Declaration of Principles and
Joshua Guillano Jumie Ramirez&
Composed of 28 sections
Sections 1 through 6 discuss state principles
Sections 7 through 28 outline state policies
SECTION 1. The Philippines is a democratic and
republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and
all government authority emanates from them.
A democratic and republican state.
-States that the Philippines is a democratic state.
Manifestations of a democratic and republican state.
The observance of the rule of the majority.
The observance of the principle that ours is a government of laws, and not of men.
The presence of elections through popular will.
The observance of the principle of separation of powers and the system of checks
The observance of the principle that the legislature cannot pass irreparable laws.
The observance of the law on public officers .
The observance of the principle that the State cannot be sued without its consents.
The existence of a bill of rights.
Sovereignty of the People
is the supreme power to govern.
It lies in the hands of the Filipino people who have the
right to choose the type of government they want and
to define the powers it shall hold and exercise.
It is their right to abolish their government and form a
new one and organize it in such form as seems to them
best for their welfare and happiness.
• Sovereignty is exercised indirectly
Through public officials elected by the people.
Officials appointed by the elected officials.
• Sovereignty is exercised directly
Exercised directly through suffrage.
the right to vote in political elections.
1. Multi-Party System
2. Party-list system
3. People’s Organization
4. System of Initiative and Referendum
Right of the people to revolt.
• People can resort to revolution as a matter of right, being the
ultimate judges of their destiny.
• A provision in the Constitution expressly recognizing the
people’s right to vote against a tyrannical government is not
necessary and proper
• Although an inherent right, it is not highly recommended for it
will suggest instability in the state
SECTION 2. The Philippines renounces war as an
instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted
principles of international law as part of the law of the land
and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice,
freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.
Renunciation of war as instrument of national policy.
• Philippines cannot declare war on another country
• The country can only declare an existing state of war
an act of defense
Adoption of the generally accepted principles of international
law as part of the country’s own law
• International law-body of rules and principles which govern s
the relations of nations and their respective peoples in their
intercourse with one another.
• “Doctrine of Incorporation”-the commitment of the state to
When international usage to be applied
A treaty has force of a statute
Constitution prevails over a treaty
Adherence to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom,
cooperation, and amity with all nations.
• Philippines seek peace and unity with the neighboring
countries all over the world regardless of race, ideology, and
political system on the basis of mutual trust, respect and
cooperation. It supports the rights of other countries in terms of
equality, freedom and justice in their relations with one another
and the policies of peaceful negotiations, and opposes the use
of force, threat of force, in the relations with other countries.
SECTION 3. Civilian authority is at all times, supreme over
the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the
protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure
the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the
Supremacy of the Civilian Authority
• The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of
The army, the navy, the air force, and the marines.
The appointment of the high ranking officials is vested
in the President.
Armed Forces: Protector of the State
• Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP)
• Its goals is to discharge the function of being the protector of:
The sovereignty of the State
Integrity of our National Territory
SECTION 4. The prime duty of the Government is to serve
and protect the people. The Government may call upon the
people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all
citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law,
to render person military or civil service.
SECTION 5. The maintenance of peace and order, the
protection of life, liberty, and property, and promotion of the
general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the
people of the blessings of democracy.
Peace and Order
• Duty of the government to maintain peace and order.
Through making laws
Promote the general welfare
SECTION 6. The Separation of Church and State are
• The government shall not favor any religion, support
them using public funds ,or even establish or set up a
• The Church should not get involved in political issues or
ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION CLAUSE
• The State shall have no official religion.
• The State cannot set up a church.
• Everyone has the freedom to profess their belief or
disbelief in any religion.
• Every religious minister is free to practice his calling.
• The State cannot punish a person for entertaining or professing
religious beliefs or disbeliefs.
• The command that Church and the state be separate does not
mean hostility towards religion .
SECTION 7. The State shall pursue an independent foreign
policy. In its relations with other states the paramount
consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial
integrity, national interest, and the right to self-
• Basic direction underlying the conduct by a State of its affairs
vis-a vis those of other States.
• It is a set of guidelines followed by a government of a country.
1. Formulation and conduct of foreign policy
The president is the chief architect of Philippine foreign policy.
2. An instrument of domestic foreign policy
Its importance in the survival and progress of a country cannot be
Sole weapon of a State for the promotion of national interest in
3. Pursuit in an independent foreign policy
Simply means one that is not subordinate.
4. Basic Foreign policy objective
To establish friendly relation with all countries of the world
5. Paramount consideration
Must be a policy of flexibility and pragmatism guided only by the
welfare of our people and the security of our Republic.
Shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest,
and the right to self determination.
SECTION 8. The Philippines, consistent with the national
interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from
nuclear weapons in its territory.
Freedom from Nuclear Weapons
• It is a prohibition from:
Of nuclear weapons, devices, or parts thereof in our country.
• The use of nuclear for:
And other beneficial purposes
• If the national interest so requires
The storing of nuclear weapons in our territory
SECTION 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic
social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence
of the nation and free the people from poverty through
policies that provide adequate social services, promote full
employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved
quality of life for all.
Just and Dynamic Social Order
• This is accomplished through policies that:
Provide sufficient social services (in the field of health,
education, housing, etc).
Promote full employment.
A rising standard of living.
Improve quality of life for all.
SECTION 10. The State shall promote social justice in all
phases of national development.
The State must give preferential attention to the welfare of the
less fortunate members of the community
• the poor
SECTION 11. The State values the dignity of every human
person and guarantees full respect for human rights.
• Belief in inherent dignity of every human person basis of
A human person is a being not a thing.
• In a democratic state, the individual enjoys certain rights which
cannot be modified or taken away by the lawmaking body.
SECTION 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family
life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic
autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life
of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception.
The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the
rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development
of moral character shall receive the support of the
Right of human life of the unborn from conception and of the
• Once conceived, a child has the right to be born and the right to
• Mandates the protection of the unborn from the possibility of
abortion being legalized.
• The State should also protect the health of the mother
Rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and development of
• A duty of both parents and government
Proper education and good upbringing of the children can help
to the welfare of the society and the common good. The
government should share the responsibility of the parents to
train their children to be worthy citizens by supporting and
encouraging them in order to prepare them for the future.
• Right of State to interfere with education of the children
The parents and the government have the duty in giving
adequate education to the children
• Power of State to regulate all schools
The State has the power to require the age children of proper
age to attend school, the teachers shall be of a good moral
character and teach the children certain points to good
• The State and parental obligations
It is the duty of the State to see whether the parents fulfill their
obligations in the education of their child
• Duty of State to encourage educational institutions
Support and encourage private and parochial schools as long as
they meet the secular educational requirements
SECTION 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the
youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their
physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being.
It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism,
and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs.
Role of the Youth in Nation Building
• Youth are better educated, more well-informed.
• The constitution recognizes the importance of the youth.
SECTION 14. The State recognizes the role of women in
nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality
before the law of women and men.
Role of women in nation building
• Our women have proven their capabilities in different fields in
business, professions, arts, education and in public service even
• In the past and even today, women involve themselves in
worthy causes or activities involving national concerns
• The State should formulate strategies to expand women’s
participation in non-household and productive activities, and
make them as the direct contributors to the country’s economic
• It is the duty of the State to ensure equality before the law in all
aspects of national life by rectifying or ending all practices and
systems that are disadvantageous to women or discriminate
SECTION 15. The State shall protect and promote the right
to health of the people and instill health consciousness
• is the state physical, social and mental well-being rather than
merely than merely the absence of physical diseases
These constitution gives the right to the people to health
SECTION 16. The State shall protect and advance the right
of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord
with the rhythm and harmony of nature.
Right to Balanced and Healthful Ecology
• The need for a program to address the ecological problems of:
Dying river beds
Destruction of waterways
Protect human life
SECTION 17. The State shall give priority to education,
science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster
patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and
promote total human liberation and development.
• The States prioritizes the following through their
different programs like the:
SECTION 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social
economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and
promote their welfare.
• Human labor is not only treated as land, tools, or machinery. It
mandates the State to provide living wage and full participation
to workers in decision-making processes which affect their
rights and benefits.
SECTION 19. The State shall develop a self-reliant and
independent national economy effectively controlled by
• States the constitutional guidelines in the development of the
Independent national economy
And effective Filipino control of the economy
SECTION 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role
of the private sector, encourages private enterprise, and
provides incentives to needed investments.
Role of private sectors in the economy
• The Constitution does not favor an economy where the State
directly competes with private business.
• The business of government is governance and NOT money-
SECTION 21. The State shall promote comprehensive rural
development and agrarian reform.
• Covers all phases of rural development:
SECTION 22. The State recognizes and promotes the rights
of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of
national unity and development.
• Recognizes the existence and the rights of the indigenous
• Directs the State to promote the rights of indigenous cultural
communities by considering their customs, traditions, beliefs,
• Implementing state policies with full respect to their culture,
dignity, uniqueness and human rights.
SECTION 23. The State shall encourage non-
governmental, community-based, or sectoral organizations
that promote the welfare of the nation.
• The state is required to encourage these organizations because
recent events have shown that, under responsible leadership,
they can be active contributors to the political, social, and
economic growth of the country – promote the welfare of the
SECTION 24. The State recognizes the vital role of
communication and information in nation-building.
• Means of communications such as:
• The people are enlightened on certain public issues.
• They can also serve as useful tools to promote unity among the
SECTION 25. The State shall ensure the
autonomy of local governments.
• Local affairs can best be regulated by the people in the
SECTION 26. The State shall guarantee equal access to
opportunities for public service, and prohibit political
dynasties as may be defined by law.
• This does not allow the existence of political dynasties or the
practice of keeping political power within the control of select
• Emphasizes the duty of the government to uphold democratic
elections and appointments.
SECTION 27. The State shall maintain honesty and
integrity in the public service and take positive and effective
measures against graft and corruption.
Honesty and integrity in public service
Undermines the quality of life for people especially in poor
• The constitution seeks to minimize and find completely to
eliminate graft and corruption, a way to attack problem.
SECTION 28. The Subject to reasonable conditions
prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy
of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving
• Section 7 of the Bill of Rights
Guarantees the people’s right to know any transaction
entered into by the government.
Limited to things which involves public concerns .
• The policy covers matters involving public interest especially
those concerning the utilization of public funds and property.