd (Anglo-Saxon) goatherd, shepherd, swineherd -ian (Latin) beautician, dietician, electrician, magician, mathematician, musician, optician, paediatrician, physician, politician, technician, comedian, historian, grammarian, librarian, parliamentarian, seminarian -ic (French) -ice (Latin) comic, critic, mechanic, mimic accomplice, apprentice, novice -ier (French) -ist (Greek) brigadier, cashier acupuncturist, archaeologist, archivist, artist, botanist, cartoonist, cellist, chemist, chiropodist, dentist, dramatist, guitarist, harpist, hypnotist, journalist, linguist, manicurist, motorist, novelist, numismatist, optometrist, orthodontist, philatelist, physicist, pianist, psychiatrist, receptionist, 22
  • 31. Occupations -ive (French) scientist, sociologist, typist, violinist detective, executive, representative -lady* (Anglo-Saxon) charlady, dinner lady, landlady, lollipop lady, tea lady -lord* (Anglo-Saxon) -maid* (Anglo-Saxon) landlord, warlord barmaid, chambermaid, milkmaid, parlourmaid -man* (Anglo-Saxon) businessman, cameraman, chairman, clergyman, craftsman, draughtsman, dustman, fireman, fisherman, foreman, frogman, houseman, layman, marksman, midshipman, milkman, ombudsman, ploughman, policeman, postman, salesman, serviceman, spokesman, stockman, workman choirmaster, headmaster, postmaster, quartermaster, questionmaster, quizmaster, ringmaster, stationmaster, toastmaster -master* (French) -mistress* (French) choirmistress, headmistress, postmistress, schoolmistress, wardrobe mistress -monger (Anglo-Saxon) costermonger, fishmonger, ironmonger -on* (French) -or (French) archdeacon, canon, deacon, matron, patron, sexton, surgeon actor, adjudicator, administrator, ambassador, author, chiropractor, conductor, councillor, counsellor, coordinator, director, doctor, editor, governor, instructor, juror, major, narrator, operator, rector, sailor, solicitor, supervisor, surveyor, tailor, tutor -ot (Greek) abbot, harlot, pilot -path (Greek) -smith (Anglo-Saxon) homeopath, osteopath blacksmith, goldsmith, silversmith, wordsmith -trix* (Latin) -wife* (Anglo-Saxon) aviatrix, executrix, proprietrix, testatrix fishwife, housewife, midwife 23
  • 32. Unit 4 -woman* (Anglo-Saxon) chairwoman, charwoman, needlewoman, policewoman, servicewoman, spokeswoman, sportswoman, yachtswoman -wright (Anglo-Saxon) playwright, shipwright, wheelwright -y (French) -y (Scottish) deputy nanny TEST YOUR WORD POWER What is the specialist area of these experts? 1. an apiarist ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 2. an orthodontist ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 3. an agronomist ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 4. a hagiographer ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 5. a forensic scientist ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 6. a paediatrician ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 7. a lexicographer ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 8. a psychiatrist ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 9. a taxidermist ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ a radiographer ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ 10. Complete the following sentences: 11. Anthropology is the study of_________________ . _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ _ 12. Biology is the study of____________________ . ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ _ 13. Endocrinology is the study of_________________ . _________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ _ 14. Geology is the study of____________________ . ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ _ 15. Horology is the study of___________________ . ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ _ 16. Meteorology is the study of__________________ . __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _ 17. Oncology is the study of___________________ . ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ __________________ __________________ _ 18. Ophthalmology is the study of________________ . ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _ 19. Pathology is the study of___________________ . ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ _ 24
  • 33. Occupations 20. Sociology is the study of___________________ . ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ __________________ _ 21. Speleology is the study of___________________ . ___________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ _ 22. Theology is the study of___________________ . ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ _ 23. Toxicology is the study of__________________ . __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ _ 24. Zoology is the study of____________________ . ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ _ What is the difference between the work of a councillor and a counsellor? 25. A councillor__________________________ . __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _ 26. A counsellor__________________________ . __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _ What is the difference between the work of an astrologer and an astronomer? 27. An astrologer__________________________ . __________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _ 28. An astronomer_________________________ . _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _ What is the difference between the work of an entomologist and an etymologist? 29. An entomologist________________________ . ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _ 30. An etymologist_________________________ . _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _ Match the words in the box with the appropriate definition: campanologist dermatologist genealogist graphologist gynaecologist mycologist philologist psephologist seismologist trichologist 31. a specialist in women’s ailments ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 32. a hair and scalp specialist ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 33. a fungi expert ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 34. a bellringer ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 25
  • 34. Unit 4 35. a student of electoral and voting patterns ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 36. an expert on earthquakes ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 37. a handwriting expert ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 38. a family-history specialist ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 39. someone who makes a specialist study of the history and development of language ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 40. a skin specialist __________ Who would use these tools? Match each tool in the box with the appropriate user. anvil baton chisel cleaver float forceps gavel metronome palette theodolite 41. surveyor __________ 42. musician __________ 43. plasterer __________ 44. artist __________ 45. conductor __________ 46. blacksmith __________ 47. butcher __________ 48. sculptor __________ 49. auctioneer __________ 50. surgeon __________ Score: 26 /50
  • 35. Unit 5: Sexist and Non-sexist Language JOB TITLES The workplace has changed dramatically in the last 50 years now that women are taking their place alongside men, and the language of the workplace has had to reflect this change. It is interesting to see how many job titles have been adapted or in other ways have been made inclusive. Sometimes traditional male terms have themselves become neutral and are used for both men and women: an author nowadays can be a man or a woman, as can a comedian, a deacon or an ambassador. Sometimes it is traditional female titles that have become inclusive: both men and women can be nurses, nannies and au pairs. Sometimes an alternative title has been devised that will comfortably accommodate both sexes: firemen have become firefighters, stationmasters station managers and air hostesses flight attendants. In the course of all this, some job titles have become necessarily redundant; we no longer have authoresses, poetesses, sculptresses, deaconesses, comediennes . . .. The list could be extended. Some titles, such as administratrix, executrix and testatrix, survive only in specialist contexts. Some ‘-ess’ suffixes have survived. We have countess, baroness, princess; we have abbess and prioress; we have waitress and bus conductress. All these titles are perfectly acceptable although alternatives for waitress have been broached (waiton, waitperson) and there are fewer conductresses about in these days of single deckers. (Bus driver is a neutral job title.) It may seem at first glance that conductor/conductress, manager/ manageress and governor/governess are parallel male and female job titles today, but they are not. Although you will find both bus conductors and conductresses collecting fares on buses, you would find either a male or a female conductor conducting an orchestra. Although managers and manageresses continue to operate small businesses, both men and women would call themselves managers in larger concerns. The male equivalent of a governess is not a governor, and tutor and governor are both neutral terms today. Mayoress and ambassadress have become ambiguous and need to be sorted. The wife of a mayor is a mayoress but technically a 27
  • 36. Unit 5 woman elected to a mayoral post can be called a mayoress too or a mayor. Similarly, the wife of an ambassador is an ambassadress but so is a woman appointed to an ambassadorship. She can be called an ambassador or an ambassadress and it is very confusing for everyone in this linguistic transition period. And what of the suffix ‘-ette’? Traditionally, it has three functions: to denote the diminutive (kitchenette), to denote an inferior substitute (leatherette) and to denote the female gender. The suffix survives in drum majorette (by no means the equivalent of a drum major) and in usherette. Both ushers and usherettes show people to their seats in cinemas and theatres (although usherettes are more in evidence) but the term ‘usher’ becomes neutral when men and women guide people to their seats in church, when they function as officers in courts of law, and when they perform ceremonial duties on grand occasions. Perhaps cinema usherettes will be called ushers too in due course. Although ‘male’ and ‘woman’ can be attached to job titles when relevant (‘May I see a woman doctor?’), avoid doing so unnecessarily. Male nurses are nurses and women engineers are engineers. Let us be grateful for neutral titles. Gender-specific Neutral administratrix authoress administrator author, writer, novelist, biographer, etc. actress actor air hostess ambulance man flight attendant, cabin crew member ambulance driver, ambulance worker, paramedic barman/barmaid benefactress bartender, barperson, barworker benefactor binman businessman/business woman refuse collector business person, executive cameraman chairman/chairwoman camera operator, photographer chair, chairperson chambermaid cleaner, hotel cleaner, room attendant charlady/charwoman cleaner, household helper 28
  • 37. Sexist and Non-sexist Language checkout girl cleaning lady/woman cashier, till operator cleaner, office cleaner, household helper clergyman cleric, priest, vicar, member of the clergy comedienne craftsman comedian, comic entertainer craftsperson, craftworker, weaver, potter, joiner, etc. deaconess draughtsman deacon draughtsperson dustman refuse collector editress fireman editor firefighter foreman/forewoman freshman supervisor fresher frogman gasman diver gas board worker, meter reader groundsman gardener, caretaker, groundskeeper headmaster/headmistress head, head teacher, principal heroine hero, central character instructress insurance man instructor insurance collector, agent, representative jury foreman head juror layman/laywoman linesman lay person, the laity (plural) linesperson lollipop lady manageress school crossing patrol officer manager, managing director, MD matron milkman chief nursing officer, principal officer, manager, superintendent milk deliverer patroness patron poetess policeman/policewoman poet police officer priestess cleric, priest, vicar, member of the clergy 29
  • 38. Unit 5 quartermaster questionmaster quizmaster } salesman/saleswoman schoolmaster/ schoolmistress supplies officer, storeskeeper quiz show host sales representative, counter assistant, shop assistant teacher, school teacher sculptress seaman sculptor mariner, sailor signalman signal operator spaceman spokesman/ spokeswoman astronaut spokesperson, representative, official sportsman/sportswoman sportsperson statesman statesperson stationmaster station manager stewardess tradesman flight attendant, cabin crew member trader, shopkeeper wardress workman warder worker, labourer Idioms and expressions It is possible to avoid exclusive language in many of our everyday idioms and expressions if we take a little care. Here is a small sample of such expressions, and suggestions for rephrasing: mankind the human race, humankind manpower workforce, personnel middleman sportsmanship intermediary fair play man-management man and boy people-management from childhood as one man everyone together man hours working hours, work-hours 30
  • 39. Sexist and Non-sexist Language to a man man-made without exception artificial, synthetic the man in the street the average person odd man out man to man odd one out person to person, face to face be man enough be your own man be brave enough act independently, be your own person best man for the job best person for the job man’s achievement to separate the men from the boys human achievement to separate the experienced from the inexperienced May the best man win. All men are equal. May the best person/competitor win. Everyone is equal./All people are equal. Time and tide wait for no man. to man Time and tide wait for no one. to operate, to staff, to work, to run Pronouns Complications may arise later in a sentence even when a neutral job title has been used when it comes to pronouns and possessive adjectives. E.g. A doctor should aim to establish a trusting relationship with his patients. He can best do this by . . . To avoid being gender specific (and it would seem quite inappropriate to talk about only male doctors in a general context like this) there are two possibilities: " Include her (his/her patients) and she (he/she, (s)he). E.g. A doctor should aim to establish a trusting relationship with his/ her patients. He/she can best do this by . . . " Make the advice plural by talking about doctors. Doctors should aim to establish a trusting relationship with their patients. They can best do this by . . . The plural solution is generally the easier one. Too many he/she, him/her, his/her references can be tiresome. These are all genderspecific; they, them and their are not! 31
  • 40. Unit 6: Animals, Birds and Insects ANIMAL ADJECTIVES There are some fascinating adjectives derived from the Latin and Greek words for many of our animals, birds and insects. All the words below are in current use. Some are used to describe humans as well: feline grace, asinine behaviour, an aquiline nose, etc. anserine of or resembling a goose; (of people) stupid (from Latin: anser – a goose) apian of or relating to bees (from Latin: apis – a bee) aquiline of or like an eagle; (of a person’s nose) having the curved shape and pointed tip of an eagle’s beak (from Latin: aquila – an eagle) asinine resembling an ass; (of person) obstinate, idiotic, stupid (from Latin: asinus – an ass) of or relating to cattle; (of person) dull, stolid, stupid (from Latin: bos, bovis – ox) bovine canine of or resembling a dog; (of human teeth) the four teeth pointed like a dog’s (from Latin canis – a dog) caprine of or resembling a goat (from Latin: caper – a goat; odour of armpits) resembling or relating to a deer (from Latin: cervus – a deer) cervine corvine elephantine equine 32 like a crow or raven (esp. colour) (from Latin: corvus – a raven) of or like an elephant; (of person) clumsy, large, awkward; (of memory) retentive (Latin from Greek) of or relating to horses (from Latin: equus – a horse)
  • 41. Animals, Birds and Insects feline hircine leonine lupine of, relating to or affecting cats; (of person) relating to grace and stealth, catlike (from Latin: feles – a cat) of or like a goat; (of person) lascivious (from Latin: hircus – he-goat) of or resembling a lion (from Latin: leo, leonis – a lion) of, like or relating to a wolf or wolves (from Latin: lupus – a wolf) ovine of, relating to, or affecting sheep; (of person) sheeplike (from Latin: ovis – a sheep) passerine of or relating to birds with a perching habit (from Latin: passer – a sparrow) of or like a peacock (from Latin: pavo, pavonis – a peacock) pavonine piscine porcine saurian simian of or concerning fish (from Latin: piscis – a fish) of, resembling, or affecting a pig or pigs (from Latin: porcus – a pig) of or like a lizard; (of person) lizard-like (from Greek: sauros – a lizard) relating to, resembling, or affecting apes or monkeys (from Latin: simia – an ape, and possibly from Greek: simos – flat-nosed) ursine of, relating to, or resembling a bear or bears; (of person) bear-like (from Latin: ursus – a bear) vermiform resembling or having the shape of a worm (from Latin: vermis – a worm) of or relating to a fox or foxes; (of person) crafty, cunning, clever (from Latin: vulpes – a fox) vulpine zebrine like a zebra, striped like a zebra (etymology uncertain) 33
  • 42. Unit 6 GROUP TERMS There are some wonderful group terms for animals, birds and insects. Not all those below are in frequent use, but they are delightful in their own right, as well as being useful for quizzes. antelope apes a herd a shrewdness, troop asses badgers a drove, herd, pace a cete bears a sloth bees birds a hive, swarm a flock bitterns boar a siege a sounder buffalo a gang, herd, obstinacy bullfinches camels a bellowing a flock caterpillars cats an army a cluster, clowder (see also kittens) cattle a drove, herd chamois chickens a herd a brood, flock choughs cod a chattering a shoal colts a rag coots crows a covert a murder cubs deer a litter a herd dogfish a troop dolphins donkeys a pod, school a drove, herd, pace doves a flight 34
  • 43. Animals, Birds and Insects ducks eagles a brood (hatched as one family), a knob (small number of wild duck), a skein (in flight), a padding/paddling/raft (on water) a convocation eels eland a swarm a herd elephants a herd elk ferrets a gang, herd a business flies foxes a cloud, swarm a skulk frogs an army, knot gazelle geese a herd a flock, gaggle, skein/wedge (in flight) giraffe gnats a herd a cloud, swarm goats a flock, herd, trip goldfinches goshawks a charm a flight grouse gulls a brood, covey, pack a colony hares a drove, trip hawks herons a cast a siege herring hounds an army, school, shoal a cry, pack horses humming-birds a herd, stud, team (see also hunters and racehorses) a charm hunters a string huskies insects a team a plague jays a band 35
  • 44. Unit 6 jellyfish kangaroos a smack, smuck a mob, troop kittens a kindle, litter lapwings larks a deceit a bevy, exaltation leopard lions a leap a flock, pride, troop locusts a plague, swarm mackerel mallard a shoal a flush mice minnows a nest a shoal monkeys a shrewdness, tribe, troop, wilderness mules nightingales a barren, rake a watch oxen parrots a drove, herd, team, yoke a flock, pandemonium partridges a covey peacocks perch a muster a shoal pheasants pigeons a brood, nye a flight, flock piglets a litter pigs pilchards a herd a shoal plovers porpoises a congregation, stand, wing a gam, herd, pod, school pups a litter quail rabbits a bevy, drift a nest racehorses ravens a string a crash, herd roach a shoal 36
  • 45. Animals, Birds and Insects rooks sea-lions a building, clamour, congregation, parliament a pod seals a herd, a pod sheep skunks a flock a business snipe sparrows a walk, wisp a host sperm-whales a herd (see also whales) starlings sticklebacks a chattering, congregation, murmuration a shoal stoats storks a pack a mustering swallows swans a flight a bevy, herd, wedge (in flight) swifts a flock swine terrapin a sounder a bale thrushes toads a company an army, knot tortoises a bale trout turtles a hover a bale walruses wasps a pod a swarm waterfowl a bunch, knob whales whiting a gam, pod, school (see also sperm whales) a pod widgeon wildebeest a knob, trip, bunch (on water), flight (in air) a herd wildfowl a bunch, knob, plump, trip wolves woodcock a herd, pack, rout a fall 37
  • 46. Unit 6 wrens zebra a herd a herd MALE, FEMALE AND YOUNG There are some specialist terms for the male and female of the species and their young. It gives confidence to get them right. creature antelope ass/donkey male buck jackass female doe jenny badger bear bird boar buffalo camel cat cattle cod crab deer dog dolphin duck eagle eel elephant ferret fowl boar boar – boar bull bull tomcat bull – cock stag/buck dog bull drake eagle – bull hob cock sow sow – sow cow cow queen cow – hen doe/hind bitch cow duck eagle – cow jill hen fox frog giraffe goat dog – bull billy-goat, he-goat, buck gander boar vixen – cow nanny-goat, she-goat, doe goose sow goose guinea pig 38 young kid foal, colt (m) filly (f) cub cub nestling/fledgling piglet calf calf kitten calf, heifer (f) codling zoea fawn/kid pup calf duckling eaglet elver calf kit chick, cockerel (m) pullet (f) cub, pup, whelp tadpole calf kid gosling –
  • 47. Animals, Birds and Insects hare hawk horse buck – stallion doe – mare kangaroo hedgehog leopard lion lobster moose otter owl peafowl pheasant pig buck boar leopard lion cock bull – owl peacock cock boar, hog (castrated) bull buck bull cock bull bull ram cob tiger – – bull – bull dog stallion doe sow leopardess lioness hen cow – owl peahen hen sow porpoise rabbit rhinoceros salmon seal sea lion sheep swan tiger toad trout walrus wasp whale wolf zebra cow doe cow hen cow cow ewe pen tigress – – cow – cow bitch, she-wolf mare leveret eyas foal, colt (m), filly (f) joey – cub cub, whelp – calf pup owlet peachick chick piglet, porkling, gilt (f) calf kitten calf parr cub, pup cub, pup lamb cygnet cub, whelp tadpole fry cub, pup grub calf cub, pup, whelp foal, colt (m), filly (f) ANIMAL HOMES And lastly in this unit, let us look at the specialist terms for animal homes. ants formicarium (especially when artificially constructed for study purposes) 39
  • 48. Unit 6 badgers bears earth, sett den, lair beavers lodge bees birds (captive) apiary, hive aviary, cage birds (wild) cows nest byre, cowshed dog kennel eagles fowls eyrie coop foxes hares earth, lair form horses stable lions mice den, lair nest otters penguins holt rookery pigs sty pigeons (domestic) rabbits (tame) dovecot hutch rabbits (wild) rooks burrow, warren rookery seals rookery sheep squirrels fold, pen drey tigers turtles lair rookery wasps nest, vespiary TEST YOUR WORD POWER You may like to see how many of these questions you can answer from memory before looking up the answers. 40
  • 49. Animals, Birds and Insects Complete: 1. equine like a__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _ 2. canine like a__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _ 3. feline like a__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _ 4. bovine like a__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _ 5. aquiline like an_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ ________________ _ 6. ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ like a wolf 7. ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ like a bear 8. ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ like a fox 9. ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ like an ass 10. ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ like a lizard Give the group terms: 11. a ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ of leopards 12. a ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ of eagles 13. a ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ of swans in flight 14. a ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ of goldfinches 15. a ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ of nightingales Complete with the appropriate creature: 16. a barren of ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 17. a sounder of ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 18. an exaltation of ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 19. a flush of ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 20. a crash of ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 41
  • 50. Unit 6 Give the young of these creatures: 21. cod ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 22. trout ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 23. kangaroo ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 24. zebra ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 25. tiger ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Complete with the appropriate creature: 26. A parr is a young ____________ . ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 27. An elver is a young ____________ . ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 28. A leveret is a young ____________ . ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 29. A kid is a young ____________ . ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 30. A cygnet is a young ____________ . ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Give the male of these creatures: 31. goose ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 32. jenny ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 33. mare ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 34. duck ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 35. doe ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Give the female of these creatures. 36. cob ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 37. tomcat ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 38. dog ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 39. boar ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 40. ram ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 42
  • 51. Animals, Birds and Insects Complete this table: lobster male 41.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ female 42.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ kangaroo dolphin 43.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ 45.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ 44.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ 46.___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _ Give the homes of these creatures: 47. hare ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 48. beaver ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 49. otter ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 50. squirrel ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Score: /50 43
  • 52. Unit 7: Confusables The hundred words in the list below are frequently misused. Take care! The list does not claim to be exhaustive. acute An ACUTE illness is a severe one of short duration. chronic A CHRONIC illness lasts for a very long time but is not necessarily severe. aggravate You AGGRAVATE a situation (=make it worse). irritate You IRRITATE a person (=annoy). agnostic An AGNOSTIC believes that it is not possible to know whether God exists or not. An ATHEIST denies the possibility of the existence of God. atheist amoral AMORAL means non-moral, without reference to a moral code. immoral IMMORAL means not-moral, not conforming to normal moral standards. arbiter ARBITER refers to someone with the power or the influence to set standards and make decisions (ARBITER of fashion, ARBITER of manners). arbitrator ARBITRATOR refers to an independent person officially appointed to settle a dispute between two parties. (Confusingly ARBITER can also be used in this sense.) aural An AURAL test involves careful listening. oral An ORAL test is a spoken one rather than a written one. 44
  • 53. Confusables billion million Formerly British and American definitions were at variance: British: a million million 1 000 000 000 000 American: a thousand million 1 000 000 000 However, the American definition is now widely accepted internationally and in the UK. There remains, unfortunately, the possibility of being misunderstood and so care should be taken to remove any possible ambiguity. In both American and British English, this is a thousand thousand: 1 000 000. childish CHILDISH means exhibiting or retaining the worst qualities of a child (immaturity, silly behaviour, petulance, etc.). childlike CHILDLIKE means exhibiting or retaining the best qualities of a child (candour, wonder, innocence, etc.). complacent A COMPLACENT person is smug and selfsatisfied. complaisant A COMPLAISANT person is so anxious to please that he or she will eagerly fit in with the wishes of others. complement/complementary A COMPLEMENT completes. " Well chosen accessories can COMPLEMENT an outfit. " A ship’s COMPLEMENT is the complete crew. " COMPLEMENTARY medicine can complete the work of conventional medicine by dealing with areas beyond the scope of general practice. 45
  • 54. Unit 7 compliment/complimentary " A COMPLIMENT is an appreciative remark. " COMPLIMENTARY tickets are given free of charge (with best wishes, as it were). connoisseur dilettante A CONNOISSEUR is an expert judge in matters of taste (from French ‘to know’). A DILETTANTE is a lover of the arts (from the Italian ‘to delight’) but with a suggestion of being an amateur dabbler, of not having studied the arts seriously or in depth. contagious A CONTAGIOUS disease is passed on by bodily contact. infectious An INFECTIOUS disease is transmitted by water or through the air. continual A CONTINUAL noise is one that stops and starts. A CONTINUOUS noise is uninterrupted. continuous councillor A COUNCILLOR is an elected member of a council. counsellor A COUNSELLOR is someone who gives advice professionally (a marriage COUNSELLOR or a debt COUNSELLOR, for example). defective A machine that is DEFECTIVE is not working properly. It has a defect. deficient A diet that is DEFICIENT in certain elements is lacking them. dependant A DEPENDANT is someone who depends on another for financial support. If you are DEPENDENT on drugs, you dependent 46
  • 55. Confusables cannot do without them. There is no distinction in American English. The ending -ent is used for both forms. discover To DISCOVER something is to find it for the first time. It has, however, always been there. invent To INVENT something is to make something for the first time that has never existed before. discreet DISCREET means able to keep a secret, to be diplomatic, circumspect. DISCRETE means separate, distinct. discrete disinterested uninterested A DISINTERESTED person acts from unselfish motives. All personal interest is set aside (dis = away). Anyone who is UNINTERESTED is bored, not interested (un = not). displace To DISPLACE is to remove something from its correct place or to force someone from home and country. misplace To MISPLACE is to put something in the wrong place. MISPLACED affection is affection bestowed unwisely. economic ECONOMIC is derived from economics (the science of production, distribution and the structure of wealth). We can talk of the ECONOMIC health of a country or of an ECONOMIC rent (i.e. giving an adequate profit). ECONOMICAL comes from economy (the careful management of resources). A car can be ECONOMICAL on petrol or a meal can be ECONOMICAL (not wasteful or expensive). economical 47
  • 56. Unit 7 egoist An EGOIST is selfish and self-seeking as a matter of principle. EGOISM as a philosophical concept would encourage the pursuit of one’s own interests as the highest goal, because the only thing one can be certain of is one’s own existence. egotist An EGOTIST is selfish because he/she is too vain, self-obsessed, self-important or boastful to spare a thought for the needs or interests of others. All his/her attention is self-directed. An EGOTIST’s conversation will be dominated by the use of I, me, my, myself. enormity ENORMITY refers to the quality of being extremely wicked, very evil. One can talk of the ENORMITY of child abuse. ENORMOUSNESS refers to the quality of being very large. One can substitute immensity, hugeness, bigness, vast extent. enormousness " The ENORMOUSNESS of the task of cataloguing the neglected library is just beginning to be realised. epigram An EPIGRAM is a short, witty remark. epitaph An EPITAPH is an inscription on a tombstone. equable An EQUABLE climate is a moderate one without extremes of hot and cold. A person with an EQUABLE temperament is even-tempered, calm and not easily aroused to anger. equitable EQUITABLE means just and fair. One can talk of an EQUITABLE division of wealth or labour. exhausting exhaustive An EXHAUSTING task is a very tiring one. EXHAUSTIVE means thorough, comprehensive. An EXHAUSTIVE 48
  • 57. Confusables investigation would leave no stone unturned. fewer FEWER means ‘not so many’: FEWER tomatoes, FEWER passengers, FEWER incidents. less LESS means ‘not so much’: LESS sugar, LESS responsibility, LESS congestion. fictional This means happening in fiction. " Inspector Morse is a FICTIONAL detective. fictitious " Middlemarch is a FICTIONAL town. FICTITIOUS can be used like fictional to mean ‘found in fiction’. It has another meaning also which has nothing to do with literature. It can mean false, not genuine. " The child gave the police officer a FICTITIOUS name and address. gourmand A GOURMAND loves food and frequently eats too much. You could say that a GOURMAND hugely enjoys eating and enjoys eating hugely. gourmet A GOURMET is a connoisseur of good food and wine. historic HISTORIC means likely to earn a place in history, memorable, significant: an HISTORIC meeting, an HISTORIC moment, an HISTORIC occasion. HISTORICAL is used to refer to people who lived in the past and to events which really happened however insignificant. historical " Robin Hood is an HISTORICAL character. (i.e. he really lived and is not fictional.) N.B. Some events can be both HISTORIC (momentous) and HISTORICAL (they happened). 49
  • 58. Unit 7 honorary 1. An HONORARY secretary of an association works voluntarily and is not paid. 2. An HONORARY degree is conferred as an honour, without the usual academic requirements. honourable 1. A decent HONOURABLE man is one with high principles. 2. It is used as a courtesy title in certain contexts, for example, when referring to MPs within the House of Commons: the HON. Member for Plymouth South. infer To INFER something is to draw a conclusion from the evidence presented. imply To IMPLY is to insinuate, suggest or hint. " Are you IMPLYING that I’m a liar? ingenious An INGENIOUS device is one that is clever, inventive, original and suited to its purpose. Its originator could also be described as INGENIOUS and praised for his or her INGENUITY. ingenuous INGENUOUS describes a person ¨ (particularly a young woman) who is naıve and unsuspecting, frank, trusting and innocent. The remarks, smiles and aspirations of such a person could also be described as INGENUOUS. N.B. DISINGENUOUS means the opposite. A person who is being DISINGENUOUS is craftily pretending to understand less than is the case. irony IRONY is a gentle way of saying what you really mean by apparently stating the exact opposite. It comes from the Greek eironeia which means ‘simulated ignorance’. An IRONIC remark simulates ignorance in order to amuse or to comment wryly on a 50
  • 59. Confusables sarcasm situation. A comment that a burnt lopsided cake ‘looks delicious’ is an IRONIC one. SARCASM may use an ironic approach but its intention is to wound and insult. It comes from the Greek sarkazein which means ‘to tear flesh’. A SARCASTIC remark expresses scorn and contempt: ‘I suppose you are proud of yourself, you loathsome, snivelling creature!’ judicial A JUDICIAL separation is one ordered by a court of law. JUDICIAL refers to the proceedings of a court of law. judicious A JUDICIOUS decision is a wise one, showing good judgement. (One would hope that all JUDICIAL decisions are also JUDICIOUS.) libel LIBEL is the defamation of someone’s character or good standing in written form. slander SLANDER is the defamation of someone’s character or good standing in speech. masterful MASTERFUL means powerful, authoritative, able to control others. MASTERLY means very skilful, as in ‘a masterly performance’. masterly militate MILITATE comes from Latin miles (= a soldier). The word means to act powerfully (against), to be a strong factor in preventing. " His frequent errors of judgement must surely MILITATE against his promotion. mitigate MITIGATE comes from the Latin mitis (=mild) and means to moderate, to make less severe. " The world may judge them harshly but there are mitigating circumstances. 51
  • 60. Unit 7 observance OBSERVANCE means compliance with the requirements of laws, rules and religious rituals. The word comes from ‘to observe’ in the sense of to obey, to follow, to keep. observation This means observing in the sense of watching, noticing and also commenting: OBSERVATION post; under OBSERVATION; a shrewd OBSERVATION. perspicacity If you praise someone’s PERSPICACITY, you are praising their clearness of understanding, their perceptiveness. The word comes from the Latin perspicax (= seeing clearly). If you praise someone’s PERSPICUITY, you are praising their ability to express themselves clearly, their lucidity. The word comes from the Latin perspicuus (=transparent, clear). perspicuity psychiatry The study and treatment of mental disorders. psychology The study of the human mind and its functions. referee An official who monitors play in certain sports such as football and boxing. An official who monitors play in certain sports such as basketball, cricket and tennis. umpire reverend reverent sensual 52 This word means deserving reverence (a saintly and REVEREND man) and is a title given to clergy, usually abbreviated to Rev. or Revd. This word means feeling and showing reverence: a REVERENT silence; a REVERENT genuflection. SENSUAL means appealing to the body and its appetites (especially through food, sex and drink).
  • 61. Confusables sensuous SENSUOUS means appealing to the senses (especially through music, poetry and art). sewage SEWAGE is the waste products passing through sewers. SEWERAGE is the provision of drainage by sewers. sewerage tortuous torturous A TORTUOUS path is one that is full of twist and turns. A TORTUOUS argument is similar convoluted. TORTUROUS comes from ‘torture’ and means agonising, painful, involving suffering: a TORTUROUS fitness regime. unexceptionable This means inoffensive, not likely to cause objections or criticism. unexceptional This means ordinary, run-of-the-mill. vacation A VACATION is a holiday (from Latin vacare = to be unoccupied). vocation A VOCATION is a calling a strong feeling of being drawn to a particular career or way of life (from Latin vocare = to call). veracious voracious A VERACIOUS person is truthful. A VORACIOUS person has a huge appetite. waive To WAIVE one’s rights is to forgo them, to refrain from insisting on them. WAIVE comes from the French word meaning ‘to abandon’. To WAVE a hand is to move it backwards and forwards in greeting. wave TEST YOUR WORD POWER Select the appropriate word from the pair in brackets at the end of each sentence. 53
  • 62. Unit 7 1. There will be a ________ basket of fruit and bottle of wine in your hotel room. (complementary/complimentary) 2. I was advised to apply for supplementary benefit for all eight ________ . (dependants/dependents) 3. My daughter was greatly helped by the study ________ at her school. (councillor/counsellor) 4. The librarian agreed to ________ the fine. (waive/wave) 5. Colin, as you know, is a ________ reader. (veracious/ voracious) 6. Both parties eventually came to an ________ solution. (equable/equitable) 7. Gingivitis is highly ________ and so don’t kiss your partner until it clears up. (contagious/infectious) 8. This list is not ________ but it contains the most common spelling errors. (exhausting/exhaustive) 9. I think you would find central heating more ________ than all these separate heat sources. (economic/economical) 10. Sarah had to get a taxi. She’d ________ her car keys and couldn’t find them anywhere. (displaced/misplaced). 11. That diet is dangerous. It’s ________ in all the basic minerals. (defective/deficient) 12. Percy Shaw ________ cats’ eyes in 1934. (discovered/ invented) 13. That’s a very ________ bottle-opener you’ve got there. Don’t some people have brilliant ideas? (ingenious/ingenuous) 14. In the country as a whole, ________ cars were sold last year. (fewer/less) 15. It was a ________ exposition of the causes of social deprivation – lucid, well-informed and objective. (masterful, masterly) 16. She ________ that I was thoroughly lazy although she didn’t put it in so many words. (implied, inferred) 17. I can guarantee that Paul is totally ________ in all he does for the charity. He cares passionately about disadvantaged children. (disinterested/uninterested) 18. The Prime Minister considered suing the newspaper for ________ but then decided to ignore the attack on his 54
  • 63. Confusables character in the editorial. (libel/slander) 19. Helen was kept in hospital overnight for ________. (observance/observation) 20. Moving to France was an ________ moment in the development of the firm. We’ve not looked back since. (historic/historical) The words underlined below are not appropriate. Which words should be substituted? 21. The walls of the back kitchen were dripping with condescension. ________ 22. You should really cook sausages very thoroughly to kill all the orgasms. ________ 23. Beat the mixture until you get a good dropping constituency. ________ 24. The students painted a colourful muriel on the nursery wall. ________ 25. Mouth ulsters can be very painful.________ 26. If you pull up on the grass virgin over there, you won’t cause an obstruction.________ 27. Amelia is not an easy child to deal with. She is very highly sprung. ________ 28. After the educational psychologist’s report, Nathan was given redeemable lessons twice a week. He’s making real progress now. ________ 29. The garden next door is terribly neglected and I suffer. There’s convulsions growing all over the fence.________ 30. If you’re worried about little Jamie, ask your doctor to make an appointment for you with a paedophile.________ The words below have two different meanings depending on how they are pronounced. e.g. Entrance (stress on first syllable) means ‘a way in’. " The main entrance is at the side of the building. 55
  • 64. Unit 7 Entrance (stress on second syllable) means to ‘fill with wonder and delight’. " This production of Swan Lake will entrance all who see it. Give the two meanings of these words according to which syllable is stressed. 31. present _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 32. present _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 33. reject _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 34. reject _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 35. invalid _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 36. invalid _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 37. converse _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 38. converse _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 39. project _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 40. project _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Make clear the difference in meaning between each of the words in the pairs below. 41. confidant _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 42. confident _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 43. flaunt _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 44. flout _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 45. paramount _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 46. tantamount _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 47. ambiguous _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 48. ambivalent _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 49. bathos _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 50. pathos _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Score: 56 /50
  • 65. Unit 8: Eponyms The English word ‘eponym’ comes from the Greek word eponumos (epi = upon + onoma = name). Oddly, and rather confusingly, ‘eponym’ refers both to the person after whom something is named and also to the name that has been formed in this way. And so words like sandwich, lobelia and ohm are eponyms and so are the people whose names have been used, like the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, Matthias de Lobel and Georg Simon Ohm. In the list of some interesting eponyms that follows, the derived names will come first and the people who have given their names will come second. You will doubtless be able to add to this list with the help of a good dictionary that explains derivations. The study of eponyms is a fascinating one. Achilles’ heel a weakness, an area of vulnerability In Greek mythology, Thetis, mother of Achilles, dipped him as a baby into the River Styx to make him immortal. However, the one weak spot was the heel by which she held him, which remained dry and unprotected. He was to be mortally wounded in the heel in the Siege of Troy. Achilles’ tendon the fibrous cord that links the heelbone to the calf muscles This is named after Achilles. See entry above. Adam’s apple the projection at the front of the neck (particularly visible in men) formed by the larynx. It is called the Adam’s apple because traditionally it was believed to be where a piece of the forbidden apple had lodged in Adam’s throat. 57
  • 66. Unit 8 an Adonis an Amazon ampere aphrodisiac a very handsome young man In Greek mythology, Adonis was renowned for his great beauty. a tall, strong, athletic woman The Amazons were a legendary race of female warriors, so named because they removed their right breast to make drawing a bow more comfortable. (Greek: a = without+mazos = breast) a unit of measurement of electric current It takes its name from the French physicist, ´ mathematician and philosopher Andre-Marie ` Ampere (1775–1836). a substance that stimulates sexual desire It is named after Aphrodite, Greek goddess of sexual love, fertility and beauty. assassin a murderer of an important person for political or religious reasons The name comes from a fanatical Muslim sect, active at the time of the Crusades, ^ called hashshash| n (hashish eaters). atlas a book of maps Atlas, the Greek giant condemned by Zeus to hold the heavens on his shoulders, featured on the title page of a C16th collection of maps and gave his name to such collections thereafter. aubretia a rockery plant This was named in honour of the French botanist Claude Aubriet (1668–1743). When Augustus Caesar (63BC–14AD) revised the Roman calendar by adding two extra months at the beginning, he named the former sixth month August after himself. a temporary bridge designed for rapid assembly Sir Donald Bailey (1901–1985) designed this bridge. Widely used originally as a military August Bailey bridge 58
  • 67. Eponyms balaclava bayonet bridge, it is still used today in emergency situations. a woollen hat leaving only the face exposed This head-covering takes its name from Balaclava in the Crimea and was worn by soldiers in the bitter winters of the Crimean War (1853–6). a stabbing blade that can be attached to a rifle This weapon was first made in Bayonne, southwest France, from where it takes its name. Beaufort scale a scale for estimating wind speeds This ingenious scale, depending on visual impressions, was devised in 1805 by Sir Francis Beaufort (1774–1857) when he was serving as hydrographer to the Royal Navy. ´ bechamel sauce a flavoured white sauce It is named after the Marquis Louis de ´ Bechamel (d. 1703) who was steward to Louis XIV of France and devised it for him. begonia This beautiful plant was discovered by ´ French amateur botanist Michel Begon (1638–1710) on the island of Santo Domingo. Belisha beacon These were successfully introduced as a road safety measure by Leslie Hore-Belisha (1893–1957) when he was Minister of Transport. A brandy-based liqueur, it was first made in ´ a Benedictine monastery at Fecamp in northern France in around 1510. Benedictine bikini This revolutionary and revealing two-piece swimsuit was so named after American atom-bomb trials on Bikini, an atoll in the Marshall Islands. It was considered that the effect of the swimsuit would be similarly explosive! 59
  • 68. Unit 8 biro (English tradename) This famous ballpoint pen takes its name ´szlo ´ from its Hungarian inventor, La ´ Jozsef ´ Biro (1899–1985). bloomers Today this word is reserved for a voluminous and old-fashioned style of women’s knickers. When first devised by Mrs Amelia Jenks Bloomer (1818–1894) it was a revolutionary outfit, an entire costume consisting of tunic, short skirt and full Turkish trousers gathered at the ankle. bobby This affectionate nickname for a British policeman is derived from the Christian name of Sir Robert Peel (1788–1850) who founded the Metropolitan Police in 1829 when he was Home Secretary. Seventeen years earlier, as Secretary of State for Ireland, he had founded the Irish Constabulary, members of which were nicknamed ‘peelers’. This showy and very beautiful climbing plant was discovered in the Solomon Islands by French explorer and navigator Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729–1811). bougainvillea bourbon The American whiskey distilled from maize and rye was first made in Bourbon County, Kentucky. to bowdlerise to remove from a text material considered offensive whatever the literary effect Dr Thomas Bowdler (1754–1825) is notorious for having published his expurgated Family Shakespeare in 1818. bowie knife The weapon is named after Jim Bowie (1799–1836) but his father or older brother is generally credited with having invented it. Jim Bowie was a co-commander of the garrison which resisted the Mexican attack on the Alamo. He died in the siege. 60
  • 69. Eponyms to boycott boysenberry Braille to ostracise, to cease all social and commercial relations Charles Cunningham Boycott (1832–1897), retired army captain and repressive landagent in County Mayo, Ireland, gives his name to this extreme action. In an attempt to get the rents reduced, his tenants, encouraged by the Irish Land League, resorted to ‘boycotting’ him. They refused to pay the rents and blocked the delivery of all the supplies on which he was dependent. This hybrid of the loganberry, the raspberry and the blackberry was developed by American horticulturist Robert Boysen (d. 1950). The system of raised dots for reading and writing by the blind was developed by Louis Braille, who was blinded in an accident in his father’s workshop at the age of three. Bramley This cooking apple, possibly the result of bud mutation, was found growing in his garden by English butcher Matthew Bramley in about 1850. buddleia The first specimens of this shrub were collected in South America by Scottish-born botanist Sir William Houston (1695–1733). At his request, the shrub was named after Essex rector and botanist Adam Buddle (c. 1660–1715). bunsen burner This familiar small adjustable gas burner, widely used in laboratories, is named after German chemist Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (1811–99). Caesarian section a surgical operation for delivering a baby by cutting the wall of the mother’s abdomen This method of delivery is named after Julius Caesar, who is said to be the first person so delivered. 61
  • 70. Unit 8 camellia cardigan This plant, discovered by Moravian Jesuit missionary, Georg Josef Kamel (1661–1706), is named in his honour. knitted jacket with long sleeves, fastened by buttons This garment was first worn by soldiers in the Crimean War as a protection against the bitter cold. It takes its name from James Thomas Brudenell, Seventh Earl of Cardigan, who led the Charge of the Light Brigade in the war. Celsius a temperature scale by which water freezes at 08 and boils at 1008 This scale, called Centigrade until 1948, is named after Swedish astronomer and scientist Anders Celsius (1701–44), who devised it in 1742. cereal This is named after Ceres, Roman goddess of agriculture. This takes its name from Champagne, northeastern France, where it was first produced in 1700. champagne chauvinism excessive attachment to a cause or country Nicolas Chauvin, a French soldier blindly loyal to Napoleon I, gives his name to this. cognac This term is properly reserved for brandy distilled only in Cognac, western France. Colt (trademark) This revolver was invented by American engineer Samuel Colt (1814–1862) and patented by him in 1836. copper Copper, one of the earliest metals to be used by humans, was in earlier times found chiefly in Cyprus, from which its name is derived. currant The name came into English from France, raisins de Coraunt (Corinth grapes). 62
  • 71. Eponyms dahlia The plant was named in honour of the Swedish botanist Andreas Dahl (1751–1789) who died in the year it was discovered in Mexico by Alexander von Humboldt. the Davis Cup The international lawn-tennis championship for men is named after Dwight Filley Davis (1879–1945), the American statesman and doubles champion who instituted the competition in 1900 and donated the trophy. a safety lamp for miners It was invented in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy (1778–1829). Davy lamp decibel denim a unit to measure the intensity of sound A decibel is 1/10 of a bel. Both decibel and bel are named after Sir Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922), the Scottish-born American scientist famous for inventing the telephone and the gramophone. ˆ This material which originated in Nımes, France, in the C17th was first called serge ˆmes, hence denim. de Nı derrick This type of crane used especially for loading and unloading ships was named after its inventor, Goodman Derrick, a C17th hangman, who designed it as a gallows. diesel Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913), a French-born German mechanical engineer, invented the diesel engine in 1892, patented it in 1893 and exhibited the prototype in 1897. This congenital disorder arising from a chromosome deficiency was first described in 1866 by an English physician, John L H Down (1828–96). harsh, punitive Draco, a C7th BC Athenian legislator, is notorious for the severity of the laws he drew up in 621BC. Nearly every crime carried the death sentence! Down’s syndrome draconian 63
  • 72. Unit 8 duffel coat The coat takes its name from the cloth, duffel, from which it is made. This woollen cloth with a thick nap was originally made in Duffel, Belgium. dunce a stupid person who is slow to learn Duns Scotus (c.1265–1308) was not stupid at all but actually a brilliant Franciscan philosopher. However, he and his followers (Dunsmen or Dunces) were ridiculed by C16th modernists as being unwilling to accept new theological ideas. Electra complex the unconscious sexual desire of a girl for her father, accompanied by jealous hostility towards her mother This is a female version of the Oedipus complex (see Oedipus complex). In Greek mythology, Electra, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, persuaded her brother Orestes to avenge their father’s murder by killing Clytemnestra and her lover, Aegisthus. a person with discriminating taste in food and drink Epicurus (341–270BC), a Greek philosopher, taught that pleasure is the highest good. He did not advocate, however, excessive self-indulgence. He taught that mental pleasures were higher than physical ones and that moderation should be exercised in all things. epicure erotic eschscholzia 64 arousing sexual desire This is named after Eros, Greek god of love. (particularly well known is the yellow and orange Californian poppy) This honours the name of Russian-born German naturalist, botanist and traveller Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz (1793– 1834).
  • 73. Eponyms Fahrenheit a scale of temperature measurement using 328 as the freezing point and 2128 as the boiling point The inventor was Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686–1736). Fallopian tubes These are named after the Italian anatomist, Gabriello Fallopio (1523–62), who first described the pair of tubes in a woman along which the eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Ferris wheel This giant fairground wheel with suspended passenger cars was invented by American engineer George Washington Gale Ferris (1859–96). The first one was huge and capable of carrying 1440 passengers. This nut is named after St Philibert (d. 684) because it is ripe about the time his feast day falls (20 August). filbert forsythia The Scottish botanist and horticulturist William Forsyth (1737–1804) is said to have introduced the shrub into Britain from China. freesia This delicate flower honours the German physician Friedrich Heinrich Theodor Freese (d. 1876). Old English Frigedaeg – the day of Frigga Frigga, wife of Odin, is the Norse goddess of married love. Friday fuchsia The shrub was so named by the French monk and botanist Charles Plumier in 1704 to honour the German botanist Leonhard Fuchs (1501–66). Gallup poll American statistician George Horace Gallup (1901–84) devised this method of sampling opinion. to stimulate a sudden activity Luigi Galvani (1737–98) gives his name to this verb. He was an Italian physiologist, best known for his observation that in an electric field frogs’ legs twitch. to galvanise 65
  • 74. Unit 8 gardenia gargantuan gauze Geiger counter to gerrymander The flower was named in 1760 after the Scottish-American botanist Dr Alexander Garden (1730–91). enormous, colossal (esp. of appetite) This is the name of the greedy giant in Gargantua written in 1534 by the French satirist Francois Rabelais (1494–1553). ¸ This silky fragile fabric is believed to have originated in Gaza, Palestine. The device for measuring radioactivity was developed by the German physicist, Hans Wilhelm Geiger (1882–1945), with the help of German scientist, Walter H Muller (b. 1905). ¨ to redraw electoral boundaries to the advantage of one’s own party The governor of Massachusetts, Elbridge Gerry (1744–1814), did just this in 1812. It was felt that the newly drawn boundaries looked like the outline of a salamander and the map was published in the Boston Weekly Messenger with the heading: ‘The Gerry Mander’. He became Vice-President of the USA the following year! Graves’ disease The Irish physician, Robert James Graves (1796–1853), first identified this disease of the thyroid gland which is accompanied by protrusion of the eyeballs. greengage Sir William Gage (1657–1727) introduced this variety of green plum to England from France in 1725. The French physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (1738–1814) advocated this method of execution as being more humanitarian than by a sword. The Trinidadian naturalist and clergyman Robert John Lechmere Guppy (1836–1916) sent a specimen of this freshwater fish to the British Museum in 1868 and it was named after him. to guillotine guppy 66
  • 75. Eponyms gypsy (gipsy) Gypsies (or gipsies) were popularly supposed to have come from Egypt. It is now believed that they migrated from northwestern India in the C9th or so. hamburger Originally these were called ‘hamburger steaks’. They originated in Hamburg, Germany. showing superhuman strength and courage Hercules, son of Zeus and Alcmena, successfully completed 12 impossible tasks imposed on him as a punishment. After his death he was ranked as a god. herculean hertz (kilohertz) This unit of frequency is named after the German physicist and pioneer of radio, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz (1857–94). Hoover (tradename) William Henry Hoover (1849–1932) recognised the potential of the electric floor-cleaner invented by J Murray Spangler, an Ohio department-store caretaker. He bought the patent in 1908 and set up a company to manufacture it. The company was renamed Hoover in 1910. hyacinth Hyacinth in Greek mythology was a very handsome youth, loved both by Apollo (god of the sun) and Zephyrus (god of the west wind). Hyacinth preferred Apollo and, as a result, was killed by Zephyrus in a jealous rage. The first hyacinth flower, it is said, sprang up from the blood of his fatal wound. Hygeia, Greek goddess of health, appropriately gives her name to this. hygiene hypnotism Jack Russell The name is derived from Hypnos, the name of the Greek god of sleep. The English clergyman, known as ‘The Sporting Parson’, John (Jack) Russell (1795– 1883), developed this breed of short-legged terrier to work in foxhunts on Exmoor. 67
  • 76. Unit 8 January The name of the first month of the year comes from Janus, Roman god of doorways and passages. He is often depicted with two faces, one looking forward and one looking behind. JCB This mechanical excavator is named after Joseph Cyril Bamford (b. 1910), its manufacturer. The word comes from the fabric from which jeans are made. ‘Jean fustian’ (fustian from Genoa) denoted in the C16th a heavy twilled cotton cloth. jeans jersey The woollen worsted fabric was first made in Jersey, Channel Islands. July This month was named in honour of Julius Caesar after his death in 44BC. The month was named after the Roman goddess, Juno, wife of Jupiter. June kaolin leotard lesbian Levi’s 68 The clay takes its name from the Chinese gaoling (lit. ‘high hill’), the name of the mountain in Jiangxi Province where the clay is found. a one-piece tightly fitting garment It was named after a famous French trapeze ´ artist Jules Leotard (1842–1870). He died of smallpox at the early age of 28. The Greek poet Sappho in C6th BC wrote of love between women. She lived on Lesbos, an island off the coast of northwest Turkey. (tradename) Levi’s are jeans manufactured by the Levi Strauss Company. Levi Strauss (1830–1902) was a German Jewish immigrant to the USA and a clothing merchant in San Francisco at the time of the goldrush. Using tent canvas he began making durable jeans in the 1850s for the Californian goldminers. He added rivets to the corners of the pockets for added strength.
  • 77. Eponyms listeria a bacteria that attacks humans through contaminated food It is named after Joseph Lister (1827–1912), an English surgeon who took a particular interest in combating infection. lobelia This little bedding plant is named in honour of King James I’s Flemish botanist, Matthias de Lobel (1538–1616). This hybrid of the raspberry and the American dewberry was first grown by the horticulturist, Judge James Harvey Logan (1841–1928), at his home in California in 1881. (of a group of people) to kill (someone) for an alleged offence without a proper trial Captain William Lynch gives his name to this distasteful practice. He was notorious for taking the law into his own hands and hanging people without trial in Virginia, USA. See tarmac loganberry to lynch macadam mackintosh (macintosh) Charles Macintosh (1776–1843) was the first to patent a lightweight waterproof rubberised cloth from which the first raincoats were made. magnolia This shrub with exotic creamy-pink blossoms is named after the French professor of botany at Montpellier University, Pierre Magnol (1638–1715). The first unofficial marathon was run from Marathon to Athens in 490BC by a messenger who carried news of the Athenian victory over the Persians. marathon March The third month of the year is named after the Roman god of war – Mars. martin This small European swallow is said to be named after St Martin of Tours because it migrates on or near his feast day (Martinmas, November 11). 69
  • 78. Unit 8 masochism a mental disorder in which sexual pleasure is derived from the endurance of pain and humiliation The Austrian novelist Leopold von SacherMasoch (1835–1895) described the condition. maudlin tearfully sentimental (especially when drunk) The adjective is derived from the name of Mary Magdalen, the weeping penitent in the Bible. mausoleum a building housing a stately tomb When King Mausolas of Caria died, his widow Artemisia had a tomb erected at Halicarnassus in his honour in 353BC. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. maverick an independently minded person who refuses to conform Samuel Augustus Maverick (1803–1870) was a Texan engineer and rancher who refused to brand his calves. Maxim gun the first fully automatic water-cooled machine gun It was named after its US-born British inventor, Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim (1840– 1916), who developed it in 1884. It was used extensively in World War I. May The fifth month of the year is named after Maia, the Roman goddess of spring and fertility. This thick creamy dressing was devised for the French Duc de Richelieu in 1756 to celebrate the capture from the English of Port Mahon, the capital of Minorca. mayonnaise Melba toast 70 thinly sliced toasted bread It is named in honour of Dame Nellie Melba. See also peach Melba.
  • 79. Eponyms mentor mercury to mesmerise Messerschmidt montbretia a wise and trusted adviser Mentor, in Homer’s Odyssey, is adviser to the young Telemachus, son of Odysseus. This heavy silvery metal is named after Mercury, the winged messenger of the gods, because it remains free-moving and liquid at normal temperatures. to transfix (someone), to command total attention The Austrian physicist Franz Anton Mesmer (1734–1815) discovered the power of hypnotism and so gives his name to this verb. Messerschmidts were the standard fighter planes of the Luftwaffe during World War II and are named after Willy Messerschmidt (1898–1978). He had built his first aeroplane by the age of 18 and owned his first factory by the age of 25. This lovely orange and yellow member of the iris family is named after the French botanist, AFE Coquebert de Montbret (1780–1801). Moonie This is an informal term for a member of the Unification Church founded by the Korean industrialist Sun Myung Moon (b. 1920). morphine (morphia) Morphine is an analgesic and narcotic drug derived from opium. (Morphia is the oldfashioned name for it.) Appropriately, its name is taken from Morpheus, the Greek god of sleep. Morse code This famous code in which letters are represented by a system of long and short light (or sound) signals was devised by the American inventor Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791–1872) who patented the system in 1854. 71
  • 80. Unit 8 muslin narcissism nicotine Nissen hut Nobel prize Oedipus complex 72 The fabric was first produced in Mosul, northern Iraq. excessive interest in oneself and one’s own appearance Narcissus in Greek mythology spurned all offers of love, rejecting even the nymph, Echo. His punishment was to fall in love with his own reflection in the water of a fountain and to pine away. Jean Nicot (1530–1600) was French ambassador in Lisbon when Portuguese explorers brought back tobacco seed from newly discovered America. He introduced tobacco to France, in his turn, in 1560. The British engineer, Lt. Col. Peter Norman Nissen (1871–1930), designed these prefabricated arched corrugated iron shelters used extensively in both World Wars and still surviving in many civilian situations today. Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833–96) invented dynamite (1866), gelignite and other high explosives. The Swedish chemist, engineer and manufacturer was a pacifist. He hoped that his invention would help preserve peace. He endowed six prizes to be awarded annually (for physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, economics and peace). The first prizes were awarded in 1901. the unconscious sexual attraction of a child (especially a boy) to the parent of the opposite sex In Greek mythology, Oedipus, the son of Laius and Jocasta, the king and queen of Thebes, was left to die on a mountain top as a baby when his father learned from the oracle that he would die at the hand of his son. The baby Oedipus was rescued by a shepherd. Later, unaware of his true identity, he killed Laius and married his
  • 81. Eponyms mother Jocasta, by whom he had four children. When he discovered his parentage, he tore out his eyes, and Jocasta committed suicide. ohm Oscar Pap test Parkinson’s disease to pasteurise pavlova peach Melba A metric unit of electrical resistance, it is named after the German physicist, Georg Simon Ohm (1787–1854). a nickname for the gold statuette first awarded by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1928 It is claimed that the nickname was born when Margaret Herrick, the Academy librarian, said that the statuette reminded her of her Uncle Oscar (Oscar Pierce, a wheat and fruit grower). a cervical smear test that is carried out to detect uterine cancer The test was devised by Greek-born American anatomist, George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883–1962). It is named after the English surgeon James Parkinson (1755–1824) who first described it in 1817. to destroy bacteria in milk and other substances by heating This process is named after the French chemist and bacteriologist Louis Pasteur (1822–95) who first devised it. a dessert of meringue topped with fruit and cream This delicious concoction was devised by Australian chefs to honour the ballerina, Anna Pavlova (1884–1931), during a tour of Australia and New Zealand. a dessert of peaches, ice cream and raspberry melba sauce French chef, Auguste Escoffier (1846–1935), devised this dessert to honour Dame Nellie Melba, the Australian opera singer (1861– 1931). 73
  • 82. Unit 8 Plimsoll line poinsettia procrustean Pullman car Pyrrhic victory quisling 74 the lines on the sides of ships which indicate safe loading levels Samuel Plimsoll (1824–98), MP for Derby, was a leading proponent of shipping reform. He helped to bring in the Merchant Shipping Act of 1876 which ended the practice of sending overloaded ships to sea. (The rubber-soled canvas shoes are said to be called plimsolls because the top edge of the rubber resembles a plimsoll line!) The American diplomat and amateur botanist, Joel Roberts Pointsett (1779–1851), sent back specimens of the plant to the USA when he was American Ambassador to Mexico in 1825. It was named after him even though it had been introduced previously. that which produces uniformity by arbitrary or violent means Procrustes was a particularly unpleasant Athenian who tied his victims to a bed. If they were too short to reach the end of it, he stretched them; if they were too long, he chopped off the ends of their legs. a comfortable, luxurious railway carriage with waiter service The American inventor, George Mortimer Pullman (1831–1897), designed these carriages. a victory won at such a cost that it is no victory at all King Pyrrhus of Epirus (c307–272BC) won a series of victories sustaining heavy losses against Rome, particularly at Asculum (279BC). He is reported to have said that he couldn’t afford any more victories like that. a traitor Major Vidkun Abraham Quisling (1887– 1945), a Norwegian politician, collaborated with the Germans and helped them invade
  • 83. Eponyms his country in World War II. He ruled Norway on behalf of the German occupying forces (1940–45). After the war, he was found guilty of war crimes and shot. quixotic raglan sleeves unrealistically and impractically idealistic Don Quixote in the novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra exemplifies this adjective. sleeves set in from the neck edge to the armpit, so avoiding the need for a shoulder seam Lord Raglan (1788–1855), a British commander of the Crimean War (1853–6) wore a coat with such sleeves. He had been wounded at the Battle of Waterloo (1815) and had had his left arm amputated. This style of sleeve would have been easier for him to wear. Richter scale a scale for measuring the intensity of earthquakes This is sometimes known as the GutenbergRichter scale. American seismologist, Charles F Richter (1900–1985), devised the scale in 1935 in association with the German Bruno Gutenberg (1889–1960). Rolls-Royce Such is the veneration in which the luxury cars are held that the term Rolls-Royce has come to indicate quality itself. The Hon. Charles Stewart Rolls (1877– 1910), motoring and aviation pioneer (he made the first double crossing of the English Channel shortly before he was killed in a flying accident), and Sir Frederick Henry Royce (1863–1933) formed the company Rolls-Royce in 1906. a passionate young male lover Romeo’s name (Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare) has been thus perpetuated. a Romeo Rubik’s cube a puzzle cube Its Hungarian inventor, Erno Rubik 75
  • 84. Unit 8 (b. 1944), devised it to help his students understand three-dimensional design. It became a craze after being shown at a mathematics conference in 1978. rudbeckia This plant is named after the Swedish botanist, Olaf Rudbek (1660–1740). rugby The game was first played at Rugby School, the English public school. sadism a perversion by which sexual satisfaction is enjoyed while inflicting pain on others Donatien Alphonse Francois, Marquis de ¸ Sade (1740–1814), a French cavalry officer notorious for cruelty and debauchery, wrote works describing such behaviour while in prison. salmonella a bacterium that causes food poisoning The American veterinary surgeon, David Elmer Salmon (1850–1914), after whom it is named, was the first to identify it. This is famously named after John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792), who was addicted to gambling. He preferred to eat without leaving the gaming tables and his valet would bring him meat between two slices of bread. sandwich Sanforised (trademark) pre-shrunk Sanford Lockwood Cluett (1874–1968), the American director of engineering research at a firm of shirt and collar manufacturers, invented this process of pre-shrinking cotton. Saturday This day of the week is named after Saturn, the Roman god of agriculture. saxophone This musical instrument was invented by Antoine-Joseph (Adolphe) Sax (1814–1894), a Belgian instrument-maker. It was first shown in public in 1844. a Scrooge an excessively mean and cheerless person Ebenezer Scrooge in A Christmas Carol by 76
  • 85. Eponyms a Shylock sideburns silhouette spoonerisms Stetson tangerine to tantalise Charles Dickens (first published in book form in 1861) has been identified with all such miserly killjoys. Shylock in William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (c. 1596) has been identified with all moneylenders who charge exorbitant rates of interest. sidewhiskers worn with a clean-shaven chin American-Civil-War General Ambrose Everett Burnside (1824–81) popularised this hairy style. Why they are called sideburns and not burnsides is not known! in portraiture just the outlined likeness cut from dark material and mounted on a light background The French politician, Etienne de Silhouette (1709–1767), has lent his name to this portrait style but one can only speculate why. One suggestion is that his notorious meanness led him to favour unfinished portraits (which would cost less). The Rev. William Archibald Spooner (1844– 1930) is famous for apparently accidental verbal transpositions whereby a ‘halfformed wish’ comes out as a ‘half-wormed fish’ and ‘Conquering Kings’ becomes ‘Kinquering Kongs’. There are many other examples which are well worth collecting. (trademark) This broad-brimmed cowboy hat was designed by American hat-manufacturer, John Batterson Stetson (1830–1906). This fruit exported from Tangier, on the northern coast of Morocco, was originally called ‘the tangerine orange’. to torment or tease someone with the sight or promise of something that is then withdrawn Tantalus, the mythical king of Phrygia, was 77
  • 86. Unit 8 ‘tantalised’ by the gods for offences against them. He was made to stand in water that receded when he tried to drink it beneath fruit trees whose branches moved away whenever he tried to pick the fruit. tarmac (UK tradename) John Loudon McAdam (1756–1836), a British surveyor, pioneered a system of road-surfacing using layers of compacted broken stone bound with bitumen or tar. The Tarmacadam Company of which tarmac is an abbreviation was formed in 1903. tawdry showy but cheap; poor quality Tawdry is a corruption of Audrey, a later form of Etheldrida. A fair was held annually on 17 October in Ely to honour their local patron saint St Audrey who died in 679. The fair was noted initially for its fine jewellery, silver and lace, but the quality of these gradually deteriorated. The soft toy is named after US President Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt (1858–1919). He was an enthusiastic bear-hunter but was known to have spared the life of a bear cub. A cartoon showing this event later appeared in The Washington Post. The familiar spider plant with its striped leaves is named after John Tradescant (c. 1570–1638), gardener to Charles I. He travelled widely and brought back many plants and shrubs to England. The day is named in honour of Tiw, Germanic god of war. teddy bear tradescantia Tuesday tuxedo Venn diagram 78 This style of men’s dinner jacket was first worn at Tuxedo Park Country Club in New York. This honours English mathematician, John
  • 87. Eponyms volcano Venn (1834–1923), who devised the form. The name derives from Vulcan, Roman god of fire and metal working. He also gives his name to the verb: to vulcanise. volt unit of electromotive force This famously honours the name of Count Alessandro Guiseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (1745–1827), the Italian scientist who invented the first electric battery in 1800. watt SI unit of power Here James Watt (1736–1819), the Scottish engineer who developed the Newcomen steam engine, is remembered. This day is named after Odin, also known as Woden or Wotan, the supreme Norse god. What we know as waterproof rubber boots were originally leather boots which covered the knee and were cut away at the back. They are named after Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (1769–1852), the British soldier and Tory statesman. Known as the Iron Duke, he commanded the British in the Peninsular War (1808–14), defeated Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo (1815) and was prime minister from 1828–1830 and again in 1834. Wednesday wellingtons wistaria/wisteria Yale (lock) Zeppelin This beautiful climbing shrub honours American anatomist Caspar Wistar (1761– 1818). (trademark) Linus Yale (1821–68), American engineer and son of a locksmith, devised the mechanism of this lock and many others. He set up the Yale Lock Manufacturing Co. in Stamford, Connecticut in 1868, the year he died. the German airship Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838–1917) 79
  • 88. Unit 8 pioneered the very first airships after retiring from the army in 1891. Between 1910 and 1914 they were used to carry passengers; during World War I they were used by the Germans for reconnaissance and bombing raids over Britain. zinnia 80 Let us end on a flowery note! This colourful plant was named after the very youthful German botanist and professor of medicine, Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727–59).
  • 89. Unit 9: Americanisms Many of the differences between British English and American English will be very familiar. Sidewalk, elevator, candy, cookie, attorney, homicide are all readily translated by British readers of American literature and viewers of American films and television programmes. Not all terms, however, are understood this readily, especially when the same word has a different meaning either side of the Atlantic – shorts, purse, chips, cot, jelly, cracker, first floor, paraffin . . . Indeed, some differences in meaning can be deeply embarrassing for the unwary, as you will see in the list below. There is undoubtedly a vigour in many of the American equivalents. Floor lamp, expressway, mailbox, pacifier, shoestring and stick shift are some examples of down-to-earth, straightforward words which are very appealing. American English airplane aluminum apartment attorney baby carriage baseboard billboard billfold biscuit a blank bobby pin to broil bug bulletin board cabana candy cart cash on the barrel head casket catchup/catsup check British English aeroplane aluminium flat lawyer pram skirting board hoarding wallet scone a form hair grip to grill insect notice board beach hut sweets trolley (supermarket) cash on the nail coffin ketchup bill 81
  • 90. Unit 9 checkers chips clerk clipping closet collect call comforter conductor cookie cornstarch cot cotton candy counterclockwise cracker crib crosswalk cuff cut-rate a deck defog diaper divided highway downspout downtown drapes druggist drugstore duplex eggplant eighth note elevator engineer eraser expressway fall faucet fender a fender-bender first floor fish stick flashlight 82 draughts crisps shop assistant cutting (from a newspaper) cupboard reverse charge call (telephone) eiderdown guard (on a train) sweet biscuit cornflour camp bed candyfloss anticlockwise savoury biscuit cot pedestrian crossing turn-up (trouser) cut-price a pack (of cards) demist nappy dual carriageway drainpipe, downpipe city centre curtains chemist chemist’s shop semi-detached house aubergine quaver lift engine-driver rubber motorway autumn tap bumper, wing (car) a minor collision ground floor fish finger torch
  • 91. Americanisms floor lamp flophouse freeway French fries frosting garbage garbage can gas (gasoline) green onions a green thumb gridlock ground round guess a half note hardware store highway hobo hog homely homicide hood hope chest janitor jelly kerosene license plate line liquor store longwearing lot lumber mad mailbox mean men’s room molasses mortician moving man moving van muffler nervy standard lamp cheap hotel/boarding house motorway (without toll) chips icing rubbish dustbin petrol spring onions green fingers a traffic jam minced steak/best mince suppose a minim ironmonger’s main road tramp pig plain, ugly murder bonnet (car) bottom drawer caretaker jam paraffin number plate (car) queue off-licence hardwearing plot of ground timber angry pillar box, post box nasty gents treacle undertaker removal man removal van silencer (car) impudent 83
  • 92. Unit 9 orchestra outlets overpass pacifier pantyhose (pantihose) pants paraffin parking lot pavement pie pin pitcher podiatrist porch pot holder purse quarter note railroad a raise real estate realtor rest room ´ ´ resume roomer rooster rotary round-trip ticket rowboat row house rubber rummage sale rutabaga sanitarium second floor sedan shoestring shorts sidewalk sink slingshot sneakers 84 stalls (theatre) power points flyover baby’s dummy tights trousers paraffin wax car park tarmac, asphalt surface tart brooch jug chiropodist verandah oven glove handbag crotchet railway a rise (salary) property estate agent lavatory curriculum vitae (CV) lodger cock roundabout (traffic) return ticket rowing boat terraced house condom jumble sale swede sanatorium first floor saloon (car) shoelace men’s underpants pavement washbasin, hand basin catapult plimsolls/trainers
  • 93. Americanisms snow pea soda spool station wagon stick shift stop light store streetcar stroller substitute teacher subway suspenders talk show teeter-totter tempest in a teapot thumbtack tick-tack-toe/tic-tac-toe traffic circle trailer trailer park trash trash can truck trucker truck farm truck stop trunk tub two weeks underpants undershirt vacation vacationer valence vest visor washroom to wash up window shade windshield yard mangetout fizzy drink cotton reel estate car gearstick traffic lights shop tram pushchair supply teacher underground braces chat show seesaw storm in a teacup drawing pin noughts and crosses roundabout caravan caravan/mobile home site rubbish dustbin lorry lorry driver market garden ´ transport cafe boot (car) bath fortnight knickers vest holiday holidaymaker pelmet waistcoat peak (of cap) lavatory, public toilet to wash hands and face window blind windscreen back garden 85
  • 94. Unit 9 zip code zipper zucchini postcode zip courgette TEST YOUR WORD POWER Translate into British English these Americanisms. 1. podiatrist ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 2. ´ ´ resume ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 3. realtor ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 4. roomer ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 5. mean ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 6. homely ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 7. nervy ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 8. mad ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 9. biscuit ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 10. chips ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 11. ground round ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 12. rutabaga ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 13. pants ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 14. shorts ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 15. underpants ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 16. undershirt ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 17. checkers ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 18. slingshot ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 19. teeter-totter ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 20. tick-tack-toe ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 86
  • 95. Americanisms Translate into American English these British expressions. 21. pushchair ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 22. pram ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 23. cot ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 24. nappy ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 25. saloon car ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 26. gearstick ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 27. silencer ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 28. petrol ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 29. tights ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 30. braces ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 31. waistcoat ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 32. trouser turn-up ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 33. market garden ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 34. car park ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 35. caravan site ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 36. ´ transport cafe ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 37. pedestrian crossing ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 38. dual carriageway ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 39. traffic roundabout ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 40. pavement ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Complete the gaps in the table below. British English American English 41. drawing pin _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 42. wallet _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 43. spring onions _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 44. tap _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 87
  • 96. Unit 9 45. cupboard _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 46. ________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ duplex 47. ________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ baseboard 48. ________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ to broil 49. ________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ cabana 50. ________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ comforter Score: 88 /50
  • 97. Unit 10: Foreign Words and Phrases in English It is surprising how many foreign words and phrases are used in everyday modern English. Some have survived in the language through long tradition; others have been admitted because there is no adequate concise English equivalent. Nearly 500 words and phrases are listed alphabetically here. You can test your understanding at the end of the unit. ab initio (Latin) from the start ab ovo (Latin) (lit. ‘from the egg’) from the very beginning Achtung! (German) Look out! Take care! } addendum (sing.) (Latin) (lit. ‘that which is to be added’) addenda (plural) material added after the main text has been completed ` a deux (French) (lit. ‘for two’) romantic, intimate ad hoc (Latin) (lit. ‘for this’) for one particular purpose ad infinitum (Latin) ad nauseam (Latin) (lit. ‘without limit’) endlessly (lit. ‘to the point of causing (sea) sickness’) excessively affaire de coeur (French) aficionado (Spanish) romantic relationship a fortiori (Latin) agent provocateur all the more, with stronger reason (lit. ‘provocative agent’) (French) aggiornamento (Italian) someone who takes an enthusiastic and well-informed interest in a subject/sport/ hobby someone who leads others into illegal actions for which they will be punished (lit. ‘bringing up to today’) modernisation, reform 89
  • 98. Unit 10 aide-de-camp (French) (lit. ‘assistant in the field’) (ADC) personal assistant to an officer ´ aide-memoire (French) (lit. ‘help memory’) something that helps you to remember ` la (French) a in the style of ` a la carte (French) (lit. ‘on the menu’) with each dish chosen separately and priced individually ` a la mode (French) al dente (Italian) fashionable (lit. ‘to the tooth’) boiled but still firm when bitten alfresco (Italian) (lit. ‘in the fresh’) in the fresh air; in the open (lit. ‘nourishing mother’) the school, college or university someone attended alma mater (Latin) alter ego (Latin) } (lit. ‘another I’) second self; soul-mate; inseparable friend; bosom pal alumnus (masc.) (lit. ‘foster child’) alumna (fem.) (Latin) past student or graduate alumni/ alumnae (plural) ambiance surroundings, atmosphere of a place (sometimes anglicised – ambience) amende honorable (French) amour (French) (lit. ‘honourable reparation’) public apology (lit. ‘love’) love affair (esp. one kept secret) amour propre (French) (lit. ‘own love’) self-respect, self-esteem angst (German, Danish) (lit. ‘fear’) acute but unattributable feeling of apprehension and foreboding; feeling of alarm anno Domini (Latin) in the year of our Lord (A.D.) (i.e. dating from the birth of Christ) 90
  • 99. Foreign Words and Phrases in English annus horribilis (Latin) (lit. ‘horrible year’) annus mirabilis (Latin) (lit. ‘marvellous year’) anschauung (German) (lit. ‘way of looking at things’) point of view, attitude anschluss (German) (lit. ‘joining together’) union (of countries) ante meridiem (Latin) (a.m.) ante partum (Latin) (lit. ‘before noon’) apercu (French) ¸ (lit. ‘before birth’) (lit. ‘what has been perceived’) an insight; a penetrating comment apologia pro vita sua (lit. ‘a defence of his/her life’) (Latin) a written justification of one’s beliefs and actions a posteriori (Latin) (lit. ‘from what comes after’) describes reasoning based on experience or observation ˆ ´ appellation controlee (lit. ‘certified name’) (of wine) (French) a priori (Latin) (lit. ‘from what comes first’) describes reasoning based on cause and effect ` a propos (French) (lit. ‘to the purpose’) on the subject, with reference arriviste (French) (lit. ‘someone arriving’) a person who is unscrupulously ambitious ´ attache (French) (lit. ‘someone attached’) a specialist attached to a diplomatic mission (lit. ‘to the contrary’) au contraire (French) au courant (French) au fait (French) au fond (French) (lit. ‘in the current’) bring up to date with latest developments; knowing what is going on (lit. ‘to the point;) knowledgeable; familiar with something (lit. ‘at the bottom’) fundamentally; essentially 91
  • 100. Unit 10 auf Wiedersehen (German) au naturel (French) (lit. ‘until we see each other again’) goodbye (lit. ‘in a natural condition’) naked; uncooked au pair (French) (lit. ‘on an equal footing’) young foreigner helping with children and household tasks (with the purpose of learning the language) in exchange for board, lodging and pocket money au revoir (French) (lit. ‘until we see each other again’) goodbye (lit. ‘front guard;) sympathising with modern, advanced ideas avant-garde (French) bain-marie (French) baksheesh (from Persian) beau geste (French) ´ beau ideal (French) beau monde (French) (lit. ‘Mary’s bath’) a double saucepan (lit. ‘something given’) a tip, a present, a bribe (in some Eastern countries) (lit. ‘beautiful gesture’) a generous or unselfish act (lit. ‘ideal beauty’) the perfect type; a perfect model; a beautiful idea! (lit. ‘beautiful world’) fashionable people ´ belle epoque (French) (lit. ‘the beautiful epoch’) time of gracious living (for the wealthy) before World War I belles lettres (French) (lit. ‘beautiful letters’) works of literature valued more for their style than for their content ˆ bete noire (French) (lit. ‘black beast’) someone or something that one particularly dislikes or dreads bildungsroman (German) 92 (lit. ‘educational novel’) a novel concerning the formative years of its central character
  • 101. Foreign Words and Phrases in English billet doux (French) ´ blase (French) blitzkreig (German) bona fides (Latin) bonhomie (French) bon mot (French) (lit. ‘a sweet letter’) a love letter (lit. ‘cloyed’) bored by over-familiarity (lit. ‘lightning war’) a swift military attack designed to defeat the enemy quickly (lit. ‘good faith’) a bona fide offer is a genuine one (from ‘bon homme’ = good man) good-natured friendliness (lit. ‘good word’) a witty remark bon vivant (French) (lit. ‘good-living person’) someone who enjoys the fine things of life bon voyage (French) ´ boucle (French) (lit. ‘good journey’) bouffant (French) bouillon (French) bourgeois (French) brouhaha (French) canaille (French) canard (French) (lit. ‘curly’) a curled, knobbly yarn (lit. ‘puffed out’) back-combed hair puffed out (sleeves, skirt) (from ‘bouillir’ to boil) plain broth or stock (lit. ‘someone who lives in a town’) middle-class, conventional commotion; uproar (lit. ‘pack of dogs’) mob; rabble; the masses (lit. ‘duck’) an untrue report; false rumour Carpe diem. (Latin) (lit. ‘Seize the day.’) Enjoy the pleasures of the present moment while they last and don’t worry about the future. carte blanche (French) (lit. ‘blank sheet of paper’) complete freedom to do what one wants 93
  • 102. Unit 10 casus belli (Latin) (lit. ‘occasion of war’) justification for making war; the circumstances or situation that leads to war ´ ` cause celebre (French) (lit. ‘trial which arouses public interest’) a matter which attracts attention and causes controversy Caveat emptor. (Latin) C’est la vie! (French) ` ˆ chacun a son gout ´ chambre (French) (lit. ‘Let the buyer beware.’) (lit. ‘That’s life!’) (lit. ‘each to his own tastes’) (lit. ‘having been put in a room’) brought to room temperature ´ charge d’affaires (lit. ‘in charge of business’) (French) an ambassador’s deputy or substitute chef d’oeuvre (French) (lit. ‘chief work’) a writer’s or artist’s masterpiece Cherchez la femme. (French) chez (French) (lit. ‘Look for the woman.’) chiaroscuro (Italian) (lit. ‘clear and obscure’) artistic distribution of light and dark masses impudence; shameless audacity chutzpah (Yiddish) (lit. ‘at the home of’) ciao (Italian) (lit. ‘I am your slave.’) informal greeting on meeting and parting ´ ´ cinema-verite (French) (lit. ‘truth cinema’) realism in films circa (Latin) (c.) cognoscente (sing.) cognoscenti (plural) (Italian) (lit. ‘around’) approximately (of dates) (lit. ‘one who knows’) connoisseur, person with informed appreciation in a field of the arts comme il faut (French) (lit. ‘as it is necessary’) correct (behaviour) compos mentis (Latin) (lit. ‘in control of the mind’) of sound mind con amore (Italian) 94 (lit. ‘with love’) lovingly
  • 103. Foreign Words and Phrases in English contretemps (French) cordon bleu (French) cordon sanitaire (French) } (lit. ‘against time’) an awkward situation; an embarrassing disagreement (lit. ‘blue ribbon’) describes cooking of the highest standard (lit. ‘sanitary line’) line isolating an infected area; line of buffer states shielding a country corrigendum (sing.) (lit. ‘item(s) to be corrected’) corrigenda (plural) Latin ´ coup d’etat (French) (lit. ‘blow of state’) the unexpected overthrow of a government coup de foudre (lit. ‘flash of lightning’) (French) a sudden and astonishing happening ˆ coup de grace (French) (lit. ‘blow of mercy’) a final or decisive stroke coup d’oeil (French) ` ` creme de la creme (French) cri de coeur (French) crime passionnel (French) Cui bono? (Latin) cum laude (Latin) curriculum vitae (C.V.) (Latin) ´ ˆ debacle (French) (lit. ‘blow of the eye’) a quick look; a glance (lit. ‘cream of the cream’) the very best (lit. ‘cry from the heart’) a heartfelt appeal (lit. ‘crime relating to the passions’) crime of passion; murder as a result of sexual jealousy (lit. ‘To whom for a benefit?’) Who stands to gain? (lit. ‘with praise’) An American degree awarded ‘cum laude’ is the equivalent of third class. See also summa cum laude and magna cum laude. (lit. ‘course of one’s life’) a written account of one’s qualifications and experience in support of a job application (lit. ‘an unbolting’) a sudden disastrous defeat or collapse 95
  • 104. Unit 10 ´ ´ declasse (m.) ´ ´ declassee (f.) (lit. ‘out }(French) someone of one’s class’) down in the world who has come ´ ´ decollete (French) low-cut (of the neckline of a dress or blouse) de facto (Latin) (lit. ‘from the fact’) actually, though not necessarily legally de iure/de jure (Latin) sanctioned by law; legally ´ ` deja vu (French) (lit. ‘already seen’) the feeling that one has experienced something before the present in which it is happening delirium tremens (lit. ‘trembling delirium’) (D.T.s) (Latin) ‘the shakes’ – the result of alcoholic overindulgence over a long period de luxe (French) (lit. ‘of luxury’) superior in quality demi-monde (French) ´ ´ demode (French) (lit. ‘half-world’) a stratum of society considered to be not wholly respectable (half-in and half-out!) (lit. ‘out of fashion’) demi-pension (French) half-board (of accommodation) ´ denouement (French) (lit. ‘untying of the knot’) the resolution of the plot of a play or story; the outcome de novo (Latin) Deo gratias (Latin) (D.G.) (lit. ‘for new’) anew (as in ‘a fresh start’) (lit. ‘thanks be to God’) Deo volente (Latin) (D.V.) (lit. ‘God willing’) de profundis (Latin) ´ ´ deracine (French) (lit. ‘from the depths’) de rigueur (French) 96 (lit. ‘uprooted’) removed from one’s geographical and social background (lit. ‘of strictness’) what is required by social convention
  • 105. Foreign Words and Phrases in English dernier cri (French) ` derriere (French) ´ ´ deshabille (French) de trop (French) (lit. ‘last cry’) the latest fashion (lit. ‘behind’) the behind; the buttocks (lit. ‘undressed’) only partially dressed; casually dressed (lit. ‘of too much’) unwanted; in the way deus ex machina (Latin) (lit. ‘a god out of the machine’) an unlikely solution to a problem; an unexpected intervention when disaster seemed inevitable ´ distingue (French) (lit. ‘distinguished’) of a noble or striking appearance distrait (French) absent-minded; slightly worried and disorganised dolce far niente (Italian) ´ donnee (French) (lit. ‘sweet doing nothing’) the pleasure of doing nothing; in a soft smooth way (musical) (lit. ‘that which is given’) a basic fact or assumption ¨ doppelganger (German) (lit. ‘a double-goer’) a double; someone who looks exactly like someone else (and may be mistaken for him or her) double entendre (French) doyen (m.) doyenne (f.) (lit. ‘to hear twice’) a remark with two possible meanings, one of which is usually sexually suggestive (French) (lit. ‘dean’) the most distinguished member of a profession, branch of the arts, etc. } dramatis personae (Latin) droit de seigneur (French) (lit. ‘persons of the drama’) cast of characters (lit. ‘the right of the lord’) the alleged right of a feudal lord to sleep with a serf’s bride on the night before her wedding 97
  • 106. Unit 10 dummkopf (German) echt (German) ´ eclat (French) ´ elan French) (lit. ‘stupid head’) idiot; blockhead (lit. ‘real, genuine’) (lit. ‘explosion’) great acclaim; brilliant success (lit. ‘rush, dash’) flair; impressive, energetic style embarras de richesse (lit. ‘embarrassment of wealth’) (French) having too much money; having more than you need of anything nice embonpoint (French) (lit. ‘in good condition’) stoutness; plumpness emeritus (Latin) (lit. ‘having served one’s term’) retired from full-time work but retaining one’s title on an honorary basis ´minence grise (French) (lit. ‘grey eminence’) e someone who exerts great power behind the scenes without official status en bloc (French) (lit. ‘in a block’) all together en famille (French) (lit. ‘in the family’) with one’s family; informally enfant terrible (French) (lit. ‘terrible child’) adult with a reputation for unconventional and embarrassing behaviour on public occasions ˆ en fete (French) (lit. ‘in festival’) dressed for festivity; engaged in a festivity en masse (French) ennui (French) en passant (French) en route (French) 98 (lit. ‘in a mass’) all together as a unit a feeling of listlessness or boredom arising from inactivity and lack of involvement (lit. ‘in passing’) by the way; incidentally (lit. ‘on the way’)
  • 107. Foreign Words and Phrases in English entente cordiale (French) entre nous (French) (lit. ‘a cordial understanding’) a friendly understanding between two political powers (lit. ‘between us’) confidentially ´ epater les bourgeois (French) to shock the middle-class (e.g. by an unconventional art exhibition or theatrical production) ergo (Latin) therefore }(Latin) an error/errors erratum (sing.) errata (plural) ersatz (German) (lit. ‘substitute’) cheap substitute; inferior substitute esprit de corps (French) (lit. ‘spirit of a group’) team spirit (et al.) et alia (Latin) (lit. ‘and others’) (etc.) et cetera (Latin) ex cathedra (Latin) (lit. ‘and the rest’) (lit. ‘from the chair’) with authority exeat (Latin) (lit. ‘let him or her go forth’) permission to be absent (e.g. for a weekend from a boarding school) exempli gratia (Latin) (e.g.) for instance ex gratia (Latin) (lit. ‘from favour’) given without legal obligation to be given (e.g. an ex-gratia payment) ex libris (Latin) ex more (Latin) (lit. ‘from the books (of)’) from the library (of) by custom; according to custom ex officio (Latin) by virtue of one’s official position ex parte (Latin) extempore (Latin) from one side only (in legal proceedings) (lit. ‘out of time’) without preparation 99
  • 108. Unit 10 fait accompli (French) (lit. ‘an accomplished fact’) something that has been done that cannot be undone or changed in any way farouche (French) (lit. ‘from out of doors’) wild; shy; untamed; sullen fatwa (Arabic) faux pas (French) felo de se (Latin) a religious decree proclaimed by a Muslim leader (lit. ‘false step’) social blunder (lit. ‘one who commits a crime against himself or herself’) suicide (legal) femme fatale (French) (lit. ‘fatal woman’) a woman whose seductive charms lead men to be compromised and destroyed festina lente (French) (lit. ‘make haste slowly’) ˆ ˆ fete champetre (French) (lit. ‘rustic festival’) grand open-air party ` fin de siecle (French) (lit. ‘end of the century’) used of the end of the C19th and its perceived artistic decadence ´ flambe (French) (lit. ‘flamed’) used of food served in flaming spirits, usually brandy ˆ flaneur (French) an idler; a wastrel folie de grandeur (French) fons et origo (Latin) delusions of grandeur fracas (French) frisson (French) a brawl; a noisy quarrel (lit. ‘a shiver’) a pleasurable shiver of fear or excitement fuhrer (German) ¨ furore (Latin) (lit. ‘leader’, esp. Hitler) used to desribe anyone who behaves autocratically towards subordinates a public outburst gamine (French) a slim and boyish girl or young woman 100 (lit. ‘source and origin’)
  • 109. Foreign Words and Phrases in English gauleiter (German) gemutlich (German) ¨ a petty tyrant (lit. ‘comfortable’) cosy; comfortable; nice genre (French) (lit. ‘kind’ or ‘type’) a particular kind of music, literature or art (lit. ‘health’) traditionally uttered when someone sneezes like ‘bless you’ gesundheit (German) glasnost (Russian) gratis (Latin) (lit. ‘publicity’) policy of public frankness and accountability (lit. ‘out of kindness’) free gravitas (Latin) (lit. ‘weight’) authority; seriousness or solemnity of demeanour and conduct gulag (Russian) any system used for silencing dissidents; a corrective camp (from Sanskrit: ‘weighty’) a Hindu or Sikh spiritual leader; a leader of a religious cult; a leading authority guru (Hindi) ´ habitue (French) a frequent visitor to a place haute couture (French) (lit. ‘high dressmaking’) high fashion haut monde (French) (lit. ‘high world’) high society hic iacet/hic jacet (Latin) here lies hoi polloi (Greek) homo sapiens (Latin) (lit. ‘the many’) the masses; the common people (lit. ‘wise man’) the scientific name for modern man hors concours (French) (lit. ‘out of the competition’) unequalled; peerless; not competing for an award hors de combat (lit. ‘out of the fight’) (French) injured; disabled; not able to take part hors d’oeuvre (sing.) (lit. ‘outside the work’) 101
  • 110. Unit 10 hors d’oeuvres (plural) an appetiser, served before the main course (French) hwyl (Welsh) emotional fervour (ibid) ibidem (Latin) ´ idee fixe (French) (id) idem (Latin) (i.e.) id est (Latin) (lit. ‘in the same place’) in the same book, article, passage, etc. (lit. ‘a fixed idea’) an obsession (lit. ‘the same’) ditto (lit. ‘it is’) that is (used before a clarification of a statement) in absentia (Latin) (lit. ‘in absence’) in a person’s absence inamorato (m.) (Italian) a person with whom one is in love inamorata (f.) } in articulo mortis (Latin) in camera (Latin) (lit. ‘in the grasp of death’) at the point of death (lit. ‘in a chamber’) in private (legal) incommunicado (Spanish) deprived of communication with other people in extremis (Latin) (lit. ‘in the last’) at the point of death; in dire straits in flagrante delicto (Latin) (lit. ‘with the crime blazing’) caught in the act; caught red-handed (infra dig) infra dignitatem (Latin) ´ ingenue (French) (lit. ‘below dignity’) beneath one’s dignity inexperienced young girl in loco parentis (Latin) (lit. ‘in the place of a parent’) in memoriam (Latin) in perpetuum (Latin) (lit. ‘in memory’) forever in propria persona (Latin) in situ (Latin) (lit. ‘in one’s own person’) personally, in person in position; in the appropriate place inter alia (Latin) (lit. ‘among other things’) 102
  • 111. Foreign Words and Phrases in English interregnum (Latin) a period between rulers In vino veritas. (Latin) (lit. ‘In wine there is truth.’) Alcohol will loosen the tongue. in vitro (Latin) ipso facto (Latin) (lit. ‘in glass’) in a test-tube by that very fact je ne sais quoi (French) (lit. ‘I don’t know what’) an indefinable something jeu d’esprit (French) (lit. ‘play of spirit’) a light-hearted display of wit or brilliance, especially in literature ´ jeunesse doree (lit. ‘gilded youth’) (French) privileged, fashionable and wealthy young people jihad (Arabic) (lit. ‘conflict’) a holy war undertaken by Muslims against infidels joie de vivre (French) (lit. ‘joy of living’) enjoyment of life kamikaze (Japanese) (lit. ‘divine wind’) describing an action or a person willing to die in inflicting maximum destruction on the enemy; a suicide bomber (lit. ‘done for’) ruined; broken; completely destroyed kaput (German) karaoke (Japanese) (lit. ‘empty orchestra’) an entertainment where members of the public take it in turns to sing well-known songs over a pre-recorded backing karma (Sanskrit) (lit. ‘action, effort’) force produced by the way one lives one’s life which will affect subsequent reincarnations tawdry; vulgar; tasteless kitsch (German) lacrimae rerum (Latin) (lit. ‘the tears of things’) sorrow at the heart of life 103
  • 112. Unit 10 la dolce vita (Italian) laissez-faire (French) (lit. ‘the sweet life’) luxurious and licentious lifestyle (lit. ‘let do’) a policy of non-interference lapsus linguae (Latin) lebensraum (German) (lit. ‘a slip of the tongue’) (lit. ‘living space’) leitmotif (German) (lit. ‘leading motive’) a recurrent image or theme (lit. ‘injured majesty’) treason; any attack on authority ´ ` lese majeste (French) lingua franca (Latin) (lit. ‘Frankish tongue’) simplified language used for communication with people speaking different languages; common basis for understanding not requiring language (ballet, etc.) literati (Latin) well-educated people who are interested in literature locum tenens (Latin) (locum) (lit. ‘holding the place’) a person who stands in temporarily for another member of the same profession (doctor, dentist, chemist, etc.) magna cum laude (Latin) magnum opus (Latin) (lit. ‘with great praise’) second class honours in an American degree (lit. ‘big work’) a person’s artistic masterpiece mal de mer (French) ˜ manana (Spanish) (lit. ‘sickness of the sea’) (lit. ‘tomorrow’) the inclination to put anything demanding off to a later date; living for the moment ´ manque (French) (lit. ‘having missed’) unfulfilled; with potential unrealised mariage blanc (French) (lit. ‘white marriage’) an unconsummated marriage materfamilias (Latin) (lit. ‘mother of a family’) matriarch mea culpa (Latin) (lit. ‘through my fault’) I am to blame. 104
  • 113. Foreign Words and Phrases in English ˆ ´ melee French) confused mass of people memento mori (Latin) (lit. ‘remember that you must die’) an object such as a skull which reminds one that death is inevitable ` ´ nage a trois me (lit. ‘household of three’) (French) a married couple and the lover of the husband or wife living together mens sana in corpore (lit. ‘a healthy mind in a healthy body’) sano (Latin) ´ metier (French) one’s profession or trade milieu (French) setting, location mirabile dictu (Latin) (lit. ‘wonderful to say’) modus operandi (Latin) (lit. ‘way of working’) modus vivendi (Latin) (lit. ‘way of living’) a practical compromise between two conflicting protagonists; a working arrangement mot juste (French) (lit. ‘the exact word’) multum in parvo (Latin) mutatis mutandis (Latin) (lit. ‘much in little’) a lot in a small space (lit. ‘things having been changed which needed to be changed’) having made the necessary changes nada (Spanish) ´ ¨ naıvete (French) ´ nee French) nothing ingenuous behaviour (nem. con.) nemine contradicente (Latin) ne plus ultra (Latin) nihil obstat (Latin) nil desperandum (Latin) nisi (Latin) (lit. ‘born’) precedes the maiden name of a married woman (lit. ‘with no one contradicting’) (lit. ‘not more beyond’) perfection (lit. ‘nothing stands in the way’) (lit. ‘nothing is to be despaired of’) (lit. ‘unless’) 105
  • 114. Unit 10 Noli me tangere. (Latin) (lit. ‘Do not touch me.’) nom de plume (French) (lit. ‘a name of the pen’) pen name, pseudonym non compos mentis (Latin) non sequitur (Latin) (lit. ‘not in control of one’s mind’) nostalgie de la boue (French) (lit. ‘a yearning for mud’) a craving for a debased physical life (often for sexual degradation) (lit. ‘note well’) note carefully nota bene (Latin) (N.B.) (lit. ‘it does not follow’) an illogical step in an argument nouveau riche (French) (lit. ‘new rich’) someone who has recently become wealthy but lacks social graces nouvelle cuisine (French) objet d’art (French) (lit. ‘new cooking’) a style of cooking based on the attractive visual presentation of lightly cooked ingredients (lit. ‘an object of art’) small object considered to be of artistic merit ´ objet trouve (French) (lit. ‘a found object’) a natural object (stone, branch, etc.) which is considered to be of artistic merit and displayed as such opere citato (Latin) (op. cit.) opus (Latin) (lit. ‘in the work cited’) ´ outre (French) pace (Latin) 106 (lit. ‘the work’) an artistic composition or musical work (lit. ‘beyond’) beyond what is proper and conventionally acceptable (lit. ‘with peace’) with due deference to
  • 115. Foreign Words and Phrases in English panem et circenses (Latin) paparazzo (sing.) paparazzi (plural) (Italian) (lit. ‘bread and circuses’) amusements to distract the masses from unpleasant realities freelance photographer(s) who specialise(s) in sensational photographs of the rich and famous par excellence (French) (lit. ‘by way of excellence’) beyond comparison parvenu (French) an upstart; a person of low social position who suddenly acquires wealth or celebrity ´ passe (French) (lit. ‘past’) out-of-date; old-fashioned passim (Latin) (lit. ‘scattered here and there’) occurring throughout a work (lit. ‘father of a family’) head of an extended family; patriarch paterfamilias (Latin) patois (French) dialect; jargon of a particular group pax (Latin) per annum (Latin) (lit. ‘peace’) (lit. ‘by the year’) annually per capita (Latin) (lit. ‘by the head’) for each person per diem (Latin) (lit. ‘by the day’) daily perestroika (Russian) (lit. ‘reconstruction’) restructuring the economy of a country per procurationem (per pro. or p.p.) (Latin) per se (Latin) (lit. ‘by delegation’) used when signing documents on behalf of someone else (lit. ‘by itself’) intrinsically persona non grata (Latin) ´ ` piece de resistance (French) (lit. ‘unacceptable person’) the main dish of a meal; the principal or most outstanding achievement of somebody 107
  • 116. Unit 10 ` pied a terre (French) pinxit (Latin) (lit. ‘foot on the ground’) a flat or small dwelling for occasional use (lit. ‘he/she painted (it)’) Plus ca change, plus ¸ ˆ c’est la meme chose. (French) post meridiem (p.m.) (Latin) (lit. ‘The more things change, the more things stay the same.’) post partum (Latin) post scriptum (Latin) (lit. ‘after the birth’) (lit. ‘after the writing’) (P.S.) a postscript pour encourager les autres (French) (lit. ‘to encourage the others’) premier cru (French) ˆ ` pret-a-porter (French) (lit. ‘first growth’) prima facie (Latin) (lit. ‘after noon’) (lit. ‘ready-to-wear’) (lit. ‘at first sight’) primus inter pares (Latin) prix fixe (French) (lit. ‘first among equals’) pro bono publico (Latin) (lit. ‘for the public good’) pro patria (Latin) (lit. ‘for one’s country’) pro rata (Latin) pro tempore (Latin) (pro tem) proportionately for the time being (lit. ‘fixed price’) describes a meal in a restaurant offered at an all-inclusive price putsch (Swiss German) (lit. ‘a thrust’) a secretly planned sudden attempt to depose a government; a political revolt qua (Latin) ` ` Que sera sera. (Spanish) quid pro quo (Latin) in the capacity of Quis custodiet ipsos custodies? (Latin) (lit. ‘Who will guard the guards?’) 108 (lit. ‘Whatever will be will be.’) (lit. ‘something for something’)
  • 117. Foreign Words and Phrases in English Quod erat We have proved the proposition that we demonstrandum. have set out to prove. (Q.E.D.) (Latin) (q.v.) quod vide (Latin) (lit. ‘which see’) see quondam (Latin) Quo vadis? (Latin) former (lit. ‘Where are you going?) raconteur (French) ˆ raison d’etre (French) person skilled in telling stories reason for existence rapprochement (French) (lit. ‘bringing together again’) rara avis (Latin) (lit. ‘a rare bird’) something or someone very unusual realpolitik (German) ´ ´ rechauffe (French) (lit. ‘politics of realism’) (lit. ‘heated up again’) (lit. ‘searched for’) choice; rare; known only to connoisseurs ´ recherche (French) ´ reclame (French) recto (Latin) ´ Repondez, s’il vous ˆ plaıt. (French) (R.S.V.P.) Requiescat in pace. (sing.) (Latin) Requiescant. (plural) (R.I.P.) (Latin) ´ retrousse (French) ` Revenons a nos moutons (French) ´ risque (French) public acclaim; publicity right-hand page of a book (lit. ‘Please reply.’) } ` roman a clef (French) (lit. ‘May he/she/they rest in peace.’) turned-up (nose) (lit. ‘Let us return to our sheep’) Let’s get back to the main point. (lit. ‘risky’) bordering on impropriety routier (French) (lit. ‘a novel with a key’) a novel based on thinly-disguised real people whom the initiated will recognise a long-distance lorry driver rus in urbe (Latin) (lit. ‘the country in the town’) 109
  • 118. Unit 10 sanctum sanctorum (Latin) sang-froid (French) ´ ´ sans ceremonie (French) ´ saute (French) (lit. ‘holy of holies’) (lit. ‘cold blood’) composure; self-possession (lit. ‘without ceremony’) savoir faire (French) (lit. ‘tossed’) to fry food quickly (lit. ‘to know how to do’) the ability to do the right thing in a situation schadenfreude (German) schmalz (German) (lit. ‘harm and joy’) taking pleasure in the misery of others excessive sentimentality semper fidelis (Latin) (lit. ‘faithful for ever’) } sequens (sing.) the following sequentes (plural) (Latin) (seq. or seqq.) seriatim (Latin) in series sic (Latin) thus used in parenthesis to indicate a mistake made by an author in a passage being quoted by another writer sine die (Latin) (lit. ‘without a day’) until an unspecified date (lit. ‘without which not’) an indispensable condition; something that cannot be done without sine qua non (Latin) soi-disant (French) } ´ soigne (m) (French) ´ soignee (f) ´ soiree (French) (lit. ‘oneself-calling’) so-called (lit. ‘looked after’) beautifully groomed sotto voce (Italian) an evening entertainment (lit. ‘under the voice’) speaking quietly in an undertone soubriquet (French) a nickname 110
  • 119. Foreign Words and Phrases in English soupcon (French) ¸ status quo (Latin) stet (Latin) } sub iudice sub judice (Latin) (lit. ‘suspicion’) a faint trace; a minute amount as things stand; the present state of affairs (lit. ‘let it stand’) an editor’s or proofreader’s mark cancelling a deletion or alteration (lit. ‘under the judge’) indicates that an action is still being considered in a court of law and so should pass without comment subpoena (Latin) (lit. ‘under penalty’) a legal summons to appear in court sub rosa (Latin) (lit. ‘under the rose’) in strict confidence (lit. ‘success of scandal’) a book, painting, film which is successful as a result of its scandalous subject matter rather than through its own merit ` succes de scandale (French) sui generis (Latin) summa cum laude (Latin) ˆ table d’hote (French) tabula rasa (Latin) Tempus fugit. (Latin) terra firma (Latin) ` ˆ ˆ tete-a-tete (French) (lit. ‘of its own kind’) in a class of its own; unique first class honours in an American degree (lit. ‘at the host’s table’) a set of dishes in a restaurant at a set price (lit. ‘a scraped writing tablet’) a clean slate (on which life has yet to leave its marks) (lit. ‘Time flies.’) (lit. ‘firm earth’) dry land (lit. ‘head to head’) a private conversation ´ touche (French) (lit. ‘touched’) used as an acknowledgement of a witty reply or remark that has made its mark tour de force (French) a remarkable feat or achievement 111
  • 120. Unit 10 tout court (French) (lit. ‘quite short’) just that and nothing else toute de suite (French) immediately tout le monde (French) everybody trompe l’oeil (French) (lit. ‘deceives the eye’) a painting that gives a convincing illusion of reality (e.g. a window and the scene through it painted on the wall of a room) ultra vires (Latin) urbi et orbi (Latin) vade mecum (Latin) (lit. ‘beyond strength’) beyond the legal authority of (lit. ‘to the city and to the world’) (lit. ‘go with me’) a handbook or other aid carried by a person for immediate easy reference Veni, vidi, vici. (Latin) (lit. ‘I came, I saw, I conquered.’) verbatim (Latin) verboten (German) (lit. ‘word for word’) (lit. ‘forbidden’) verso (Latin) (v.) versus (Latin) the left-hand page of a book against via (Latin) by way of vice versa (Latin) (lit. ‘the change being turned’) conversely (viz) videlicet (Latin) (lit. ‘it is permitted to see’) namely vin du pays (French) (lit. ‘wine of the country’) locally produced wine ` vis-a-vis (French) (lit. ‘face to face’) in relation to (lit. ‘May he/she live.’) Long live. Vivat. (Latin) viva voce (Latin) volte-face (French) wagonlit (French) 112 (lit. ‘with the living voice’) orally (lit. ‘turn face’) a reversal; a U-turn a sleeping car on a European railway
  • 121. Foreign Words and Phrases in English wanderlust (German) weltanschauung (German) (lit. ‘wander-desire’) an irresistible urge to travel (lit. ‘world perception’) a particular philosophy or view of life weltschmerz (German) (lit. ‘world pain’) a feeling of melancholy and worldweariness wunderkind (German) (lit. ‘wonder child’) a child prodigy Zeitgeist (German) (lit. ‘time spirit’) the characteristic outlook at a particular time in history TEST YOUR WORD POWER Complete this table of abbreviations. 1. A.D. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ in the year of our Lord 2. a.m. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ before noon 3. c. circa _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 4. C.V. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ ´ resume of qualifications 5. D.G. Deo gratias _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 6. D.V. Deo volente _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 7. e.g. exempli gratia _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 8. et al. et alia _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 9. etc. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ and so on 10. __ __ ibidem __ __ __ __ __ _ as previously cited 11. i.e. _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ id est 12. __ __ nemine contradicente __ __ __ __ __ _ unanimously 13. N.B. _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ nota bene 14. __ __ opera citato __ __ __ __ __ _ in the work already quoted 15. p.a. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ annually 16. p.m. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ after noon 113
  • 122. Unit 10 17. __ __ __ per procurationem __ __ __ __ _ signed on behalf of 18. P.S. added to the letter __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ 19. pro tem. pro tempore _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 20. Q.E.D. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ what has to be proved has been proved 21. q.v. quod vide _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 22. R.I.P. Requiescat in pace. _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ´ 23. R.S.V.P.Repondez, s’il vous plait. _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 24. __ __ __ sequens __ __ __ __ _ the following 25. __ __ __ videlicet __ __ __ __ _ namely Supply the missing words in these foreign phrases. 26. Caveat __________ . __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ (Let the buyer beware.) 27. mirabile__________ __________ __________ __________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _ (wonderful to relate) 28. __ __ __ de plume __ __ __ __ _ (a pen name) 29. savoir (social expertise; knowing what to say at the right time) _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ 30. __ __ __ de force __ __ __ __ _ (a remarkable achievement) What are these? 31. a billet doux ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 32. an apercu ¸ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 33. a double entendre ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 34. ˆ ` ˆ a tete-a-tete ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 35. joie de vivre ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 36. sang-froid ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 37. an aide-memoire ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 38. ˆ a bete noire ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 39. schadenfreude ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 114
  • 123. Foreign Words and Phrases in English 40. an affaire de coeur ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ Match up these foreign words and phrases with the correct definition by drawing a connecting line between them. 41. folie de grandeur a double saucepan 42. inamorata plumpness 43. lapsus linguae uneasy anxious forebording 44. ¨ doppelganger a brawl 45. angst a spiritual leader 46. guru a witticism 47. embonpoint a sweetheart 48. bain-marie a slip of the tongue 49. bon mot delusions of greatness 50. fracas a double Score: /50 115
  • 124. Unit 11: Proverbs Proverbs are brief, pithy sayings: " A fool and his money are soon parted. " A miss is as good as a mile. " Don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched. The origins of most of our proverbs are lost in the mists of time, although a few are Biblical in origin (The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak), a few are literary (Cowards die many times before their death) and a few are based on Greek and Latin originals (Better late than never). Proverbs are fascinating. They are part of our linguistic currency, widely known and widely used. Their popular wisdom makes them as relevant to the present day as they have been in the centuries they span. Rhyme, rhythm, alliteration and succinctness help to make them easy to remember: " Waste not, want not. " Look before you leap. " An apple a day keeps the doctor away. " There’s many a slip ’twixt the cup and the lip. Here are some proverbs still in daily use. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. Actions speak louder than words. All cats are grey in the dark. All good things must come to an end. All’s fair in love and war. All’s well that ends well. All that glitters is not gold. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 116
  • 125. Proverbs An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Appearances can be deceptive. Ask no questions and you’ll be told no lies. As well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb. As you make your bed so must you lie on it. As you sow, so shall you reap. A bad workman always blames his tools. A barking dog seldom bites. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Beggars can’t be choosers. Better late than never. Better late than never but better never late. Better safe than sorry. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. Birds of a feather flock together. Blood is thicker than water. Brevity is the soul of wit. A burnt child dreads the fire. Cast ne’er a clout till May be out. A cat may look at a king. Caveat emptor. (Latin) (Let the buyer beware.) Charity begins at home. Children should be seen but not heard. Circumstances alter cases. Cleanliness is next to godliness. Clothes maketh not the man. Comparisons are odious. Constant dripping wears away the stone. Cowards die many times before their death. The creaking gate lasts longest. 117
  • 126. Unit 11 Curiosity killed the cat. Cut your coat according to your cloth. Dead men tell no tales. Deeds not words. The devil finds work for idle hands to do. Discretion is the better part of valour. Do as I say, not as I do. Do as you would be done by. Don’t change horses in midstream. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched. Don’t cross the bridge until you come to it. Don’t cut off your nose to spite your face. Don’t throw out the baby with the bath water. Don’t hide your light under a bushel. Don’t kill the goose that lays the golden eggs. Don’t make a mountain out of a molehill. Don’t make a rod for your own back. Don’t meet trouble half-way. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. Don’t put new wine into old bottles. Don’t put the cart before the horse. Don’t rob Peter to pay Paul. Don’t teach your grandmother to suck eggs. Don’t tell tales out of school. A drowning man will clutch at a straw. Ducks lay eggs; geese lay wagers. The early bird catches the worm. Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. Easier said than done. East, west, home’s best. Easy come; easy go. 118
  • 127. Proverbs Eavesdroppers never hear any good of themselves. Empty vessels make the most sound. The end justifies the means. An Englishman’s home is his castle. Enough is as good as a feast. Even a worm will turn. Even the walls have ears. Every cloud has a silver lining. Every dog has his day. Every little helps. Everything comes to him who waits. Example is better than precept. Exchange is no robbery. Faint heart ne’er won fair lady. Familiarity breeds contempt. Fine feathers make fine birds. Fire is a good servant but a bad master. First come, first served. A fool and his money are soon parted. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. Forbidden fruit tastes sweetest. Forewarned is forearmed. A friend in need is a friend indeed. Gather ye rosebuds while ye may. Give a dog a bad name and hang him. Give a thief enough rope and he’ll hang himself. Give credit where it’s due. God helps those who help themselves. God is on the side of the big battalions. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Good fences make good neighbours. 119
  • 128. Unit 11 Good wine needs no bush. Great minds think alike. Great oaks from little acorns grow. Half a loaf is better than no bread. Handsome is as handsome does. Heaven helps those who help themselves. He who hesitates is lost. He who laughs last laughs longest. He who pays the piper calls the tune. He who touches pitch will be defiled. Honesty is the best policy. Honi soit qui mal y pense. (Old French) (Evil to him who evil thinks.) Hunger is the best sauce. A hungry man is an angry man. If at first you don’t succeed, try, try, and try again. If something’s worth doing, it’s worth doing well. If the cap fits, wear it. If you want a thing done well, do it yourself. Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. In for a penny, in for a pound. In vino veritas. (Latin) (In wine there is truth.) It never rains but it pours. It’s a long lane that has no turning. It’s an ill wind that blows nobody any good. It’s easy to be wise after the event. It’s never too late to mend. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. It’s no use spoiling the ship for a ha’porth of tar. It’s the last straw that breaks the camel’s back. It takes all sorts to make a world. It takes two to make a quarrel. 120
  • 129. Proverbs Jack of all trades, master of none. Judge not that ye be not judged. The labourer is worthy of his hire. Laugh and grow fat. Laugh and the world laughs with you; weep and you weep alone. Learn to walk before you run. Least said, soonest mended. Leave well alone. Let not the pot call the kettle black. Let not the sun go down on your anger. Let sleeping dogs lie. Let the cobbler stick to his last. Like father, like son. A little learning is a dangerous thing. Little pitchers have long ears. Little things please little minds. Look after the pennies and the pounds will look after themselves. Look before you leap. Love laughs at locksmiths. Make haste slowly. Make hay while the sun shines. A man is as old as he feels; a woman is as old as she looks. Manners maketh man. Many a little makes a mickle. Many a mickle makes a muckle. (Scottish version) Many hands make light work. Marry in haste, repent at leisure. Misfortunes never come singly. A miss is as good as a mile. Moderation in all things. More haste, less speed. 121
  • 130. Unit 11 The more you have, the more you want. Nature abhors a vacuum. Necessity is the mother of invention. Never look a gift horse in the mouth. Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you. New brooms sweep clean. A nod is as good as a wink. A nod is as good as a wink to a blind horse. No man can serve two masters. No names, no pack drill. None but the brave deserve the fair. No news is good news. None so blind as those who will not see. None so deaf as those who will not hear. No pain, no gain. No smoke without fire. Nothing succeeds like success. Nothing venture, nothing gain. Once bitten, twice shy. One good turn deserves another. One man’s meat is another man’s poison. One volunteer is worth two pressed men. Opportunity seldom knocks twice. Out of sight, out of mind. Out of the frying pan into the fire. Patience is a virtue. The pen is mightier than the sword. A penny saved is a penny gained. Penny wise, pound foolish. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. Per ardua ad astra. (Latin) (Through hardship to the stars.) 122
  • 131. Proverbs A pet lamb is a cross ram. A place for everything and everything in its place. Possession is nine tenths of the law. Practice makes perfect. Practise what you preach. Prevention is better than cure. Pride goes before a fall. Procrastination is the thief of time. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. Punctuality is the politeness of kings. The road to hell is paved with good intentions. A rolling stone gathers no moss. Sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander. Self-praise is no recommendation. Set a thief to catch a thief. Silence gives consent. Silence is golden. A soft answer turneth away wrath. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Speak the truth and shame the devil. Speech is silver, silence golden. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak. Still waters run deep. A stitch in time saves nine. The strength of a chain is in its weakest link. Strike while the iron’s hot. Take care of the pennies and the pounds will take care of themselves. Tempus fugit. (Latin) (Time flies.) There are plenty more fish in the sea. There’s many a good tune played on an old fiddle. 123
  • 132. Unit 11 There’s many a slip ’twixt the cup and the lip. There’s many a true word spoken in jest. There’s no smoke without fire. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. Those whom the gods love die young. Time and tide wait for no man. Time is money. Time is the great healer. Together we stand, divided we fall. Too many cooks spoil the broth. A trouble shared is a trouble halved. Truth will out. Two heads are better than one. Two’s company, three’s a crowd. Variety is the spice of life. Verb. sap. (Latin abbreviated: Verbum sat sapienti.) (A word is enough for the wise.) Virtue is its own reward. Walls have ears. Waste not, want not. A watched pot never boils. The way to a man’s heart is through his stomach. We never miss the water till the well runs dry. What can’t be cured must be endured. Whatever’s worth doing is worth doing well. What the eye doesn’t see, the heart doesn’t grieve over. When in doubt, do nowt. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. When one door shuts, another opens. When the cat’s away, the mice will play. Where ignorance is bliss, ’tis folly to be wise. Where there’s a will, there’s a way. 124
  • 133. Proverbs Where there’s life, there’s hope. Where there’s muck, there’s money (or brass). Why keep a dog and bark yourself? A wild goose never laid a tame egg. You can’t burn the candle at both ends. You can’t get a quart into a pint pot. You can’t get blood out of a stone. You can’t have it both ways. You can’t have your cake and eat it. You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs. You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. You can’t make bricks without straw. You can’t put an old head on young shoulders. You can’t run with the hare and hunt with the hounds. You can’t teach an old dog new tricks. You have to make the best of a bad job. You may lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink. You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours. TEST YOUR WORD POWER Some proverbs seem to contradict each other, although each is true in certain circumstances. Complete the apparently contradictory proverbs. 1. He who hesitates is lost. __________________ you leap. __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ 2. Clothes maketh not the man. __________________ fine birds. __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ 3. Out of sight, out of mind. __________________ grow fonder. __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ 4. What’s done can’t be undone. __________________ to mend. __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ 125
  • 134. Unit 11 5. Deeds not words. __________________ I do. __________________ __________________ __________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ Match up beginnings and endings with connecting lines. 6. When in doubt think alike. 7. Dead men please little minds. 8. Comparisons sweep clean. 9. Still waters die young. 10. Those whom the gods love have long ears. 11. Fine words run deep. 12. New brooms are odious. 13. Great minds butter no parsnips. 14. Little things do nowt. 15. Little pitchers tell no tales. Supply the missing word in each proverb. 16. ______ is the better part of valour. 17. Even a ______ will turn. 18. Gather ye ______ while ye may. 19. Good wine needs no ______ . 20. A ______ man will clutch at a straw. 21. ______ is the spice of life. 22. Love laughs at ______ . 23. ______ makes the heart grow fonder. 24. You can’t get ______ out of a stone. 25. ______ can’t be choosers. 126
  • 135. Proverbs Find a proverb in the box with a meaning similar to each of the proverbs below. Nothing venture, nothing gain. First come, first served. Every little helps. Moderation in all things. Once bitten, twice shy. Appearances can be deceptive. Deeds not words. In for a penny, in for a pound. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched. One man’s meat is another man’s poison. 26. Enough is as good as a feast. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 27. As well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 28. There’s many a slip ’twixt the cup and the lip. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 29. A burnt child dreads the fire. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 30. All that glitters is not gold. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 31. The early bird catches the worm. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 32. Actions speak louder than words. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 33. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 127
  • 136. Unit 11 34. Many a little makes a mickle. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 35. He who hesitates is lost. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Match up the proverbs in the box with the definitions that follow. Give a dog a bad name and hang him. The pen is mightier than the sword. When one door closes, another opens. A rolling stone gathers no moss. Empty vessels make the most sound. All’s well that ends well. The creaking gate lasts longest. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. Good fences make good neighbours. Don’t change horses mid-stream. Jack of all trades, master of none. Forewarned is forearmed. We never miss the water till the well runs dry. You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours. You may lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink. 36. If the final outcome is successful, all previous difficulties and disappointments are forgotten. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 37. People in poor health all their lives often outlive their more robust friends and relations. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 38. Ignorant people often do most of the talking. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 39. If you know of a problem in advance, you can take appropriate steps. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 128
  • 137. Proverbs 40. However innocent a person may actually be, he is ruined forever if his reputation is destroyed. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 41. We need to respect the privacy of those close to us. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 42. It’s better to do one thing really well rather than many things superficially. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 43. The written word is far more influential than physical force. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 44. You can’t judge a project until it’s completed. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 45. If you don’t settle down and make a commitment, you won’t achieve anything. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 46. We always take things for granted until we have to do without them. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 47. When one opportunity is taken away, another beckons. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 48. You praise me and I’ll praise you. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 49. Choose the appropriate moment to make important changes. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 50. You can provide people with valuable opportunities but it’s up to them to take advantage of them. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Score: /50 129
  • 138. Unit 12: Prefixes Dictionary definition: Prefix: a syllable or syllables placed at the beginning of a word to make a new word In this unit we focus on nearly 100 prefixes that in their turn give us the key to many thousands of words. Both your vocabulary and your spelling will benefit from isolating prefixes in this way and establishing exactly what their function is. Make sure you have a good dictionary by your side as you work through this unit. NEGATIVE PREFIXES Six prefixes can be used to make words negative: a-, an- (Greek) amoral, atheist, anonymous dis- (Latin) disadvantage, disappear, dissatisfied in- (Latin) (il-, im-, ir-) mis- (Old French) incapable, invisible, illegal, impossible, irregular misbehave, misdiagnosis, misspell non- (Latin) un- (Old English) non-fiction, nonsense, non-slip unhappy, unnatural, unwilling " Note that if you join dis- or mis- to a word beginning with s-, you will have -ss-: dis+satisfied = dissatisfied mis+spell = misspell " Note that if you join in- or un- to a word beginning with n-, you will have -nn-: in+numerable = innumerable un+natural = unnatural " Note that in- changes before certain letters in the interest of euphony. It makes them far easier to say. 130
  • 139. Prefixes il- before l illegal im- before m, p, immature, impossible irregular ir- before r There is also the very irregular in +noble = ignoble WARNING: Don’t assume that a- and in- are always used in a negative sense. See the Old English group of prefixes: abed, aground, ashore (a- = in, on, to). See the Latin group of prefixes: invade, intrude (in- = in, into). TEST YOUR WORD POWER Make these words opposite in meaning by adding an appropriate negative prefix. Use your dictionary to help if you wish. 1. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ conditional 2. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ reputable 3. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ literate 4. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ patient 5. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ convenient 6. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ clear 7. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ responsible 8. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ sectarian 9. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ symmetrical 10. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ print Explain the difference in meaning between the words in these pairs: disinterested and uninterested 11. 12. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 13. displace and misplace __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 14. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 131
  • 140. Unit 12 15. disconnected and unconnected __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 16. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ distrust and mistrust 17. 18. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ amoral and immoral 19. 20. __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ NUMBER PREFIXES Words like one-sided, four-seater, eleven-plus are self-explanatory. Where the prefixes come from Latin or Greek, however, it is not always so clear. uni- (Latin) one unicellular, unicorn, unicycle, uniform, unite mono- (Greek) one bi- (Latin) two monochrome, monocle, monocycle, monogamy, monolith, monologue, monopoly, monotonous biannual, bicycle, biennial, bifocals, bigamy, bilingual, binoculars, biped, bisect di- (Greek) two tri- (Greek) three triangle, tricolour, tricycle, triplets, triplicate, tripod, triptych quadrquart- (Latin) four 132 dichotomy, dilemma, diphthong, diptych, duplicate quadrangle, quadrant, quadraphonics, quadrat, quadriplegic, quadruped, quadruple, quadruplets; quart, quarter, quartet, quartile, quarto
  • 141. Prefixes tetra- (Greek) four quint- (Latin) five penta- (Greek) five ses-/sex- (Latin) six hex- (Greek) six sept- (Latin) hept- tetrahedron, tetrameter, tetraplegic, tetrarch quintet, quintile, quintuplets (Greek) pentagon, pentagram, pentameter, Pentateuch, pentathlon sestet, sextennial, sextet, sextuplets hexagon, hexameter, hexagram, hexahedron seven septet, septennial, septuagenarian, septuplets oct- seven heptameter, heptahedron, Heptateuch, heptagon (Greek & Latin) eight octagon, octahedron, octave, octet, octogenarian, octuplets, octopus nonadec- (Latin) (Latin) nine ten cent- (Latin) 100 mill- (Latin) nonagon, nonagenarian decade, decagon, decahedron, decimal cent, centenarian, centenary, centimetre, centipede, century 1000 millennium, millibar, milligram, millimetre, millipede TEST YOUR WORD POWER True or false? True False 21. A millipede has a thousand legs. & & 22. A nonagenarian is between 90 and 99 years old. & & 23. A unicycle is the same as a monocycle. & & 24. Biannual means the same as biennial. & & 25. Tetraplegia is another term for quadriplegia. & & 133
  • 142. Unit 12 Supply the words that best fit these definitions: 26. being able to speak two languages fluently _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 27. eight children born at a birth _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 28. the crime of marrying someone when you are already legally married to someone else _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 29. the name given to the first five books of the Old Testament _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ a six-sided figure (mathematics) _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 30. SOME OLD ENGLISH PREFIXES a- (on, in, to) abed, about, above, adrift, afoot, alive, aloud, amid, ashore, astern after- (after) afterbirth, aftercare, afterlife, aftermath, afternoon, aftertaste, afterthought be- (by) bedazzle, bedeck, befriend, behead, bemoan, bespatter, bewilder downcast, downfall, downgrade, downtrodden down- (downward) for- (prohibition) (self-control) (neglect) fore- (in front) out- (away, from, beyond) forbid forbear, forgo forget, forsake forebear, foreboding, forecast, forecourt, forefather, forehead, foresee, foretell outcast, outdoors, outlandish, outlaw, outmanoeuvre, outstrip, outwit } through(through) throughout, throughput; thoroughbred, thoroughthoroughfare, thoroughgoing under- (beneath, below) underage, undercover, underestimate, undernourished, understand, undertake, undervalue, underwear up- (upwards) update, upgrade, uphill, uplands, uproar, upturned wel-/well- (well) 134 welcome, welfare; well-being, well-wisher
  • 143. Prefixes with- (against, back) withdraw, withhold*, within, without, withstand *Notice -hh-: with+hold = withhold TEST YOUR WORD POWER Which words from the list above best fit these definitions? 31. a feeling that something bad will happen _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 32. to stand up against, to resist _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 33. behind or towards the rear of a ship _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 34. looking or sounding very odd and unfamiliar _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 35. looking downward (of eyes); sad, depressed _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 36. a main road through a town or village _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ Give two meanings of ‘aftermath’. 37. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 38. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Explain the difference in meaning between forbear and forebear. 39. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 40. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ SOME LATIN PREFIXES ab-, a- (away from) abdicate, abnormal, abscond, absolve, abuse, avert ad-* (towards) accumulate, adhesive, adjoin, affect, aggregate, allot, announce, approach, arrive, assist, attract ambidextrous, ambiguous, ambivalent, ambi- (both) ante- (before) antecedent, antediluvian, antenatal, anteroom, anticipate 135
  • 144. Unit 12 bene- (well) circum- (round) con-* (with) countercontra- } (against) benediction, benefactor, benefit, benevolent, benison circumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate, circumstances cohere, collect, co-operate, combine, community, companion, compel, conference, congregation, connect, conspire, contagious, correct counter-attack, contraception, countermand, contraband, contradict, contravene de- (down, from, of) debar, deciduous, deduce, deport, descend, description, dethrone, detract e-, ex- (out of) eccentric, effect, emigrant, event, excavate, exhale, expel, export extra-curricular, extradite, extraordinary, extravagant, extrovert extra- (beyond) in- (into) inter- (between) immigrant, infectious, inhale, inscription, intrude, invade intercede, interchange, interject, intermediate, interrupt, interval intra- (inside) intro- (to the inside) intramural, intrauterine, intravenous introduce, introspection, introvert multi- (many) multicoloured, multimillionaire, multiple, multiply, multipurpose, multitude ob- (against) obdurate, obsolete, obstruct, obtrude, obviate, obvious, opponent omni- (all) omnipotent, omniscient, omnivorous per- (through) perambulate, perennial, permanent, permeable, perpetual, persecute post- (after) postgraduate, postmortem, postpone, postscript, post-war pre- (before) precocious, prejudge, prejudice, premature, prepare, prevent, pre-war pro- (in place of, out, on behalf of) proclaim, proconsul, progress, pronoun, propose, pro-slavery, provision 136
  • 145. Prefixes re- (again, back) retro- (back) se- (away from) semi- (half) sub-* (under) super- (above) repay, repeat, reprint, retract, return, revise, rewrite retrograde, retrorocket, retrospect secede, secrete, sedate, seduce, segregate, select, separate semicircle, semicolon, semidarkness, semidetached, semi-final, semitone subculture, subcutaneous, submarine, subordinate, subterranean, succumb, suffocate, suggest, summon, suppress, surreptitious supercilious, superfluous, supernatural, supersede, supersonic, supervise trans- (across) transaction, transatlantic, transcribe, transfer, transfusion, translate, translucent, transparent, transport ultra- (beyond) ultra-fashionable, ultramarine, ultrasonic, ultrasound, ultraviolet ad-, con-, sub-* To make the new words easier to say, the final letter of these three prefixes sometimes changes. These changes are listed below so that you can be aware of what is happening. The prefixes still retain their meaning. ad- changes before c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, t. accumulate, affect, aggregate, allot, announce, approach, acquire, arrive, assist, attract con- changes before b, h, l, m, p, r, and some vowels. combine, cohere, collect, commit, companion, correct, cooperate sub- changes before c, f, g, m, p, r. succumb, suffocate, suggest, summon, suppress, surreptitious 137
  • 146. Unit 12 TEST YOUR WORD POWER What is the meaning of these words? 41. subcutaneous _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 42. prejudice _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 43. ambidextrous _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 44. postmortem _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 45. omnipotent _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 46. ultramarine _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 47. intravenous _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 48. exhale _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 49. obdurate _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 50. surreptitious _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Choose the definition that best fits each word. 51. ambivalent (a) able to use either hand with ease (b) confusion over left and right (c) having mixed feelings & & & 52. circumlocution (a) walking in circles (b) long-windedness (c) removing the kidneys & & & 53. benison (a) victory (b) blessing (c) harvest & & & 54. supercilious (a) vague (b) unnecessary (c) haughty & & & 55. benefactor (a) someone who benefits from a will & (b) someone who is making a good recovery & (c) someone who gives money, help or support & 138
  • 147. Prefixes 56. secede (a) withdraw formally from an alliance & (b) succeed & (c) postpone until the age of 21 & 57. antediluvian (a) ridiculously old-fashioned (b) very much ahead of one’s time (c) unforgiving & & & 58. countermand (a) hold up at gunpoint (b) revoke (c) speak firmly & & & 59. omnivorous (a) very hungry (b) widely read in a number of languages (c) eating food of both plant and animal origin & (a) leave suddenly and secretly (b) kidnap (c) turn over a new leaf & & & 60. abscond & & Explain clearly the difference in meaning between the words in these pairs. contagious and infectious 61. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 62. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ extrovert and introvert 63. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 64. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ dethrone and abdicate 65. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 66. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ emigrant and immigrant 67. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 68. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 139
  • 148. Unit 12 translucent and transparent 69. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 70. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ SOME GREEK PREFIXES anti- (against) antagonise, Antarctic, antibiotics, anticlockwise, antidote, antifreeze, antipathy, antiseptic, antithesis, antonym apo- (away from) aphorism, apocalypse, apocrypha, apology, apostle, apostrophe arch- (chief) archangel, archbishop, arch-criminal, archetype, architect autism, autobiography, autocue, autograph, automatic, automaton auto- (self) cata- (down, badly, against) dia- (through) cataclysm, catalyst, cataract, catarrh, catastrophe, catatonic, catapult diabetes, diagnose, diagonal, diagram, dialogue, diameter, diaphanous, diorama dys- (bad, difficult) dysentery, dysfunction, dysgraphia, dyslexia, dyspepsia em-, en- (within, inside) embryo, empathy, emphasis; endemic, energise, energy endo- (within) epi- (upon, in addition) endocardial, endocrine, endoderm, endoscope, endoskeleton epidemic, epidermis, epigram, epigraph, epilepsy, epilogue, episode, epitaph, epithet, epitome eu- (well) Eucharist, eugenics, eulogy, euphemism, euphony, euphoria, euthanasia hemi- (half) hemiplegic, hemisphere hetero- (other) homo- (same) heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual homeopathy, homogenised, homonym, homophone, homosexual 140
  • 149. Prefixes hyper- (over, beyond) hypo- (under) mega- (great) hyperactive, hyperbole, hypercritical, hypermarket, hypersensitive, hypertension, hyperventilate hyphen, hypo-allergenic, hypochondriac, hypocrisy, hypodermic, hypotension, hypotenuse, hypothermia megalith, megalomania, megaphone, megastar, megastore, megaton meta- (across, after,with) metabolism, metamorphosis, metaphor, metaphysical, method micro- (small) microbe, microchip, microcosm, microdot, microfilm, microscope neo- (new) neoclassical, Neolithic, neologism, neon, neonatal, neo-Nazi, neophyte, neoprene orthodontist, orthodox, orthography, orthopaedic, orthoptics ortho- (straight, right) pan- (all) para- (beside) panacea, pan-African, pancreas, pandemonium, panoply, panorama, pantechnicon, pantheism, pantomime parable, paragraph, parallel, paralyse, paramedic, paramilitary, paraplegic, parasite, parody peri- (around, about) perimeter, period, peripatetic, periphery, periscope, peritonitis poly- (many) polygamy, polyandry, polyanthus, polytechnic, polygamy, polyglot, polygon, polymath, Polynesia proboscis, prognosis, prologue, prophet, proscenium pro- (before) proto- (first) pseudo- (false) syn- (with, together) tele- (at a distance) protagonist, protocol, protoplasm, prototype, protozoa pseudonym syllable, symmetry, sympathy, symphony, synagogue, synchronise, syndrome, synopsis telecommunication, teleconferencing, telekinesis, telepathy, telephone, telescope, television 141
  • 150. Unit 12 TEST YOUR WORD POWER Give the meaning of these words. 71. diaphanous _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 72. telekinesis _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 73. pandemonium _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 74. megalomania _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 75. neonatal _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 76. panacea _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 77. polygyny _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 78. prototype _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 79. parable _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 80. panorama _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Complete the words 81. a substance that kills germs a_______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ 82. a name used by an author instead of his or her own ps______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _ words written about someone on his or her gravestone e_______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ a funny imitation of a serious piece of writing p______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ a person who speaks a lot of languages p______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ 83. 84. 85. 86. a device for viewing inside body cavities and organs e_______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ 87. sudden outbreak of a disease or infection which affects large numbers of people e_______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ 88. inability to write due to brain damage or disease 142 d______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _
  • 151. Prefixes 89. 90. the flexible elongated snout of an elephant or tapir p______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ pleasantness of sound, especially in pronunciation e_______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ True or false? 91. An antidote counteracts the effects of poison. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ 92. The endoderm is the last episode in a serial. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ 93. A neologism is a newly coined word or expression. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ 94. Antipathy is another word for sympathy. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ 95. A polymath is a mathematics lecturer. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ 96. The Neolithic period relates to the later part of the Stone Age. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ 97. Hypotension is the opposite of hypertension. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ 98. An orthodontist treats irregularities of the eyes. 99. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ An epigram is a short witty saying. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ 100. A pantechnicon is a technician. ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ Score for Unit 12: _____/20 _____/10 _____/10 _____/30 _____/30 Total: _____/100 143
  • 152. Unit 13: Suffixes Dictionary definition: Suffix: a syllable or syllables placed at the end of a word to make a new word DIMINUTIVES The suffixes below once conveyed smallness, although frequently this sense has now been lost. Check the derivation of the words below in a good dictionary and you will see the part the suffixes play. -cle (Latin) article, corpuscle, cubicle, follicle, particle, pellicle, tabernacle, testicle -een (Irish) -en (Old English/ (Old French) boreen, colleen, poteen kitten, maiden -ette, -et (French) cigarette, coquette, kitchenette, maisonette, rosette; floret, islet, nymphet, pocket -isk (Greek) asterisk, basilisk, obelisk -kin (Dutch) bumpkin, cannikin, catkin, firkin, lambkin, manikin, napkin, pannikin, pipkin, siskin, spillikin -let (French) booklet, cutlet, driblet, droplet, flatlet, leaflet, piglet, rivulet, starlet, streamlet codling, darling, duckling, fledgling, gosling, nestling, sapling, sibling, suckling -ling (Old English) -ock (Old English) bullock, hillock -ule (Latin) capsule, globule, granule, module, nodule, pustule 144
  • 153. Suffixes TEST YOUR WORD POWER Explain the derivation of these words and the part the suffix plays in each case. 1. pocket ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 2. asterisk ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 3. cutlet ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 4. nodule ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 5. testicle ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 6. corpuscle ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 7. poteen ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 8. firkin ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 9. coquette ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ darling ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 10. SOME ABSTRACT NOUN SUFFIXES (Abstract nouns name ideas, concepts, emotions, qualities, states and conditions.) -age (Latin) -al (Latin) -ance (Latin) -ence (Latin) -dom (Old English) -ery (Latin) -hood (Old English) -ice (Latin) bondage, courage, heritage, homage, leverage, verbiage, wreckage betrayal, burial, denial, dismissal, portrayal, renewal, withdrawal abundance, alliance, annoyance, arrogance, endurance, resistance eminence, dependence, inference, persistence, prudence, somnolence boredom, freedom, martyrdom, officialdom, stardom, wisdom bravery, robbery, slavery, snobbery, treachery, trickery boyhood, childhood, neighbourhood, parenthood, priesthood, widowhood avarice, justice, malice, practice, service 145
  • 154. Unit 13 -ion (Latin) action, definition, devotion, ignition, intention, operation, preparation, sensation alcoholism, Catholicism, feminism, hedonism, patriotism, racism, socialism -ism (Greek) -ity (Latin) absurdity, complexity, hostility, humility, popularity, probity, simplicity, veracity achievement, astonishment, commitment, excitement, improvement, retirement -ment (Latin) -ness (Old English) -our/-or (Latin) -ship (Old English) -tude (Latin) -ty (Latin) fitness, forgiveness, happiness, gentleness, kindness, loneliness, weakness, weariness clamour, fervour, honour, labour; error, horror, pallor, terror, tremor citizenship, fellowship, friendship, hardship, leadership, membership, worship attitude, fortitude, gratitude, magnitude, servitude, solitude beauty, certainty, creativity, cruelty, honesty, royalty, safety closure, expenditure, exposure, failure, legislature, mixture, pleasure, seizure -ure (Latin) -y (Latin/Greek) consistency, decency, jealousy, orthodoxy TEST YOUR WORD POWER Use suffixes from the box to form abstract nouns from the words below. Use each suffix once only. -age -al -ance -ence -ion -ism -ition -ment -our -ure Adding suffixes to base words is not always straightforward. Take care with any necessary spelling modifications. (Appendix A offers guidance on these modifications. Use a dictionary if you wish.) 11. interrupt ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 12. depart ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 146
  • 155. Suffixes 13. punish ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 14. acquit ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 15. rely ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 16. drain ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 17. prefer ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 18. recognise ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 19. plagiarise ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 20. behave ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Explain clearly the difference in meaning between the words in these pairs. parentage and parenthood 21. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 22. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ barbarity and barbarism 23. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 24. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ populism and popularity 25. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 26. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ corruption and corruptibility 27. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 28. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ slavery and enslavement 29. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 30. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 147
  • 156. Unit 13 Tick the correct spelling. 31. differance difference & & 32. perseverance perseverence & & 33. intelligance intelligence & & 34. adolescance adolescence & & 35. inheritance inheritence & & 36. correspondance correspondence & & 37. tolerance tolerence & & 38. conveniance convenience & & 39. appearance appearence & & 40. grievance grievence & & SOME ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES (Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns.) -able (Latin) capable, comfortable, manageable, miserable, noticeable, suitable, taxable, washable -acious (Latin) audacious, capacious, fallacious, loquacious, sagacious, tenacious, veracious, voracious annual, comical, exceptional, infernal, pivotal, regal, royal, tidal, total -al (Latin) 148
  • 157. Suffixes -an/-ane (Latin) -ant/-ent (Latin) -ar (Latin) -arian (Latin) Cuban, human, pagan, sylvan, urban; humane, mundane, urbane arrogant, ignorant, pleasant, pregnant; fraudulent, innocent, persistent, violent lunar, molecular, peculiar, regular, secular, similar, singular antiquarian, humanitarian, sectarian, utilitarian -arious (Latin) -ary (Latin) gregarious, multifarious, vicarious contrary, exemplary, mercenary, primary, sedentary, stationary -ate (Latin) -ent (See -ant.) deliberate, desolate, fortunate, separate -er (Old English) better, dearer, harder, heavier, nicer, prettier, softer, tastier best, dearest, hardest, heartiest, nicest, prettiest, softest, tastiest -est (Old English) -esque (French) -ful (Old English) -ible (Latin) -ic/-ical (Latin/Greek) -id (Latin) -ile (Latin) -ive (Latin) -le (Middle English) -less (Old English) picaresque, picturesque, statuesque; Dantesque, Pinteresque boastful, careful, fretful, graceful, merciful, shameful, wasteful audible, defensible, edible, flexible, horrible, reversible, terrible angelic, bucolic, historic, rhythmic; cervical, metaphorical, pathological candid, flaccid, horrid, morbid, placid, rabid, splendid, tepid, torpid agile, ductile, fragile, juvenile, mobile, prehensile, senile, tactile active, competitive, corrosive, expensive, passive, pensive brittle, fickle, gentle, humble, idle, nimble, supple careless, fathomless, penniless, ruthless, senseless, skinless 149
  • 158. Unit 13 -ly (Old English) -oid (Greek) -ory (Latin) -ose (Latin) -ous (Latin) -some (English) -ular (Latin) -worthy (English) -y (Old English) brotherly, ghastly, heavenly, hourly, lovely, quarterly, saintly asteroid, cuboid, hominoid, rhomboid, schizoid, spheroid, tabloid admonitory, auditory, compulsory, illusory, mandatory, sensory bellicose, comatose, grandiose, jocose, morose, otiose, verbose anxious, barbarous, courageous, dangerous, fabulous, mutinous handsome, loathsome, tiresome, quarrelsome, wholesome angular, circular, granular, modular, molecular, muscular, pustular, tubular creditworthy, newsworthy, noteworthy, roadworthy, seaworthy, trustworthy angry, dirty, greedy, merry, muddy, sorry, sunny, witty TEST YOUR WORD POWER Give the meaning of these words. 41. audacious ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 42. sylvan ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 43. pensive ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 44. comatose ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 45. ruthless ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Which words listed best fit these definitions? 46. able to think and judge wisely s_______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ 47. soft and limp f_______________ _______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ 48. capable of grasping by wrapping around p______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ 150
  • 159. Suffixes 49. typical of unsophisticated rural life experiencing at second-hand through another person’s thoughts and actions 50. b______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ v______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ _ Explain the difference in meaning between the words in each of these pairs. urban and urbane 51. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 52. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ regal and royal 53. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 54. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ human and humane 55. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 56. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ veracious and voracious 57. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 58. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ compulsory and mandatory 59. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 60. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Complete these phrases by converting the nouns in brackets into adjectives. Use a dictionary to help you if you wish. 61. a __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ prayer (fervour) 62. a __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ task (labour) 63. an __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ answer (error) 151
  • 160. Unit 13 64. a ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ accident (horror) 65. an ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ action (honour) 66. an ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ remark (intention) 67. ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ work (preparation) 68. a ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ story (sensation) 69. a ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ wave of the hand (dismissal) 70. a ___________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ attitude (snobbery) Choose the definition that fits each word best. 71. tepid (a) unenthusiastic (b) sinful (c) lukewarm & & & 72. candid (a) frank (b) synthetic (c) suffocating & & & 73. otiose (a) loathsome (b) pointless (c) expensive & & & 74. loquacious (a) talkative (b) pure (c) translucent & & & 75. morose (a) close to death (b) gloomy (c) no longer manufactured & & & 76. gregarious (a) religious (b) sociable (c) miserly & & & 77. utilitarian (a) fundamental (b) designed for practical use (c) cheap and nasty & & & 78. arrogant (a) overbearing (b) brutal (c) extravagant & & & 152
  • 161. Suffixes 79. mundane (a) muddy (b) ordinary (c) worldly & & & 80. tactile (a) concerning the sense of touch (b) tactful (c) constructive & & & SOME VERB SUFFIXES (Verbs are ‘doing’ and ‘being’ words.) -ate (Latin) advocate, anticipate, concentrate, defecate, eradicate, fascinate, implicate, obfuscate -eer (Latin) domineer, career, electioneer, profiteer, volunteer -en (Old English) blacken, broaden, darken, deepen, flatten, harden, lengthen, listen, loosen, open, soften, strengthen, sweeten -er (Old English) batter, flutter, glimmer, stagger, stutter, wander coalesce, convalesce, effervesce, deliquesce, effervesce, effloresce, phosphoresce -esce (Latin) -fy (Latin) amplify, beautify, deify, dignify, falsify, identify, magnify, notify, sanctify, satisfy, simplify, verify -ise/-ize* (French/Greek) baptise, compartmentalise, despise, devise, disguise, equalise, eulogise, finalise, minimise -ish (English) abolish, banish, cherish, establish, finish, nourish, perish, polish, punish, ravish -le (English) amble, babble, cuddle, giggle, gobble, mingle, smuggle, sparkle, struggle, wriggle *The two suffixes -ise and -ize are alternative spellings for most verbs (Americans favour -ize). Some writers feel it’s safer to use -ise because the only two-syllabled verb that has to end in -ize is ‘capsize’. If, however, you prefer to use -ize, remember that there are at least 30 everyday verbs that must be spelt -ise (including advertise, exercise, supervise, surprise and televise). 153
  • 162. Unit 13 TEST YOUR WORD POWER Complete this table. Noun Adjective 81. criticism critical 82. purity pure 83. weakness weak 84. gladness glad 85. admonition Verb admonitory Give the meaning of these words. 86. deify ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 87. eradicate ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 88. coalesce ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 89. supplicate ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 90. venerate ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Add an appropriate suffix to these verbs. 91. hyphen___ 92. comprom___ 93. flour___ 94. quick___ 95. putre___ Supply the words from the list of verb suffixes on page 153. 96. to recover one’s health and strength over a period of time after an illness c___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ _ 97. to praise highly in speech or in writing e___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ _ 98. to shine faintly with a wavering light g___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ _ 99. to make obscure or unintelligible o___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ _ 154
  • 163. Suffixes 100. to check that something is correct or true v___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ _ Score for Unit 13: _____/10 _____/30 _____/40 _____/20 Total _____/100 155
  • 164. Unit 14: Word Roots Dictionary definition: root: (language) (i) the source from which a word is formed (ii) the part of a word that is left when beginnings and endings are removed Over the centuries, we have borrowed and adapted words from many languages. In this Unit, we look closely at the Latin and Greek sources of many of our modern English words. Look at the two lists below. The first is derived from the Latin for ‘foot’ and the second from the Greek word for ‘time’. Notice how much easier it is to understand the meaning of a word once you have identified the root. From Latin pes, pedis (foot, of the foot) pedal pedestal a lever operated by the foot the base (or foot) of a column pedestrian someone who travels on foot pedicure pedometer the care and treatment of the feet a device for measuring the distance travelled on foot biped quadruped an animal with two feet (such as man) a four-footed animal sesquipedalianism the practice of using unnecessarily long and cumbersome words (a foot and half in length, as it were!) From Greek khronos (time) chronic lasting a long time (especially of an illness) chronicle 156 a factual account of important events in the order in which they happened
  • 165. Word Roots chronological chronometer chronometry chronostratigraphy anachronism synchronise arranged in the order in which events happened (chronological order) a device for measuring time exactly the science of the accurate measuring of time the branch of geology concerned with establishing the age of strata of rocks an error in chronology; setting a person, fashion, object, etc. in the wrong period (e.g. the clock striking in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar) to arrange for events to happen at the same time These two lists are by no means exhaustive. You may well know other words that can be added and you will certainly discover more as time goes by. Consider, for instance, impede and impediment. Anything that hinders or obstructs certainly gets ‘under your feet’ in one sense. See if you can find out the historical connection between the feet of a crane and the word pedigree. Studying word roots is fascinating and something that is easily possible with a good dictionary. (Look at the end of a dictionary entry for information about derivation.) One hundred Latin and Greek roots will now be listed in three separate groups. Derivations will be given but not their meanings. Use a dictionary to establish the exact meaning of any words that you are uncertain about and then answer the questions that follow. Take your time. Don’t necessarily aim to complete all the groups at one sitting. Enjoy exploring the connection between the presentday meaning and the meaning of the Latin or Greek root. This will help to ‘fix’ the word in the memory and is part of the process of ‘making the word your own’. GROUP A (LATIN NOUNS) annus (year) annual, annuity, anniversary, biennial, perennial, millennium aqua (water) aquamarine, aquarium, aquatic, aqueduct, aqueous 157
  • 166. Unit 14 bellum (war) aput, capitis* (head) bellicose, bellicosity, belligerent, belligerence cap, capital, capitation, captain, decapitate, recapitulate corpus, corporis* (body) corporate, corporeal, corps, corpse, corpulent, corpus dens, dentis* (tooth) dental, dentifrice, dentist, dentures, indenture fides (faith) frater, fratis* (brother) confident, diffident, fideism, fidelity, fiducial fraternal, fraternise, fraternity, fratricide lex, legis* (law) legal, legalise, legislate, legitimate, lexicon, privilege lunacy, lunar, lunate, lunatic luna (moon) manus (hand) amanuensis, manipulate, manual, manufacture, manuscript mater, matris* (mother) maternal, maternity, matriarch, matriarchy, matricide, matron mors, mortis* (death) pater, patris* (father) mortal, mortality, mortgage, mortician, mortify, mortuary paternal, paternity, patricide, patron, patronise, patronymic rus, ruris* (countryside) rural, rustic, rusticity, rusticate urbs* (city) suburb, suburban, urban, urbanise, urbane verbum (word) verb, verbal, verbalise, verbatim, verbiage, verbose via (road) vir (man) via, viable, viaduct, viaticum virago, virile, virility vulnus, vulneris* (wound) vulnerable, vulnerability, vulnerary *The genitive form of the noun is given (e.g. caput = head, capitis = of the head) where this provides the root for some of the derivatives. 158
  • 167. Word Roots TEST YOUR WORD POWER Which of the words in Group A best fit these definitions? 1. obese _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 2. crescent-shaped _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 3. a morgue _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 4. loyalty _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 5. suave _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 6. paste or powder for cleaning teeth _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 7. a transparent bluish-green gemstone _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 8. a society controlled by women _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 9. a fixed sum paid on a yearly basis _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ the murder of a brother _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 10. Choose the definition that fits each word best. 11. A virago is (a) a muscular man (b) an adolescent boy (c) an abusive woman & & & 12. A patronymic is (a) a surname (b) a bequest (c) a grandfather & & & 13. An amanuensis is (a) an elderly factory worker (b) an assistant who writes from dictation (c) a glove maker & & & 14. Verbatim means (a) wordy (b) word for word (c) in a few words & & & 15. Capitation means (a) beheading (b) writing in capital letters (c) funding based on so much per person & & & 159
  • 168. Unit 14 Give the meaning of these words. 16. belligerent ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 17. legal ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 18. rustic ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 19. viable ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 20. vulnerable ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Check your answers with the answers given at the back of the book. GROUP B (LATIN VERBS) Two forms of the Latin verbs are given in each case. The first is first person singular present tense, and the second is the past participle. Both forms can provide roots for derivatives. ambulo, ambulatum amble, ambulance, ambulant, perambulate, (I walk) perambulator (pram) amo, amatum (I love) audio, auditum (I hear) amateur, amatory, amorist, amorous audible, audience, audition, auditor, auditory, auditorium caedo, caesum (I kill) fratricide, germicide, infanticide, matricide, patricide, suicide capable, capacity, captivate, captive, captor, capture capio, captum (I seize) cedo, cessum (I go) precede, proceed, recede, succeed, success, succession claudo, clausum (I close) claustrophobia, cloister, exclude, include credo, creditum accredited, credence, credible, credit, (I believe) credulous, creed curro (I run) concur, courier, course, current, curriculum, cursive, cursor, cursory dico, dictum (I say) diction, dictionary, dictum, edict, indict, predict, prediction duco, ductum (I lead) abduct, conduct, deduce, ductile, introduce, seduce 160
  • 169. Word Roots erro, erratum (I wander) aberrant, aberration, err, errant, erroneous, error facio, factum (I do) effect, efficient; fact, faction, factor, factotum, manufacture fero, latum (I carry) finio, finitum (I finish) infer, prefer, refer, transfer; collate, collation, relate, translate final, finalise, finality, finish; finite, infinite, infinity fluo, fluxum (I flow) gradio, gressus (I walk) affluent, effluent, fluent, influence; flux, influx egress,ingress, progress, progressive, regress, regression, regressive habito, habitum (I inhabit) haereo, haeresum (I stick) cohabit, habitable, habitat, habitation, inhabit, inhabitant adherent, adhesive, coherent, cohesive inherent iacio, iactum (I throw) iungo, iunctum (I join) ejaculate, eject, inject, object, project, reject conjugal, conjunction, joint, jointure, junction, juncture lego, legatum (I send, I commission) lego, lectum (I choose) (I read) loquor, locutus (I speak) delegate, legacy, legate, legation, relegate relegation elect, election, select, eligible lectern, lecture, legend, legible, dyslexic colloquial, elocution, eloquent, interlocutor, loquacious, soliloquy mitto, missum (I send) admit, emit, omit, remit, transmit; dismiss, emissary, missile, missionary, missive monstro, monstratum demonstrate, demonstration, monstrance (I show) remonstrate, remonstration moveo, motum (I move) mobile, mobilise, motion, motivate, motive, motor, move oro, oratum (I speak) pello, pulsum (I drive) pendeo (I hang) oracle, oracular, oration, orator, oratory, peroration compel, impel, propel, repel, compulsory, impulsive, repulsive impending, pendant, pending, pendulum, suspend, suspension 161
  • 170. Unit 14 plico, plicatum (I fold) complicate, complicity, explicit, implicate, implicit, imply, replicate porto, portatum (I carry) deport, export, import, transport, portable, porter, portfolio puto, putatum (I think, compute, computer, impute, putative, I reckon) repute, reputation rego, rectum (I rule, direct, rectify, rectitude, rector, regiment I keep straight) rumpo, ruptum (I break) disrupt, erupt, interrupt, rupture scribo, scriptum (I write) describe, inscribe, manuscript, prescribe, proscribe, scribble, scripture seco, sectum (I divide) bisect, dissect, insect, section solvo, solutum (I solve, absolve, absolution, dissolute, dissolve, I loosen) soluble, solution, solve specto, spectatum aspect, inspect, respect, spectacle, (I look at) spectacles, spectator spero, speratum (I hope) despair, desperado, desperate, desperation (i.e. having no hope) tango, tactum (I touch) contact, contiguous, contingent, tactile, tangent, tangible tendo, tensum/tentum extend, intend, tense, tensile, tension (I stretch) tent teneo (I hold) contain, continent, continual, continuous, retain, retentive, tenant torqueo, tortum (I twist) distort, retort, torque, tortuous, torture traho, tractum (I drag) attract, protract, retract, traction, tractor venio, ventum (I come) advent, adventure, convene, convent, convention, event verto, versum (I turn) video, visum (I see) vivo, victum (I live) voco, vocatum (I call) 162 avert, convert, pervert, revert; averse, converse, perverse, reverse evident, provide; revise, revision, visible, vision, visionary revive, revivify, victuals, vivacious, vivarium, vivid advocate, evocative, provocative, provoke, vocabulary, vocation
  • 171. Word Roots TEST YOUR WORD POWER Which of the words in Group B best fit these definitions? 21. the murder of a child less than a year old i___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ _ 22. a sudden break of an organ or membrane r___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ _ 23. a speech made in a play by a character alone on the stage s___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ _ 24. a tall stand with a sloping top to hold a reader’s text or a speaker’s notes l___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ _ 25. the concluding part of a speech summing up the points made p___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ _ 26. gullible, too ready to believe c___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ _ 27. able to be heard a___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ _ 28. having more than enough money to live on a___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ _ 29. to scrawl, to write hastily and untidily s___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ _ 30. to divide something into two equal parts b___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ _ What is the meaning of these words? 31. amble ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 32. desperado ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 33. indict 34. aberration ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 35. ductile ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 36. finite ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 37. habitat ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 38. tensile ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 39. convene ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 40. implicate ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ 163
  • 172. Unit 14 Choose the definition that fits each word best. 41. recede (a) come again (b) move back (c) accept grudgingly & & & 42. claustrophobia (a) fear of spiders (b) fear of open spaces (c) fear of confined spaces & & & 43. factotum (a) a boring person who knows everything & (b) a factory worker & (c) an employee who does all kinds of work & 44. infer (a) to hint (b) to draw a conclusion (c) to start a fire & & & 45. tortuous (a) full of twists and turns (b) painful (c) unbelievable & & & 46. revise (a) to remember (b) to look at again (c) to lower the price & & & 47. evocative (a) nostalgic (b) shouted loudly (c) able to bring a feeling vividly to mind & & & 48. portfolio (a) a curriculum vitae (a CV) (b) a flat case for carrying papers (c) French windows & & & 49. tangible (a) so tempting you feel you can taste it (b) so vivid you feel you can touch it (c) so noisy it hurts your eardrums & & & (a) a striking visual display (b) an old-fashioned monocle (c) reading glasses & & & 50. 164 spectacle
  • 173. Word Roots True or false? True False An amateur is a person who takes part in a sport or pastime as a hobby and without being paid. & & 52. To captivate is to take someone prisoner. & & 53. Ingress is a form of indigestion. & & 54. An adherent is a follower or supporter. & & 55. Continuous means going on without a break. & & 56. To retract means to withdraw or to take something back. & & 57. To avert means to turn over. & & 58. A vivarium is a structure in which animals are kept in semi-natural conditions for study, observation or as pets. & & 59. To emit is to leave something out. & & 60. To rectify is to put something right. & & 51. Give the meaning of the words in bold below. 61. a cursory check _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 62. a soluble aspirin _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 63. conjugal bliss _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 64. an impulsive action _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 65. the putative father _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 66. to mobilise an army _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 67. to remonstrate with someone _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 68. to delegate a task _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 69. to project your voice _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 70. to suspend judgment _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 165
  • 174. Unit 14 Check your answers with the answers given at the back of the book. GROUP C (GREEK) anthropos (man) biblion (book) bios (life) demos (people) anthropoid, anthropology, anthropocentric, anthropomorphic, misanthropist, philanthropist bibliographer, bibliography, bibliomancy, bibliomania, bibliophile biography, biochemistry, biodiversity, biology, bionics demagogue, democracy, demographics, demography, demotic derma, dermat- (skin) dermatitis, dermatologist, dermatology, epidermis, pachyderm dunamis (power) dynamic, dynamics, dynamism, dynamite, dynasty -lektron (amber) e electric, electricity, electrocute, electrolysis, electronics eros, erot- (love) - (earth) ge erotic, erotica, eroticism, erogenous geocentric, geochemistry, geography, geology, geometry, geophysics haima (blood) anaemia, haemoglobin, haemophilia, haemorrhage, haemorrhoids hudor (water) dehydrate, hydrocephalus, hydroelectric, hydrofoil, hydrophobia, hydroponics hypnos (sleep) hypnopaedia, hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, hypnotist hysteria, hysterical, hysterectomy hustera (womb) karkinos (crab) cancer, cancerous, canker, carcinoma, carcinogenic logos (word, reason) biology, eulogy, catalogue, dialogue, logic, logical, logorrhoea, philology metron (measure) isometrics, meter, metre, metric, metrical, metronome, thermometer amorphous, anthropomorphic, morpheme, morphe (form) 166
  • 175. Word Roots onoma (name) pais, paid- (child, boy) pathos (experience, suffering) phobos (fear) - phone (sound, voice) phos, phot (light) polis (city) psukhe (breath, soul, life) tekhne (art, skill) morphology acronym, anonymous, antonym, patronymic, pseudonym, homonym, synonym paediatrician, paediatrics, paedophile, pederast, pederasty antipathy, apathy, empathy, pathology, pathos, psychopath, sympathy, telepathy agoraphobia, arachnophobia, claustrophobia, hydrophobia, phobia, phobic euphony, megaphone, microphone, phonetics, phonics, telephone photocopy, photogenic, photography, photon, photolysis, photosynthesis acropolis, metropolis, metropolitan, politics, polity psychedelic, psychiatry, psychic, psychology, psychopath, psychosis, psychosomatic technical, technicality, technician, technique, technology theos (god) atheist, pantheist, theocracy, theology, theosophy therme (heat) thermal, thermodynamics, thermometer, thermostat trauma (wound) zoion (animal) trauma, traumatic, traumatise, traumatism zoo, zoological, zoology TEST YOUR WORD POWER What is the meaning of these words? 71. acronym ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ 72. logorrhoea ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ 73. amorphous ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ 74. paediatrician ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ 75. hypnotherapy ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ 167
  • 176. Unit 14 True or false? True False 76. An elephant is a pachyderm. & & 77. A metronome measures distances. & & 78. A zoo is a botanical garden. & & 79. The opposite of philanthropist is misanthropist. & & 80. A bibliophile dislikes books. & & Explain the connection between the meaning of these words and the meaning of their Greek roots. 81. biology and bios (life) __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 82. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ democracy and de mos (people) __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 83. dynamic and dunamis (power) __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 84. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ erogenous and ero s (love) __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 85. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ technology and tekhne (skill) __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Choose the definition that fits each word best. 86. 168 metropolis (a) an underground city (b) an important city (c) the capital city of a country & & &
  • 177. Word Roots 87. euphony (a) pleasing sound, especially in speech & (b) a musical instrument & (c) a tropical climbing plant & 88. psychedelic (a) unable to control powerful impulses & (b) relating to altered perceptions, as through the use of hallucinogenic drugs & (c) brain-dead but kept alive on a lifesupport machine & 89. pantheist (a) somebody who suffers from asthma & (b) a maker of underwear & (c) one who believe that God and nature are the same & 90. electrolysis (a) the removal of hair roots by electric currents & (b) the study of electricity & (c) torture by means of electrical impulses & Explain the connection with these Greek roots. 91. What connection is there between a crab (karkinos) and cancer? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 92. What is the connection between the womb (hustera) and hysteria? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 93. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ What has amber (e lektron) got to do with electricity? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 169
  • 178. Unit 14 94. Which two Greek words give us our English word hydrophobia? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 95. Which two Greek words give us our English word thermometer? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Supply the missing words in these sentences. 96. ________ is the ability to understand, share and experience another person’s feelings. 97. ________ is an emotional shock or hurt, which may have long-term effects on a person’s behaviour or personality. 98. ________ is a hereditary disease, usually attacking only males, where the blood fails to clot sufficiently to stop excessive bleeding. 99. ________ is the scientific study of the earth’s structure and physical processes, e.g. tides, earthquakes, gravitation and magnetism. 100. A ________ person always looks attractive in photographs. Check your answers with the answers given at the back of the book. Score for Unit 14: _____/20 _____/50 _____/30 Total _____/100 170
  • 179. Appendix A: Some Spelling Rules When Adding Suffixes Usually, it’s a very straightforward matter adding a suffix to a base word: certain+ty govern+ment drink+able accident+al+ly weight+less+ness = = = = = certainty government drinkable accidentally weightlessness However, with four groups of base words, there are significant spelling changes when suffixes are added. These changes are explained below. Bear in mind that vowel suffixes are those beginning with a, e, i, o, or u (y also counts as a vowel suffix) and consonant suffixes beginning with one of the other 20 letters of the alphabet. Words ending in -e " Keep -e when adding consonant suffixes: taste+ful = tasteful sincere +ly = sincerely " Drop -e when adding a vowel suffix: love+able = lovable dine+ing = dining Exceptions " whilst, wisdom, truly, duly, ninth, argument, wholly, awful " words like courageous, gorgeous, manageable, noticeable, where -e- keeps c or g soft so that they sound like s or j. One-to-one words This rule applies to all words of ONE syllable, ending in ONE consonant preceded by ONE vowel. " No change when adding a consonant suffix: fit+ness = fitness 171
  • 180. Appendix A sin+ful glum+ly = = sinful glumly " Double the final consonant before adding a vowel suffix: fit+ing = fitting sin+er = sinner fun+y = funny Exceptions " Never double w, x or y. It would look very odd. saw+ing = sawing tax+ed = taxed Two-one-one words This rule applies to all words of TWO syllables, ending in ONE consonant preceded by ONE vowel. " No change when adding a consonant suffix: limit+less = limitless regret+ful = regretful allot+ment = allotment " When adding a vowel suffix, say the word aloud. Which of the two syllables is stressed? Stress on FIRST syllable, ONE consonant: BUDget+ed = budgeted LIMit+ing = limiting Stress on SECOND syllable, TWO consonants: forGET+ing = forgetting forBID+en = forbidden Exceptions " Never double w, x or y. It would look very odd. allow+ance = allowance relax+ation = relaxation " Three words always double their final consonant before a vowel suffix even though their first syllables are stressed. kidnap+ed = kidnapped 172
  • 181. Some Spelling Rules When Adding Suffixes outfit+er worship+ing = = outfitter worshipping " Take extra care with words ending in -l. They double before all vowel suffixes except -ity, -ise (or -ize). cancel+ed = cancelled quarrel+ing = quarrelling but formal+ity = formality legal+ise = legalise " There are five tricky words where the stress changes and so sometimes you have to double the final consonant before a vowel suffix and sometimes you don’t. conFER deFER preFER reFER transFER conFERRed deFERRed preFERRed reFERRed transFERRed conFERRing deFERRing preFERRing reFERRing transFERRing CONference DEFerence PREFerence REFerence TRANSference Words ending in -y Look at the letter immediately preceding the final -y. " If the word ends in vowel +y, just add the vowel or consonant suffix: enjoy+ing = enjoying enjoy+ment = enjoyment " If the word ends in consonant +y, change y to i before adding the suffix: pretty+est = prettiest beauty+ful = beautiful Exceptions " laid, paid, said; daily, gaily, gaiety, slain " babyhood, dryness, shyness, slyness, wryness. " Don’t change y to i before a vowel suffix beginning with another i: try+al = trial try+ing = trying 173
  • 182. Answers DICTIONARY PRACTICE (UNIT 1) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 174 b b a b a a b b b c inventory autobiography soliloquy ostentation accolade ecstasy obituary alliteration inebriation histrionics The sentence should show that a cynic is someone who doubts everyone’s goodness, sincerity or honesty. The sentence should show that disinterested means having no selfish motives or not seeking personal gain. A disinterested person is motivated by concern for the welfare of others. It is not to be confused with ‘uninterested’ (bored). The sentence should show that an allusion is a reference to something. Note that ironical is not the same as ‘sarcastic’. An ironical remark is a gently teasing remark which states the opposite of what is known to be the case. A sarcastic remark is meant to be hurtful. To infer is to draw a conclusion. You could infer that it
  • 183. Answers 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. was snowing if a visitor arrived with snow on his hair and shoulders. It does not mean to hint or suggest. The sentence should show that vehement means showing strong or passionate feeling. One can make a vehement plea for a cause one cares deeply about. The sentence should show clearly that aggravate means to make worse. It does not mean ‘irritate’. A situation can be aggravated by a careless or tactless remark. The sentence should not confuse literally and ‘metaphorically’. If you say that you were literally glued to the television screen, you mean exactly this. Sceptical means tending to doubt until convinced. Conscientious means painstakingly careful. A conscientious student is always scrupulous about doing the very best he or she can at all times. eccentric diffident denigrate exonerate exotic aneurism/aneurysm abrogate eclectic renege avaricious lintel gable dormer architrave joists bargeboard mullion eaves cornice dado THESAURUS AND DICTIONARY PRACTICE (UNIT 2) 1–5. (5 of these) flung, heaved, hurled, lobbed, pitched, shied, slung, tossed 175
  • 184. Answers 6–10. (5 of these) erroneous concept, false notion, misapprehension, misconception, mistaken belief, misunderstanding 11–15. (5 of these) ecstatic, elated, overjoyed, radiant, rapturous, transported 16–20. (5 of these) candid, direct, frank, sincere, straightforward, truthful 21–25. (5 of these) disgraceful, highly improper, outrageous, reprehensible, shameful, shocking 26. swallow rapidly, choke 27. breathe quickly 28. breathe jerkily 29. breathe noisily 30. breathe with difficulty 31. respectful wonder mixed with fear 32. high regard 33. public show of respect and admiration 34. reverential devotion 35. respect 36. extremely funny, causing great amusement 37. silly, foolish, laughable 38. causing loud, boisterous laughter 39. using words and ideas in a clever, amusing way 40. funny/amusing 41. easily angered 42. easily annoyed 43. gloomily bad-tempered and spiteful 44. bad-tempered and spiteful 45. bad-tempered 46. payment for professional services 47. voluntary payment for professional services 48. regular monthly payment to an employee 49. regular weekly payment to an employee 50. payment for services rendered 51. A band is a group of musicians and vocalist(s) who play pop, jazz, rock or dance music. 52. An orchestra is a large group of musicians with a wide range of instruments (string, woodwind, brass and percussion) playing serious (usually classical) music. 53. A catalogue is a complete list of items for sale, display or reference. 176
  • 185. Answers 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. A programme lists events and performers at a show, play or concert. A pie is a sweet or savoury dish, baked in the oven, usually topped with a pastry crust. A tart is a sweet dish with an under-layer of pastry but usually not with a top cover of pastry. A casserole is a meat and vegetable dish cooked slowly in a covered container in the oven. A stew is a meat and vegetable dish simmered in a saucepan on top of the stove. An apron is a protective garment worn over the front of one’s clothes, tied at the waist, with sometimes a bib attached. A pinafore is a protective garment like a sleeveless dress worn over one’s clothes when cooking, etc. It is usually full length. infamous forbid showy secret beginner remain somnolent refrain fearless stick parsimonious voracious permanent occasional enthusiastic retreat joy failure wealth release succinct precise boastful urban discordant 177
  • 186. Answers 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. compulsory barren guilty frivolous natural lethargic – energetic repellent – alluring base – unadulterated heedless – wary callow – mature ephemeral – lasting renowned – obscure ¨ naıve – sophisticated manual – automatic immaculate – filthy PEOPLE (UNIT 3) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 178 authoritarian – favouring strict discipline and subservience to authority authoritative – commanding respect; trusted as being reliable celibate – unmarried (perhaps through religious vows); abstaining from sex chaste – sexually faithful; abstaining from sex on moral grounds dominant – most important, most influential domineering – asserting one’s will over others; exercising excessive control over others hypercritical – being excessively critical hypocritical – seeming to have higher standards of morals than is in fact the case if the truth were known sensual – appealing to the body (especially through food, drink, sex) sensuous – appealing to the senses aesthetically (especially through music, poetry, art) slender brawny cadaverous rotund petite
  • 187. Answers 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. emaciated buxom obese corpulent gaunt c a c a b a b a c a tranquil frenetic inconstant loyal famous (for good reasons) notorious (for bad reasons) rude courteous diligent lazy phlegmatic sadistic materialistic sceptical ¨ naıve laconic sarcastic mercenary misanthropic lethargic OCCUPATIONS (UNIT 4) 1. 2. bees irregularity in the teeth and jaw 179
  • 188. Answers 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 180 soil management and crop production lives of the saints investigation of crimes scientifically childhood diseases compiling dictionaries mental and emotional disorders stuffing animals x-rays the human race living things the endocrine glands the physical structure of the earth the measurement of time the weather tumours the eye diseases human society caves religion poisons animals A councillor represents his or her ward on a local council. A counsellor is trained to give guidance on personal problems. An astrologer claims to analyse the effect of the stars and planets on human destiny. An astronomer makes a scientific study of the stars and planets. An entomologist studies insects. An etymologist studies the origins of words. gynaecologist trichologist mycologist campanologist psephologist seismologist graphologist genealogist philologist dermatologist
  • 189. Answers 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. theodolite metronome float palette baton anvil cleaver chisel gavel forceps SEXIST AND NON-SEXIST LANGUAGE (UNIT 5) Reference only ANIMALS, BIRDS AND INSECTS (UNIT 6) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. horse dog cat cow/ox eagle lupine ursine vulpine asinine saurian leap convocation wedge charm watch mules swine larks mallard rhinoceroses codling fry joey 181
  • 190. Answers 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. foal, colt or filly cub, whelp salmon eel hare goat swan gander jackass stallion drake stag, buck pen queen bitch, vixen, she-wolf sow ewe cock hen buck doe bull cow form lodge holt drey CONFUSABLES (UNIT 7) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 182 complimentary dependants counsellor waive voracious equitable contagious exhaustive economical misplaced
  • 191. Answers 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. deficient invented ingenious fewer masterly implied disinterested libel observation historic condensation organisms consistency mural ulcers verge strung remedial convulvulus paediatrician happening now; being in a place; a gift to give formally something that is refused, something that is substandard to refuse to accept, to refuse to use someone who is ill not legally correct opposite, reversed, contrary to talk, to chat a scheme, a plan, special piece of school work involving research to throw (voice), to jut out, to show (film) somebody one confides in assured, not shy to display something boldly or showily to refuse to comply, to treat with contempt more important than anything or anyone else in effect the same as, amounting to, as good as having more than one possible meaning having conflicting feelings (in literary criticism) a ludicrous descent from the elevated to the commonplace, an anti-climax 183
  • 192. Answers 50. the power or quality of evoking pity or sadness (especially in the arts) EPONYMS (UNIT 8) Reference only AMERICANISMS (UNIT 9) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 184 chiropodist curriculum vitae, C.V. estate agent lodger nasty plain, ugly impudent angry scone crisps best mince, minced steak swede trousers underpants knickers vest draughts catapult see-saw noughts and crosses stroller baby carriage crib diaper sedan stick shift muffler gasoline, gas pantihose, pantyhose suspenders vest
  • 193. Answers 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. cuff truck farm parking lot trailer park truckstop crosswalk divided highway rotary, traffic circle sidewalk thumbtack billfold green onions faucet closet semi-detached house skirting board to grill beach hut eiderdown FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES IN ENGLISH (UNIT 10) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. anno domini ante meridiem approximately curriculum vitae thanks be to God God willing example given and others et cetera ibid. that is nem. con. note carefully op. cit. per annum post meridiem p.p. post scriptum 185
  • 194. Answers 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. for the time being quod erat demonstrandum see Rest in peace. Please reply. seq. viz. emptor dictu nom faire tour a love letter a penetrating comment a remark with a double meaning a private conversation enjoyment of life self-possession something that helps you remember someone or something one particularly dislikes taking pleasure in the misery of others a romantic relationship folie de grandeur – delusions of greatness inamorata – a sweetheart lapsus linguae – a slip of the tongue ¨ doppelganger – a double angst – uneasy, anxious foreboding guru – a spiritual leader embonpoint – plumpness bain-marie – a double saucepan bon mot – witticism fracas – a brawl PROVERBS (UNIT 11) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 186 Look before (you leap). Fine feathers make (fine birds). Absence makes the heart (grow fonder). It’s never too late (to mend). Do as I say not as (I do).
  • 195. Answers 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22 23. 24 25 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. When in doubt, do nowt. Dead men tell no tales. Comparisons are odious. Still waters run deep. Those whom the goods love die young. Fine words butter no parsnips. New brooms sweep clean. Great minds think alike. Little things please little minds. Little pitchers have long ears. Discretion worm rosebuds bush drowning Variety locksmiths Absence blood Beggars Moderation in all things. In for a penny, in for a pound. Don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched. Once bitten, twice shy. Appearances can be deceptive. First come, first served. Deeds not words. One man’s meat is another man’s poison. Every little helps. Nothing venture, nothing gain. All’s well that ends well. The creaking gate lasts longest. Empty vessels make the most sound. Forewarned is forearmed. Give a dog a bad name and hang him. Good fences make good neighbours. Jack of all trades, master of none. The pen is mightier than the sword. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. A rolling stone gathers no moss. We never miss the water until the well runs dry. 187
  • 196. Answers 47. 48. 49. 50. When one door closes, another opens. You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours. Don’t change horses mid-stream. You may lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink. PREFIXES (UNIT 12) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 188 unconditional disreputable illiterate impatient inconvenient unclear irresponsible non-sectarian asymmetrical misprint disinterested – having no selfish motives uninterested – not interested, bored displace – move from usual position misplace – put in wrong place and so lose temporarily disconnected – the connection has been lost unconnected – there isn’t a connection distrust – Both mean regarding with suspicion, doubting the honesty or probity of someone, but mistrust – ‘distrust’ is stronger. amoral – not accepting that there are any moral standards to observe immoral – not conforming to accepted moral standards False (although this is what the word means) True True False True bilingual octuplets bigamy Pentateuch hexagon }
  • 197. Answers 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. foreboding withstand astern outlandish downcast thoroughfare consequences or after-effects regrowth of grass after mowing refrain (forbear) ancestor (forebear) under the skin opinion held without good reason able to use both hands equally well medical examination of a dead person to establish cause of death all-powerful very bright blue administered directly into a vein, existing in a vein breathe out stubbornly refusing to change opinion or course of action kept secret (usually for fear of disapproval) c b b c c a a b c a contagious – infection spread by touch infectious – infection spread through the air extrovert – more concerned with the outside world and social relationships than inner thoughts and feelings introvert – more concerned with inner thoughts and feelings than with the outside world and social relationships to dethrone – to remove a monarch from the throne, or an influential person from a position of power to abdicate – to give up one’s right to the throne or to give up one’s responsibilities 189
  • 198. Answers 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 190 emigrant – leaves to make a permanent home in a foreign country immigrant – comes to live permanently in a foreign country translucent – semi-transparent; light passes through but no distinct detail can be seen transparent – light passes through and objects can be clearly seen on the other side (especially of material) light, delicate and translucent the ability to move objects at a distance by the power of the mind wild and noisy confusion delusion about one’s power or importance concerning new-born children a cure for every trouble and illness the custom or practice of having more than one wife at a time the first or experimental product from which others are copied and developed a simple story which illustrated a moral or a spiritual lesson a view over a wide area antiseptic pseudonym epitaph parody polyglot endoscope epidemic dysgraphia proboscis euphony True False True False False True True False True False
  • 199. Answers SUFFIXES (UNIT 13) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. little pouch (poke) little star (aster) little rib (costa) little knot (nodus) little witness (to virility) (testis) small body (corpus) little pot (of whiskey) (pota) little fourth (vierde) – originally a quarter of a barrel little cock (wanton) (coq) little dear (deere) interruption departure punishment acquittal reliance drainage preference recognition plagiarism behaviour parentage – lineage parenthood – being a parent barbarity – extreme cruelty or brutality barbarism – state of being uncivilised and uncultured populism – concern to represent or appear to represent the concerns of ordinary people popularity – being generally liked and admired corruption – depravity; loss of integrity and moral principles corruptibility – the capability of being corrupted slavery – the state of being a slave; the practice of owning slaves enslavement – the loss of freedom of choice and action difference perseverance intelligence adolescence inheritance correspondence tolerance 191
  • 200. Answers 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 192 convenience appearance grievance daring, recklessly bold full of woods and trees thoughtful and sad in a coma, torpid without pity or mercy sagacious flaccid prehensile bucolic vicarious urban – of a town or city urbane – sophisticated, elegant and refined regal – like a king or queen royal – of a king or queen or member of the royal family human – like a member of the human race humane – compassionate; inflicting the minimum of pain veracious – truthful voracious – having a huge appetite compulsory – must be done by rule or law mandatory – must be done by law (slightly stronger in sense) fervent laborious erroneous horrific/horrendous honourable intentional preparatory sensational dismissive snobbish c a b a b b b a
  • 201. Answers 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. b a criticise (also -ize) purify weaken gladden admonish to worship as a god to destroy completely to come together and form one mass to beg earnestly for something to revere, regard with great respect hyphenate compromise (not -ize) flourish quicken putrefy convalesce eulogise (also -ize) glimmer obfuscate verify WORD ROOTS (UNIT 14) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. corpulent lunate mortuary fidelity urbane dentifrice aquamarine matriarchy annuity fratricide c a b b c 193
  • 202. Answers 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 194 aggressive lawful simple and rough workable capable of being hurt, damaged or attacked infanticide rupture soliloquy lectern peroration credulous audible affluent scribble bisect to walk at a leisurely pace a desperate and reckless person, especially a criminal to charge someone formally with committing a crime a totally uncharacteristic departure from normal behaviour easily led, influenced or moulded having an end or limit place where an animal normally lives or a plant grows able to be stretched to cause people to come together (for a meeting) to show or to suggest that someone is involved with something illegal or shameful b c c b a b c b b a True False False True True
  • 203. Answers 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. True False True False True hasty and superficial easily dissolved married done on the spur of the moment assumed, supposed organise, assemble and make ready argue and express strong disapproval pass to another cause to be heard at a distance delay temporarily a word formed from the first letter or letters of several words excessive talkativeness having no definite form or shape a specialist in children’s development and diseases the treatment of physical, mental and emotional diseases under hypnosis True False False True False Biology is the study of living things. Democracy is a system by which the people elect their leaders. Someone who is dynamic is energetic and forceful. Erogenous means producing sexual excitement when stimulated. Ero s (love) means physical love. Technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. Tekhne means skill. b a b c a 195
  • 204. Answers 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96 97. 98. 99. 100. 196 The ancient Greeks considered that the swollen veins around a cancerous tumour resembled the limbs of a crab. Hysteria was once thought to be specific to women and it was believed that hysteria originated in the uterus. Amber when rubbed produces electricity. The two Greek words hudo s and phobos give us the word hydrophobia. The two Greek words therme and metron give us the word thermometer. Empathy Trauma Haemophilia Geophysics photogenic