The Effects of A Sediment Trap on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Populations in the North Branch of the Boardman River Whitney ...
 
Boardman Watershed and Uses
Michigan Sand
Unfortunate Sand Events:
Effects of River Sedimentation
Sand Trap
Boardman River Sand Trap <ul><li>Installed in 1994, with yearly sand removal until 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Over 6,000 cubic...
Sampling Site Locations
Sampling Methods Kick-net Surber Sampler
Upstream Sites
Downstream Sites
Sample Identification
Common Macroinvertebrates: Ephemerellidae,  Drunella Leptohyphidae,  Tricorythodes Heptageniidae,  Heptagenia
Common Macroinvertebrates: Brachycentridae,  Brachycentrus Heliocopsychidae,  Heliocopsyche
Common Macroinvertebrates: Elmidae,  Opitoservus  (larvae and adult) Athericidae,  Atherix Chironomidae
Population Percentages
Simpson’s Indices and Chi-Squared Test Upstream Downstream Taxa Richness  (# of Morphospecies) 77 89 # of individuals 5611...
“ EPT” Ratio Index and Chi-Squared Values Upstream Downstream EPT ratio Average 21.1 31.4 &quot;EPT&quot; ratio index. The...
Comparisons…
Functional Group Comparisons   Collector-gatherer Collector-filterers Scrapers Predators Others Upstream 10.2% 41.7% 28.6%...
Brachycentrus  Location
 
Conclusions <ul><li>Upstream and Downstream riffles not pronouncedly different. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Possible Sources of Error <ul><li>Sampling Error </li></ul><ul><li>- Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>- Riffle error </li></ul><u...
Next Summer? <ul><li>Cleaner Sampling methods – Either Surber or Kick-net sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Sample as early as po...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Hal Reed (ORU), Research Director </li></ul><ul><li>Dave Mahan (ASI), Mentor </li></ul><ul><li>Da...
References <ul><li>Alexander, G.R., Hansen, E.A. 1986. Sand bed load in a brook trout stream. North American Journal of Fi...
References <ul><li>Plafkin, J.L., Barbour, M.T., Porter, K.D., Gross, S.K., Hughes, R.M. 1989. Rapid bioassessment protoco...
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Final Research Presentation

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Boardman 2007

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  • Sampling error! I learned an enormous amount about benthic macroinvertebrates. As time went on, I also realized that some things I thought were not benthic macroinvertebrates, were. So, I’m sure there were some insects in the early samplers which I did not preserve, only because I did not know that they were insects (see caddisfly)
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  • So, at the end of the summer, I’m faced with a set of slightly contrary results. The Chi-squared test tells me that the upstream and downstream riffles are not the same. While the differences in the Simpson's indices are not statistically significant, there are still marked differences in the upstream and downstream habitats. Because the factors affecting the stream benthos are multi-faceted, the results of Simpson's indices are misleading.
    However, this may be due to a few reasons; first is exemplified by the presence of Brachycentrus – there are some species which are not necessarily “riffle” species, but who have moved, opportunistically, into a habitat that has been made less ideal.
    The taxa richness, when combined with indices of overlap and similarity, suggest there are species which are found in one habitat, and not the other. Their presence in the riffle habitat suggests that the riffle is compromised, because in the classic riffle, there is not loose substrate into which the benthos can burrow, as the speed of the water column would prevent sediment buildup. On sections where the sediment bedload is not excessive and the riffle areas did not have sediment accumulation, these species were not found in such great numbers.

    Summer sampling means that many genus have already emerged for the season – like stoneflies, for example, who emerge early in the season. Perhaps this study would have given more concise results during the winter months.
    Sand Trap was last emptied in 2006.
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  • This is what I found: There were a few less Trichoptera downstream, but a huge drop in the numbers of upstream brachycentrus. Interesting. This is how one might expect it to go.
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  • In the downstream riffles, Brachycentrus were only located on the macrophytes in the stream bed. In the upstream habitats, where the river was a bit wider and slower, on the left there, the brachycentrus larvae were able to attach themselves to the streambed in the middle of the riffle.
    So, I wondered if this population was throwing me off. I decided to recalculate numbers with the brachycentrus individuals excluded.
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  • Shifts in the dominance of a feeding group correspond with the abundance of a particular food availability, which reflects a particular type of impact on the benthic community.
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  • Final Research Presentation

    1. 1. The Effects of A Sediment Trap on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Populations in the North Branch of the Boardman River Whitney Nelson, Calvin College Adviser: Daniel Ippolito, Anderson University
    2. 3. Boardman Watershed and Uses
    3. 4. Michigan Sand
    4. 5. Unfortunate Sand Events:
    5. 6. Effects of River Sedimentation
    6. 7. Sand Trap
    7. 8. Boardman River Sand Trap <ul><li>Installed in 1994, with yearly sand removal until 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Over 6,000 cubic yards of sand removed since construction </li></ul>
    8. 9. Sampling Site Locations
    9. 10. Sampling Methods Kick-net Surber Sampler
    10. 11. Upstream Sites
    11. 12. Downstream Sites
    12. 13. Sample Identification
    13. 14. Common Macroinvertebrates: Ephemerellidae, Drunella Leptohyphidae, Tricorythodes Heptageniidae, Heptagenia
    14. 15. Common Macroinvertebrates: Brachycentridae, Brachycentrus Heliocopsychidae, Heliocopsyche
    15. 16. Common Macroinvertebrates: Elmidae, Opitoservus (larvae and adult) Athericidae, Atherix Chironomidae
    16. 17. Population Percentages
    17. 18. Simpson’s Indices and Chi-Squared Test Upstream Downstream Taxa Richness (# of Morphospecies) 77 89 # of individuals 5611 6813 Dominance (D) 0.1099 0.0844 Simpson (1-D) 0.8901 0.9156
    18. 19. “ EPT” Ratio Index and Chi-Squared Values Upstream Downstream EPT ratio Average 21.1 31.4 &quot;EPT&quot; ratio index. The sum of E + T+ P / # Chronomid larvae (Crawford and Lenat, 1989)
    19. 20. Comparisons…
    20. 21. Functional Group Comparisons   Collector-gatherer Collector-filterers Scrapers Predators Others Upstream 10.2% 41.7% 28.6% 13.4% 6.0% Downstream 21.4% 37.0% 28.7% 10.9% 2.0%
    21. 22. Brachycentrus Location
    22. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Upstream and Downstream riffles not pronouncedly different. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundance of opportunistic species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer sampling = lack of emergent species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand trap last emptied 2006 </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. Possible Sources of Error <ul><li>Sampling Error </li></ul><ul><li>- Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>- Riffle error </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student ignorance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area multiplier ≠ actual sample </li></ul></ul>
    24. 26. Next Summer? <ul><li>Cleaner Sampling methods – Either Surber or Kick-net sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Sample as early as possible (perhaps a J-term student coming back for research)? </li></ul>
    25. 27. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Hal Reed (ORU), Research Director </li></ul><ul><li>Dave Mahan (ASI), Mentor </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Ippolito (Anderson U), Mentor </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic Bio, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>John Csoros, Josh Dockery </li></ul>
    26. 28. References <ul><li>Alexander, G.R., Hansen, E.A. 1986. Sand bed load in a brook trout stream. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 6:9-23. </li></ul><ul><li>Angradi, T.R. 1999. Fine sediments and macroinvertebrate assemblages in Appalachian streams: a field experiment with biomonitoring applications. J.N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 18: 49-66. </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Natural Resources, Michigan. 2007. DNR-Boardman river. http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153- 30301_31431_31442-95769--,00.html (June 25, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Ervin, T, Kalish, T. 2006 Traverse City, Mi. Boardman river dams project. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative. http://www.glslcities.org/TraverseCity_Dam_Project.pdf (July 8, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Horn, H.S. 1966. Measurement of “overlap” in comparative ecological studies. Amer. Matur. 100:416-424 </li></ul><ul><li>Largent, S. 2007. Boardman river project. http://www.boardmanriver.org (June 24, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Lenat, D.R. 1988. Water quality assessment of streams using a qualitative collection method for benthic macroinvertebrates. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 7:222-233. </li></ul>
    27. 29. References <ul><li>Plafkin, J.L., Barbour, M.T., Porter, K.D., Gross, S.K., Hughes, R.M. 1989. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and rivers: benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. U.S. Enviornmental Protection Agency. EPA 440/4-89/001. 8 chapters, Appendices A-D. </li></ul><ul><li>Simpson, E.H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature. 163:688. </li></ul><ul><li>Surber, E.W. 1936. Rainbow trout and bottom fauna production in one mile of stream. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 66:193-202. </li></ul><ul><li>Woller, M.M. 2007.River restoration in Northwest Michigan. http://www.liaa.info/crabmp/default.asp (June 26, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Zweig, L.D., Rabeni, C.F. 2001. Biomonitoring for deposited sediment using benthic invertebrates: a test on 4 Missouri streams. J. N.Am. Benthol. Soc. 20:643-657. </li></ul>
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