Think about the disaster cause by the lahar in Armero,
Columbia.What led to such a spectacular failure?
•Today’s essential questions:
1.)What types of hazards make up surface
2.)How can we forecast their occurrences and
reduce their negative impacts?
•Determining mitigating processes
•Quiz on Friday
•If you haven’t taken your test yet,YOU NEEDTO!
People are waiting to get their tests back!Tests taken
after Friday are an automatic 10% off.
•Hazards that stem from actions above the earth’s surface
Surface Hazards: Landslide Facts
Why do you think
Virginia have high
High weathering (Hot/Cold)
Mining for coal
High urbanization in the Eastern US
Surface Hazards: Landslides
Similar to the Earthquake-Volcano connection, Landslides are sometimes
• Subaerial Landslides can lead to massive local tsunamis.
• Subaerial landslides occur when a landslide falls into a body of water, creating a
wave. EX. Lituya Bay, 1964. Landslide createdTsunami with 1000 ft. wave.
• Submarine landslides lead to smaller tsunamis.These occur under water.
• EX. Resurrection Bay, 1964. Landslide created 30ft tsunami that wrecked some oil
tanks which then caught fire and spread into the bay.Then the earthquake generated
tsunami hit, which took the form of a 40ft wave…that was ON FIRE.This completely
destroyed the port town of Seward, AK.
• Glacial calving can also lead to local tsunamis.
What is a concept map?
Take 5 minutes to work on your own – we will
discuss as a group later. If you are struggling, raise
your hand and explain where you are stuck.
Terms to include:
Surface Hazards:Tsunami need-to-knows
•The Indian OceanTsunami of 2004 killed 230,000 people. Let
that sink in.
•Pro tip: If you are on vacation, and water recedes quickly from
the shoreline, RUN. Oftentimes before a tsunami strikes, water
is pulled back hundreds of meters.This is called drawback
•The first wave of a tsunami is usually NOT the biggest. Bigger
and Bigger waves continue to come in.
•About 80% of tsunamis occur in the “Ring of fire”
•Scientists can accurately estimate the time when a tsunami will
arrive almost anywhere in the world
Hang On…Wait a minute…
•Wait!You said they can be accurately predicted!Why
did 230,000 people die?
•High population in fast growing Asian areas
•NOTSUNAMIWARNING SYSTEM in the Indian Ocean
•We have aVERY precise warning system in the PacificOcean
where 85% ofTsunamis occur…but lack of funding and disinterest
slowed implementation elsewhere
•Almost ZERO public education and awareness. Indigenous
people had almost zero knowledge of tsunamis.
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