Leadership 12- © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc.  All rights reserved.
Chapter Learning Objectives <ul><li>After studying this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define leade...
What Is Leadership? <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of go...
Trait Theories of Leadership <ul><li>Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to diffe...
Behavioral Theories of Leadership <ul><li>Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders...
Important Behavioral Studies <ul><li>Ohio State University  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found two key dimensions of leader behav...
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid® <ul><li>Draws on both studies to assess leadership style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Conce...
Contingency Theories <ul><li>While trait and behavior theories do help us understand leadership, an important component is...
Fiedler Model <ul><li>Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the situation <...
Graphic Representation of Fiedler’s Model © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc.  All rights reserved. 12- E X H I B I T 12-2 Used to d...
Assessment of Fiedler’s Model <ul><li>Positives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable evidence supports the model, especiall...
Fiedler’s Cognitive Resource Theory <ul><li>A refinement of Fiedler’s original model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on str...
Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership <ul><li>A model that focuses on follower “readiness” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fol...
House’s Path-Goal Theory <ul><li>Builds from the Ohio State studies and the expectancy theory of motivation </li></ul><ul>...
Path-Goal Model <ul><li>Two classes of contingency variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental are outside of employee ...
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory <ul><li>A response to the failing of contingency theories to account for followers and...
LMX Model <ul><li>How groups are assigned is unclear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follower characteristics determine group member...
Yroom and Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model <ul><li>How  a leader makes decisions is as important as  what  is decided <...
Inspirational Approaches to Leadership <ul><li>The focus is leader as communicator </li></ul><ul><li>Framing: </li></ul><u...
Charismatic Leadership <ul><li>House’s Charismatic Leadership Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers make attributions of...
How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers <ul><li>A four-step process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader articulates an  </li...
Charismatic Leadership Issues <ul><li>Importance of vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be inspirational, value-centered, re...
Charismatic Leadership Issues <ul><li>Importance of vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be inspirational, value-centered, re...
Beyond Charisma: Level-5 Leaders <ul><li>Very effective leaders who possess the four typical leadership traits  </li></ul>...
Transactional & Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Transactional Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders who guide or motiv...
Characteristics of the Two Types of Leaders <ul><li>Transactional </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent Reward:  </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Full Range of Leadership Model <ul><li>Leadership styles listed from passive to very active </li></ul><ul><li>Note the ine...
Issues with Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Basis for Action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational leadership works ...
Contemporary Leadership Roles: Mentoring <ul><li>Mentor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A senior employee who sponsors and supports...
Contemporary Leadership Roles: Self-Leadership <ul><li>Self-Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of processes through wh...
Contemporary Leadership Roles: Online Leadership <ul><li>Leadership at a Distance: Building Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Th...
Finding and Creating Effective Leaders <ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review specific requirements for the job </...
© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc.  All rights reserved. 12- Please Visit Us At : http://wanbk.page.tl
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  1. 1. Leadership 12- © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Chapter Learning Objectives <ul><li>After studying this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define leadership and contrast leadership and management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the conclusions of trait theories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the central tenets and main limitations of behavioral theories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast the interactive theories (path-goal and leader-member exchange). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the situational variables in the leader-participation model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show how U.S. managers might need to adjust their leadership approaches in Brazil, France, Egypt, and China. </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  3. 3. What Is Leadership? <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are necessary for organizational success </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  4. 4. Trait Theories of Leadership <ul><li>Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders </li></ul><ul><li>Not very useful until matched with the Big Five Personality Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence (Qualified) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traits can predict leadership, but they are better at predicting leader emergence than effectiveness. </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  5. 5. Behavioral Theories of Leadership <ul><li>Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between theories of leadership: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait theory: leadership is inherent, so we must identify the leader based on his or her traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral theory: leadership is a skill set and can be taught to anyone, so we must identify the proper behaviors to teach potential leaders </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  6. 6. Important Behavioral Studies <ul><li>Ohio State University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found two key dimensions of leader behavior: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating structure – the defining and structuring of roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration – job relationships that reflect trust and respect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both are important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also found two key dimensions of leader behavior: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee-oriented – emphasizes interpersonal relationships and is the most powerful dimension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production-oriented – emphasizes the technical aspects of the job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dimensions of the two studies are very similar </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  7. 7. Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid® <ul><li>Draws on both studies to assess leadership style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Concern for People” is Consideration and Employee-Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Concern for Production” is Initiating Structure and Production-Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Style is determined by position on the graph </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- E X H I B I T 12-1
  8. 8. Contingency Theories <ul><li>While trait and behavior theories do help us understand leadership, an important component is missing: the environment in which the leader exists </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency Theory deals with this additional aspect of leadership effectiveness studies </li></ul><ul><li>Three key theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fielder’s Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Path-Goal Theory </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  9. 9. Fiedler Model <ul><li>Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes that leadership style (based on orientation revealed in LPC questionnaire) is fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considers Three Situational Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader-member relations: degree of confidence and trust in the leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task structure: degree of structure in the jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position power: leader’s ability to hire, fire, and reward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For effective leadership: must change to a leader who fits the situation or change the situational variables to fit the current leader </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  10. 10. Graphic Representation of Fiedler’s Model © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- E X H I B I T 12-2 Used to determine which type of leader to use in a given situation
  11. 11. Assessment of Fiedler’s Model <ul><li>Positives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable evidence supports the model, especially if the original eight situations are grouped into three </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The logic behind the LPC scale is not well understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LPC scores are not stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency variables are complex and hard to determine </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Fiedler’s Cognitive Resource Theory <ul><li>A refinement of Fiedler’s original model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on stress as the enemy of rationality and creator of unfavorable conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction to that stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research is supporting the theory. </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  13. 13. Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership <ul><li>A model that focuses on follower “readiness” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers can accept or reject the leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness depends on the followers’ response to the leader’s actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Readiness” is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A paternal model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the child matures, the adult releases more and more control over the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the workers become more ready, the leader becomes more laissez-faire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An intuitive model that does not get much support from the research findings </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  14. 14. House’s Path-Goal Theory <ul><li>Builds from the Ohio State studies and the expectancy theory of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders can display multiple leadership types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four types of leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directive: focuses on the work to be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive: focuses on the well-being of the worker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participative: consults with employees in decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement-Oriented: sets challenging goals </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  15. 15. Path-Goal Model <ul><li>Two classes of contingency variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental are outside of employee control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinate factors are internal to employee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed support in the research findings </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- E X H I B I T 12-4
  16. 16. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory <ul><li>A response to the failing of contingency theories to account for followers and heterogeneous leadership approaches to individual workers </li></ul><ul><li>LMX Premise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of time pressures, leaders form a special relationship with a small group of followers: the “in-group” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This in-group is trusted and gets more time and attention from the leader (more “exchanges”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All other followers are in the “out-group” and get less of the leader’s attention and tend to have formal relationships with the leader (fewer “exchanges”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders pick group members early in the relationship </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12-
  17. 17. LMX Model <ul><li>How groups are assigned is unclear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follower characteristics determine group membership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders control by keeping favorites close </li></ul><ul><li>Research has been generally supportive </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- E X H I B I T 12-3
  18. 18. Yroom and Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model <ul><li>How a leader makes decisions is as important as what is decided </li></ul><ul><li>Premise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader behaviors must adjust to reflect task structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Normative” model: tells leaders how participative to be in their decision-making of a decision tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Five leadership styles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twelve contingency variables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research testing for both original and modified models has not been encouraging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model is overly complex </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- E X H I B I T 12-5
  19. 19. Inspirational Approaches to Leadership <ul><li>The focus is leader as communicator </li></ul><ul><li>Framing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A way of communicating that shapes meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective highlighting of facts and events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignored in traditional leadership studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two contemporary leadership theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charismatic Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational Leadership </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  20. 20. Charismatic Leadership <ul><li>House’s Charismatic Leadership Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four characteristics of charismatic leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are willing to take personal risks to achieve the vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are sensitive to follower needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traits and personality are related to charisma </li></ul><ul><li>People can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13- E X H I B I T 13-1
  21. 21. How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers <ul><li>A four-step process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader articulates an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attractive vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vision Statement: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A formal, long-term strategy to attain goals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links past, present, and future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader communicates high performance expectations and confidence in follower ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader conveys a new set of values by setting an example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader engages in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior to demonstrate convictions about the vision </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  22. 22. Charismatic Leadership Issues <ul><li>Importance of vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be inspirational, value-centered, realizable, and given with superior imagery and articulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charismatic effectiveness and situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charisma works best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The follower’s task has an ideological component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a lot of stress and uncertainty in the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The leader is at the upper level of the organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Followers have low self-esteem and self-worth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dark Side of Charisma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego-driven charismatics allow their self-interest and personal goals to override the organization’s goals </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  23. 23. Charismatic Leadership Issues <ul><li>Importance of vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be inspirational, value-centered, realizable, and given with superior imagery and articulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charismatic effectiveness and situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charisma works best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The follower’s task has an ideological component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a lot of stress and uncertainty in the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The leader is at the upper level of the organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Followers have low self-esteem and self-worth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dark Side of Charisma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego-driven charismatics allow their self-interest and personal goals to override the organization’s goals </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  24. 24. Beyond Charisma: Level-5 Leaders <ul><li>Very effective leaders who possess the four typical leadership traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to stimulate others to high performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plus one critical new trait… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A blend of personal humility and professional will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal ego needs are focused toward building a great company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for failures and give credit to others for successes </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  25. 25. Transactional & Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Transactional Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformational Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization; they can have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not opposing, but complementary, approaches to leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great transformational leaders must also be transactional; only one type is not enough for success </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  26. 26. Characteristics of the Two Types of Leaders <ul><li>Transactional </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent Reward: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management by Exception: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive: Intervenes only if standards are not met </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized Influence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important issues simply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Stimulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes intelligence, rationality, and problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualized Consideration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives personal attention, coaches, advises </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13- E X H I B I T 13-2
  27. 27. Full Range of Leadership Model <ul><li>Leadership styles listed from passive to very active </li></ul><ul><li>Note the ineffective styles are mostly transactional </li></ul><ul><li>It is all about influencing followers </li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13- E X H I B I T 13-3
  28. 28. Issues with Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Basis for Action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational leadership works by encouraging followers to be more innovative and creative and by providing ambitious goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation Based on the Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This theory does show high correlations with desired outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This style of leadership can be taught </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformational vs. Charismatic Leadership: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar concepts, but transformational leadership may be considered a broader concept than charisma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrument-based testing shows the measures to be roughly equivalent </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  29. 29. Contemporary Leadership Roles: Mentoring <ul><li>Mentor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee (a protégé) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good teachers present ideas clearly, listen, and empathize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two functions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Career </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching, assisting, sponsoring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosocial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling, sharing, acting as a role model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be formal or informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentors tend to select protégés who are similar to them in background: may restrict minorities and women </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  30. 30. Contemporary Leadership Roles: Self-Leadership <ul><li>Self-Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of processes through which individuals control their own behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective leaders (superleaders) help followers to lead themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in self-managed teams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To engage in self-leadership: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a mental chart of your peers and colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on influence and not on control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create opportunities; do not wait for them </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  31. 31. Contemporary Leadership Roles: Online Leadership <ul><li>Leadership at a Distance: Building Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lack of face-to-face contact in electronic communications removes the nonverbal cues that support verbal interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no supporting context to assist the receiver with interpretation of an electronic communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The structure and tone of electronic messages can strongly affect the response of receivers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s verbal and written communications may not follow the same style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing skills will likely become an extension of interpersonal skills. </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  32. 32. Finding and Creating Effective Leaders <ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review specific requirements for the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use tests that identify personal traits associated with leadership, measure self-monitoring, and assess emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct personal interviews to determine candidate’s fit with the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep a list of potential candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize that all people are not equally trainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach skills that are necessary for employees to become effective leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide behavioral training to increase the development potential of nascent charismatic employees </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13-
  33. 33. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- Please Visit Us At : http://wanbk.page.tl
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