System and Cultural Approaches

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System and Cultural approaches

System and Cultural approaches

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  • Like in the human body, the brain needs blood to function. The blood is pumped by the heart and the heart relies on the lungs to bring in the oxygen that fuels the blood.
  • Permeability can be toxic for the body and hospitals.
  • A furniture manufacturer manufacturer input raw materials such as wood and fabric; transform these inputs into chairs and couches and output these products to the buying public through retail outlets.
  • Insurance claim adjuster must gather information on relevant damages, make decisions based on insurance coverage and then output that information, and maybe a check to the policyholder.
  • A supervisor notices that a waiter is announcing yesterday’s specials instead of today’s specials. The supervisor might inform the waiter about her error so she can change her message to the customers.
  • The supervisor notices that more and more customers are bothered by smoke while having dinner. The supervisor might suggest to higher management to transform the restaurant into a nonsmoking establishment.
  • One theory relevant to organizational communication based on the systems concepts is the Cybernetic Systems Theory developed by Weiner.
  • All the components of the cybernetics system model are present in this scenario. The system behavior under consideration is the level of sales. The goal set for this behavior is 10% improvement The mechanism of increased sales calls and account service are used to change system behavior. When feedback from the sales report shows that strategies were not effective, other mechanism of telemarketing and an improved sales pitch were introduced.
  • In this chapter we will look at organizations as cultures.
  • In this chapter we will look at organizations as cultures.
  • In this chapter we will look at organizations as cultures.
  • After 9/11 there are debates about what it means to be American within our own bordersSWAT team running a drill before the 4 th of July. 10th anniversary of Sept. 11
  • Schein presented a model that included the different elements of culture in three different levels: artifacts, values and assumptions

Transcript

  • 1. Week 3Chapter 4 & 5
  • 2. Objective By the end of the class you will be able to… 1. Recognize the difference between a machine and a systems metaphor to describe organizational processes. 2. Know about how the cultural metaphor, for understanding organizations, was developed to improve organizational performance.
  • 3. The Machine Metaphor The machine metaphor didn’t convince some theorists because not all organizations behave like machines, are replaceable, and predictable.
  • 4. The Systems orOrganismic Metaphor Organizations are complex organisms that need to interact with their environment to survive.
  • 5. The Systems orOrganismic Metaphor Distinction and relations of molecules, cells, complex organisms, species and ecology are similar to those of: Individuals Groups Organizations Populations Social ecology
  • 6. The Systems orOrganismic Metaphor Bertalanffy, a theoretical biologist, was one of the key founders. Katz & Kahn, two organizational psychologists applied the theory to explain the processes of organizational behavior and communication. Organizations are complex open systems that require interaction to survive.
  • 7. System Metaphor Systems are made of system components Cells and Organs People and Departments in Biology in Organizations
  • 8. System Components Hierarchical order Interdependence Permeability Are organized in highly complex subsystems and supersystems These subsystems are composed of smaller work groups and individuals
  • 9. System Components-Hierarchical Ordering
  • 10. Hierarchical ordering The hospital is also part of a large supersystem called health care industry. Hospitals Clinics Insurance companies Pharmaceuticals companies
  • 11. System Components -Interdependence The components of a system are interdependent The breakdown of one component is going to breakdown other components and eventually, the whole system is not going to work.
  • 12. System Components -Interdependence  Organizations are Interdependent  Surgical unit can’t function without test results from the laboratory.  Laboratories rely on the purchasing department for supplies.  Personnel and business offices deal with the paperwork of compensation and insurance.
  • 13. System Components-Permeability Permeable boundaries allow information and materials to flow in and out. The human body must be open to the environment to get air, food and water for survival.
  • 14. System Components-Permeability Hospitals and its units must be open and share information so that patients, information and resources can move into and out.
  • 15. System Components-Processes Systems input materials of information from the environment through its permeable boundaries. The system then works on these inputs with some kind of transformational process. Finally, the system returns the transformed output to the environment.
  • 16. System Components-Processes
  • 17. System Components-Processes
  • 18. System Components-Processes Two kinds of processes Exchange – input/output Feedback – information that helps to facilitate the interdependent functioning of system components. It changes the system.
  • 19. System Components-Processes Two types of feedback 1. Negative, corrective, deviation-reducing: – maintains system functioning
  • 20. System Components-Processes Two types of feedback 1. Positive, growth, deviation-amplifying - change system functioning through growth and development
  • 21. Cybernetic SystemsTheory Cybernetics is the discipline that studies communication and control in living beings and the machines built by man. A cybernetic system emphasizes the role of feedback, especially corrective feedback, in maintaining systems working.
  • 22. Cybernetic Systems Theoryin performance review Gina is a pharmaceutical salesperson •She seats down with her supervisor Rick to discuss her job performance.
  • 23. Cybernetic Systems Theoryin performance review • Together, Rick and Gina decide that she should improve her sales by 10% over the next quarter. • They plan some strategies to meet this goal. • Gina should make more phone calls and improve the service to her accounts.
  • 24. Cybernetic Systems Theoryin performance review• Over the next 3 months, Rick monitors Gina’s performance using a sales report that she files.• In the next performance review meeting, Rick and Gina discuss the fact that sales improved but only by 2%.
  • 25. Cybernetic Systems Theoryin performance review• Then, both decide that Gina should begin using telemarketing strategies to reach the 10%.
  • 26. Cybernetic System-Communication, controland corrective feedback tokeep systems working
  • 27. Cybernetic SystemsTheory • Rick could also continue to analyze Gina’s performance with the use of a cybernetic model, mapping out differences in • GoalsCorrective feedback is • Mechanismsimportant to maintain • Performancesystem working • Feedback over time
  • 28. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizing Weick’ theory is important in the communication filed because he used communications as a basis of human organizing and provided a rationale for understanding how people organize.
  • 29. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizing Weick developed a new way of looking at the ways organizations and leaders function and think.  organizations are not structures made of positions and roles but communication activities.  When people go through daily interactions, their activities create organization.  Managers today have to manage unmanageable situations, which force them to act more than to think.  The perfect solution would be to act and think at the same time.
  • 30. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizing Weick emphasizes the importance of Focus on success. Use rules or procedures, and communication cycles to set patters that make sense. Look for flaws and problems to prevent disasters.
  • 31. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizing His key theoretical term was equivocality, which means uncertainty, complication, ambiguity. When equivocality is low, organizations can rely on established ways of doing things and thinking about events.
  • 32. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizingWhat happen when a surprise or something shocking happens?
  • 33. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizingDo you think that a surprise requires a different way of thinking about what we are doing?
  • 34. Routine of Air Travel
  • 35. Surprise!-unruly passengerAlec Baldwin
  • 36. Surprise! – terrorist onflightRichard Colvin
  • 37. Surprise! – AA flightattendant meltdown
  • 38. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizing 3 parts: The process through which organizational members make sense of their environments and remove equivocality:
  • 39. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizing Enactment definition of the situation or registration of the equivocal information. You should pay attention to stimuli.
  • 40. Weick’s Theory ofOrganizing Selection Members accept some relevant information and reject other. Retention Certain things are saved for future use.
  • 41. Week 3Chapter 5
  • 42. Prescriptive Views ofCulture During the last part of the 20th Century, the concept of “culture” took business and academic community by storm Metaphor of culture resonated Cultural metaphor opened up new areas of research Culture became part of everyday talk
  • 43. Prescriptive Views ofCulture The cultural metaphor is based on the field of anthropology, which study the cultures of nations tribes and ethnic groups.
  • 44. What is Culture for you?
  • 45. Stripes in blue, starsred & white independenceUS Culture Hard work freedom achievement
  • 46. Rites & Rituals
  • 47. Rites & Rituals after 9/11
  • 48. What is Culture? Assumptions, values, behaviors and artifacts that an organization exhibits as it attempts to adapt to internal and external organizational contingencies –Edgar Schein
  • 49. US Culture When thinking about U.S. culture, we think about a mixture of values, symbols and behavior that define America in different ways for many people.
  • 50. US Culture When we use a cultural metaphor to study organizations, we look for the qualities that make an organization different: what it is.
  • 51. US Culture Each organization has its own way of doing what it does and its own way of talking about what it is doing.
  • 52. 2 Different Ways ofthinking about a Culture
  • 53. Deal and Kennedy’s“Strong Cultures” Business success can be enhanced if develops a “strong” culture. If an organization has the components of a strong culture, it will be a better place for individuals to work and will improve individual and organization performance.
  • 54. Deal and Kennedy’s“Strong Cultures” 4 Key components of a “strong” culture Values Heroes Rites and rituals Cultural network
  • 55. Values Values are the beliefs and visions that members hold for an organization 3M – innovation Prudential – stability Apple - quality
  • 56. Heroes  Are the individuals who represent the company values.  People know them through the stories and myths of an organization.
  • 57. Rites and Rituals Ceremonies organized by companies to celebrate its values.
  • 58. Cultural Network Communication system that organizations use to establish and reinforce the values Formal organizational channels: newsletters, memorandums, reports, surveys Informal interaction of employees: e- mail, conversations
  • 59. Have you seen thesecomponents in yourorganization?
  • 60. Cultural Researchers Cultural researchers seek to describe and understand complex ways in which organizational culture is developed and maintained.  Rites  Metaphors  Ceremonies  Stories  Values  Communication rules  Belief systems  Hallway talk
  • 61. Organizational CulturesAre Often Ambiguous Many scholars argue that we now live in a postmodern world that is: Multifaceted Fragmented Fast-moving Difficult to understand In this environment, organizational culture might also be in a state of uncertainty.
  • 62. Schein’s Model ofOrganizational Culture Schein - management scholar and consultant. Interested in the role of leaders in development and maintenance of an organizational culture.
  • 63. A Definition of Culture Culture of a social group is a group phenomenon. A group learns basic assumptions to solve its problems of external adaptation and internal integration when enter an organization. It is related to the human need of stability, consistency and meaning.
  • 64. A Definition of Culture A creative process for building a culture is when new members interact with old members
  • 65. Level 1: Artifacts Physical and social environment
  • 66. Level 1: Artifacts Architecture Dress Art Written documents
  • 67. Level 2: Values Represents the beliefs about how things need to be done in the company Hard work – employees spend long hours at the office Innovation – employees are rewarded for their new and better ideas
  • 68. Level 2: Values Important points Organizations don’t have values, but employees do. The organizational founder or leader play a critical role in shaping the culture. Sometimes behavior and values don’t match; it’s maybe only an aspiration for the future.
  • 69. Level 3: Assumptions Assumptions have become such a natural part of the way they are or the way they do things. Change is good, innovation is welcome Electronic or physical ideas boxes Bonuses for new ideas Relaxed atmosphere to encourage creative thinking
  • 70. Level 3: Assumptions Organizations also exist where assumptions don’t match with the values or where values are not reflected in a behavior. Fragmented subcultures Culture in transition
  • 71. A Model of Culture Schein’s model oversimplifies nature of organizational culture and the role of communication in shaping a culture. Provides helpful heuristic for looking at multiple indicators and assumptions.
  • 72. High ReliabilityOrganizations Example of how cultural assumptions and values are expected to permeate the values and behavior of organizational members.
  • 73. High ReliabilityOrganizations Organizations engaged in production and service that require extraordinary attention to avoid error (error-free behavior). If they uphold high safety standards, they must cultivate a culture of reliability.
  • 74. Methods for StudyingOrganizational Culture Ethnography Study organizational culture as a “text” to be read:  watch interactions  intense observation  participate in process  examine training manuals  talk with employees
  • 75. Methods for StudyingOrganizational Culture Ethnographer creates a mini-theory Report takes form of “cultural tale” or storytelling.