1
2ABSTRACTThe political environment is closely implicated in all economics sectors and tourism isimmersed directly or indir...
3ContentsCHAPTER I ..........................................................................................................
44.4.1 Policy demands.................................................................................................354....
5CHAPTER I1. IntroductionTourism has been closely implicated in political action in recent years. This is becausetourism h...
61.3 RationaleTourism is regarded as a highlight and an integral part of economies in manydeveloping countries; the benefi...
7However, politics in tourism is a relatively new area of scholarly inquiry; there is littleagreement on how public touris...
8CHAPTER II2. Literature Review2.1 IntroductionTourism is an important factor in regional and national economies, in terms...
9gets what, when and how”, further adding a most limited definition of politics as “thestudy of government and how individ...
10Interests of groups however in the tourism industry generate a conflict in tourism policyformulation, especially in envi...
11environment for visitors, in order to boost tourism and generate more revenue for theeconomy of the country.Similarly Th...
12“The UK government in the local government Act of 1948 gave localgovernments the power to provide information and public...
13Edgel, (1987) and Richter (1983 cited in Zang et al., 1998, p.2) however examine theevolution of Chinese tourism policy,...
14Following this, the model describes the four components in the policy-making process(See table 1)Table 1 – Four componen...
15Figure 3 - Elements in the tourism policy-making processSource: Hall (1994, p.50)Following this, Elder and Etta (2005) n...
16Table 2 – Summary of the components of Chinese government policiesSource: Zhang et al., (1999, p.474).
17The policies adopted by governments will determine the area and sector of the impact. Itcould be economic, social or env...
18elements seek to satisfy their demands, outside of the political system in a nonlegitimate manner. As a consequence, it ...
19For instance in Fiji (1987) after the political turmoil, there was a decline in the numberof tourist arrivals. This cont...
20CHAPTER III3. MethodologyMethodology is a perspective for viewing "the empirical world", where the perspectivesare estab...
21In addition, the researcher uses the data triangulation method in order to improve theaccuracy of judgments and thereby ...
22On the other hand Healey, 1991; Healey and Rawilson, (1993; cited in Saunders et al.,2007, p.312) suggest other types of...
23The type of secondary data sources are multiple such as books, professional journals,magazines articles, online data sou...
24Qualitative data are attractive for many reasons: they are rich, full, earthly, holistic, andreal; they preserve chronol...
25or describe an event, and a multi-method approach is needed to get the full picture(Ghauri and GrФnhaug, 2010 p. 212). ....
26arrivals to the country and to measure the impact in a period of time. Data monitor(2012) country analysis identified th...
27CHAPTER IV4. Findings and analysis4.1 KenyaKenya is one of the leading tourist destinations in sub-Saharan Africa, (Inte...
28followed by; transport and communications with a 9.7 % (International Monetary Fund,2007b, p.6).Rase (1984 cited in Baño...
29According to Lacey (2002) the government led by Mwai Kibaki (2002-2012) hasfocused mainly on the fight against corruptio...
30“The overall aim of the national tourism policy is to ensure thattourism retains its position as a leading export, and t...
31The centralization of power linked with the authoritarianism of the last regime createdan environment of political insta...
32Subsequently, as tourism was focused on traditional markets, the Ministry of Planningand National Development (2003) dec...
33In addition, the Ministry of Tourism of Kenya and China signed an agreement called"Approved Destination Status"(Internat...
34Figure 6 - Tourism arrivals and earnings (2002 – 2007)Tourism arrivals and earnings, 2002 -2007YEARHoliday/BusinessVisit...
35The relationship between China and Kenya allowed for the signing of the mostimportant agreement for Kenya. It involved d...
36The policy demands are based on the weaknesses of the last period (2002 – 2007),following which the government of Kenya ...
37The government of Kenya formulated a recovery strategy based on marketing andpromotion, in order to remedy the damage ca...
38The government started the modernization of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, atthe same time. Improvement of Kisumu ...
39Figure 8 – Total number of visitors to game parks and reserves (2007-2010)Source: Adapted from Kenya open data 2012.Duri...
40have repercussions far beyond the immediate location in which theviolence occurs. By driving tourists away political ins...
41transport suffered a decrease of 32 % compared with 2007, the date when politicalinstability occurred. (see figure 10)Fi...
42Following the post-electoral violence in the disputed 2007 elections, tourism revenuesdropped significantly. It is widel...
43CHAPTER V5. ConclusionThe researcher notes that the relationship between Politics and tourism has acquiredmore importanc...
44The policy implemented by the government was effective, the impact was in theincrease of tourist arrivals (see figure 9)...
45the government after knowing the weakness of the last plan in order to improve anddevelop this sector.The policy-making ...
46 As the tourism sector in Kenya is an important earner of foreign exchange, and itis one of the most important sectors ...
47ReferencesAfrica Report (2008). Kenya in Crisis, Africa Report No. 137.http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/h...
48Burns, P., & Novelli, M. (2007). Tourism and politics: global frameworks and localrealities. Amsterdam, Elsevier. p.11, ...
49-eac-development-fund&catid=36%3Aabout-the-office&Itemid=241&limitstart=2 –accessed: 10/03/2012 [i.p.36–41]East African ...
50Hall, C. M. (1994). Tourism and politics: policy, power, and place. Chichester, Wiley.p. 50 [i.p.15-19:21 – 22:27 – 28:5...
51Kabiri, N. (2010). The Political Economy of Wildlife Conservation and Decline inKenya, The Journal of Environment and De...
52. http://idv.sagepub.com/content/26/1/47.abstract?rss=1- accessed: 22/02/2012 [i.p.16]Mak, J. (2004). Tourism and the ec...
53http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/Government2_Tourism_Policy_2011.pdf - accessed: 22/02/2012 [i.p.18:19]Prid...
54World Tourism Organization (2011), Exploring the Full Economic Impact of Tourismfor Policy Making. Madrid. World Tourism...
The political factors influencing tourism(kenya)
The political factors influencing tourism(kenya)
The political factors influencing tourism(kenya)
The political factors influencing tourism(kenya)
The political factors influencing tourism(kenya)
The political factors influencing tourism(kenya)
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  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2ABSTRACTThe political environment is closely implicated in all economics sectors and tourism isimmersed directly or indirectly in the economy of countries. Thus, this study representsan opportunity to evaluate the political factors that influence tourism, especially inKenya in the first decade of the 21st. century. To achieve this aim, this dissertation`sapproach is based on an evaluation of the relationship between tourism and politics. Atthe same time it reflects the political factors involved in tourism such as the influence ofgovernments, the impact of policies and political instability in the tourism sector.This study is based on meanings expressed through words. As a consequence of this, theauthor did a qualitative analysis. This method analyses and focuses on the content of thecollected of primary and secondary data.The primary data used helps to gather valid and reliable data in order to clarify thepolitical influence in tourism. The secondary data were utilized to find information tosolve, explain and to understand the research. In addition the triangulation method wasused. This model consists of a comparison of a variety of data sources both primary andsecondary, relating to the same event. All of this is in order to check on thetrustworthiness and comprehensiveness of the qualitative data.The findings illustrate that tourism has gained more attention and participation by thegovernment of Kenya for its economic contribution. At the same time it reflects thestrong political influence by the government over tourism.The Hall model will be employed to evaluate the policy-making process and the impactof this on tourism. The analysis has been done in two different periods (2002-2007) and(2008-2012), in order to identify the reliable problems in Kenya. In addition, Tourism isa sensitive market due to unfortunate events such as the political instability experiencedin 2007. This has been an impediment to the development of full of the potential oftourism in Kenya.It is evident that the political environment affects tourism directly or indirectly. Basedon the decisions made it has a positive or negative effect on tourism. On the other hand,as politics is a complex and extensive science, this research has served as a preliminarystudy to future researches.
  3. 3. 3ContentsCHAPTER I .........................................................................................................51. Introduction................................................................................................................51.1 Aims .......................................................................................................................51.2 Objectives...............................................................................................................51.3 Rationale.................................................................................................................61.4 Research structure ..................................................................................................7CHAPTER II........................................................................................................82. Literature Review.......................................................................................................82.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................82.2 Relationship between Tourism and Politics ...........................................................82.3 What is the role of the government in Tourism?..................................................102.4 Evaluating policies and decision making by Governments..................................122.5 Political instability................................................................................................172.6 Conclusion............................................................................................................19CHAPTER III....................................................................................................203. Methodology ............................................................................................................203.1 Choice of research design.....................................................................................203.2 Justification...........................................................................................................203.3 Primary and Secondary data.................................................................................213.3.1 Primary Data.....................................................................................................213.3.2 Secondary Data.................................................................................................223.4 Data Analysis........................................................................................................233.4.1 Qualitative Method ...........................................................................................233.4.2 Triangulation Model .........................................................................................243.5 Procedure..............................................................................................................25CHAPTER IV ................................................................................................... 274. Findings and analysis ...........................................................................................274.1 Kenya....................................................................................................................274.2 Politics, Government and tourism in Kenya in the last 10 years of the 21stcentury274.3 Evaluating policies and decision making .............................................................294.3.1 Tourism Policies in Kenya................................................................................294.3.2 Policy Demands (Period 2002 -2007)...............................................................304.3.3 Policy decisions ................................................................................................314.3.4 Policy Outputs...................................................................................................324.3.5 Policy Outcomes...............................................................................................334.4 Tourism policy in Kenya 2008-2012....................................................................35
  4. 4. 44.4.1 Policy demands.................................................................................................354.4.2 Policy decision..................................................................................................364.4.3 Policy Outputs...................................................................................................374.4.4 Policy Outcomes...............................................................................................384.5 To evaluate how influential political instability is on the tourism industry inKenya...............................................................................................................................39CHAPTER V..........................................................................................435. Conclusion................................................................................................................43CHAPTER VI ........................................................................................456. Recommendation......................................................................................................45References ......................................................................................................................47Annexes...........................................................................................................................55Annex 1 ...........................................................................................................................55Annex 2 ...........................................................................................................................57Annex 3 ...........................................................................................................................59List of abbreviationsEAC- East African CommunityIP-ERS – Invest Program for Economic Recovery StrategyKWS – Kenya Wildlife ServiceTPU – Tourism Police UnitTTCI – Travel and Tourism Competitiveness IndexTTC – Travel and Tourism CaucusUSAID – United States Agency International DevelopmentWTO – World Travel OrganizationList of figuresFigure 1- Tourism benefits in the economies of countries……………………………. 7Figure 2- Easton’s simplified model of the political system…………………………..13Figure 3 - Elements in the tourism policy-making process……………………………14Figure 4 - Research Characteristics……………………………………………………20Figure 5 - Forms of interview………………………………………………………….22Figure 6 - Tourism arrivals and earnings (2002 – 2007) ……………………………...34Figure 7 – Total number of visitors to game parks and reserves (2002-2007)………...34Figure 8 – Total number of visitors to game parks and reserves (2007-2010)………..39Figure 9 – Tourist visitor arrivals in Kenya (2005 – 2010)…………………………...40Figure 10 – Tourist arrivals by mode of transport (2005 – 2010) …………………....41Figure 11 – Tourism earnings (Ksh in Billions; 2005 – 2010)………………………..41Figure 12 – Foreign visitors / tourist number ‘000 (2001-2010)……………………...42List of tablesTable 1 – Four components of the policy-making process……………………………14Table 2 – Summary of the components of Chinese government policies………….....16Table 3 - Types of Primary data………………………………………………………21
  5. 5. 5CHAPTER I1. IntroductionTourism has been closely implicated in political action in recent years. This is becausetourism has been immersed directly or indirectly in the economy of countries. Therelationship between tourism and other sectors of economic activity has helped with thepassage of time to be considered as one of the major industries in the world (Burns andNovelli, 2007).The political dimensions of tourism are many; it is as a consequence of a powerful mixof cultural, socioeconomic and political phenomena (Bauma, 2005 cited in Burns andNovelli, 2007). Due to this, the tourism sector needs the participation of politics,because governments are involved in political decisions concerned in improving andcreating an adequate environment to develop tourism (Laws, 1995).Tourism then is an important part of the economy in any country; economics concerndecisions about scarce resources, whilst politics are concerned with making decisionsabout public resources. It is thus evident that tourism is inherently related to politics(Cook et al., 2010).1.1 AimsTo evaluate, the political factors influencing tourism in Kenya in the first decade of the21st century. Specifically, using the Hall (1994) method to evaluate the policy making,focusing on an economic performance1.2 ObjectivesThe research objectives address factors and elements of politics that influence tourism,these objectives include the following: To understand the relationship between tourism and politics. To examine the position of the government in the tourism sector in Kenya. To analyze the tourism policy-making process and the economic impact oftourism in Kenya. To evaluate how political instability influences tourism in Kenya.
  6. 6. 61.3 RationaleTourism is regarded as a highlight and an integral part of economies in manydeveloping countries; the benefits are present at both: macro (national level) or micro(Local, regional), Dieke (2003).Figure 1- Tourism benefits in the economies of countries.Source: Adapt from Dieke, (2003, p.287).Following on from this Cook et al. (2010) note that tourism invokes positive economicbenefits such as the following: It is an industry that helps to maintain economic stability in periods of recessionthat affect virtually all industries. Tourism provides economic diversity, the variety of sectors involved in theindustry generate a wide range of different job opportunities. Tourism allows for support in the development of countries; this has a positiveimpact on both visitors and communities.Subsequently, Richter (1990, cited in Aquino, 2010, p.110) notes that the politicaldimensions of tourism in some countries are viewed as a capitalist device withgovernments willing to consider them in order to improve the economy.Although politics include aspects of tourism linked with economic factors, it takes intoconsideration the environment and local communities in order to develop the quality oflife for the people and to develop the economies of countries (Richter 1990, cited inAquino, 2010, p.108).According to Koster (1984 cited in Lew et al., 2004, p.534),“If a multidisciplinary tourism science develops without the necessaryingredient of political analysis, it will remain imperfect andincomplete.”
  7. 7. 7However, politics in tourism is a relatively new area of scholarly inquiry; there is littleagreement on how public tourism policies should be studied or on the reasonsunderpinning such studies. Nevertheless, studies of tourism policy must go beyonddescribing “what governments do” (Hall & Jenkins, 1995, p.2).According to Hall and Jenkins (1995, p.4) government activity in respect to tourism isrelatively recent in comparison with other traditional concerns of the government suchas economics, manufacturing and social welfare. Based on this, Hall and Jenkinssuggest that in governments there is an element of inexperience in the formulation andimplementation of tourism policies (ibid.).For all of these reasons the researcher considers that this study represents an opportunityto evaluate the political factors that influence tourism, especially in Kenya, wheretourism plays an important role in the economy of the country.1.4 Research structureChapter II literature reviewA theoretical analysis of the objectives is reviewed in this chapter in order to designthe research.Chapter III Methodology and research designThis chapter explains systematically the method and the data collection used in theresearch and gives an explanation of methods employed in the data analysis.Chapter IV Findings and AnalysisThe analysis has been carried out in order to reach the aim of this dissertation.Chapter V ConclusionMain remarks on the political factors influencing directly and indirectly in tourismKenya.Chapter VI RecommendationSuggestions for further studies.
  8. 8. 8CHAPTER II2. Literature Review2.1 IntroductionTourism is an important factor in regional and national economies, in terms ofenvironmental issues and social effects. The political aspect however has rarely beendiscussed in literature (Hall, 1994), yet the magnitude to which industry has becomewidespread and is growing needs immediate attention as a subject of political research(Richter, 1989). Following this Henderson (2003, p. 98) notes:“Tourism is, without doubt, a highly political phenomenon whichextends beyond the sphere of formal government structures andprocesses if politics are conceived as being essentially about powerrelations, and it is thus an underlying and indirect theme in muchtourism research.”It is immediately evident therefore that political factors in tourism are numerous. Hencethe aim of this literature review is to clarify and to describe in a theoretical manner, andthe factors relevant in this study such as: Relationship between tourism and politics. What the role of the government in the tourism sector is? Evaluating policies and decision making by governments. The political instability that has a direct and indirect effect on the tourismindustry.2.2 Relationship between Tourism and PoliticsUnderstanding the relationship between politics and tourism is especially significant fordeveloping countries, where the tourism industry plays an important role in theeconomy (Kosters, 1984 cited in Chambers and Airey, 2001).The study of politics in tourism does not nevertheless only concern elections, groupinterests or political parties; it involves the study of power in all forms of society.Laswell (1958 cited in Harrison, 2011, p.149) notes that politics is about power, “who
  9. 9. 9gets what, when and how”, further adding a most limited definition of politics as “thestudy of government and how individuals influence government actions” (Lasswell,cited in Harrison, 2011, p.149).Consequently, Hall (1994) suggests that the political system, directly or indirectlyinfluences tourism, through policies that are established by governments in order todevelop the country.According to Edgell (1990, cited in Hall, 1994, p.2),“The highest purpose of tourism policy is to integrate the economic,political, cultural, and intellectual and economics benefits of tourismcohesively with people, destinations and countries in order to improvethe global quality of life and provide a foundation of peace andprosperity”.Hall (1994, p.2) expresses the view that “tourism is not only the continuation ofpolitics” but it is an integral part of the world’s economy. In addition Magara (2010,p.47), suggests that politics involves competing for power, authority and influence insupporting the quality of life a society desires.Politics therefore is an important factor in any market when it is developing, becausepolitical decisions by the government in power affect the tourism industry as with anyother industry.For instance, in Spain the tourism boom in the late 1950s was influenced by governmentintervention, which provided and regulated tourism activity. The most important aspectwith regard to state intervention was the search for the growth of tourist activity and thecontrol over prices of accommodation (Apostolopoulos et al., 2001).On the other hand, tourism in Asia is seen by government leaders as a political bridgebetween nations, initiating or widening the scope of cooperative alliances with othernations. Added to these, other important players involved in both politics and tourismare international organizations and multinational corporations (airlines, hotels chains,and tour companies), namely, those who drive the industry (Richter, 1989).
  10. 10. 10Interests of groups however in the tourism industry generate a conflict in tourism policyformulation, especially in environment and social issues (Craik, 1990 cited in Hall,1994, p.70).For instance, the influence of the United States Congressional Travel and TourismCaucus (TTC) on the American national tourism policy; the TTC provides a network forthe channelling of information from the tourism industry, political negotiations, and theformation of compromises in legislative decision making, It also acts as a mechanismfor industry to influence policies which affect their interest (Hayes; 1981, cited in Hall,1994, p.56).Private industry in the tourism sector thus needs to be alert to changes of government, inorder to adapt to the new government, if it want to survive in the market. This meansadapting to the new strategies and being aware of possible changes of policies withinthis industry (Pride et al., 2010).Thus it is clear that politics and tourism share a wide range of factors such as social,economic, political and cultural, in a country. It is therefore important to create a policyfor the environment propitious to the development of this productive sector of theeconomy.2.3 What is the role of the government in Tourism?There is almost a universal acceptance by governments around the world, regardless ofideology, that tourism is a good thing with most tourism policies designed to expandtourism (Hall, 1994, p.29).According to Elliot (1997), governments are involved in tourism because this sectorgenerates important benefits and help to boost the economies of countries. At the sametime, tourism economic activity is seen as a multiplier effect helping other sectors of theeconomy.For instance, Mak (2004) in the course of a study on Hawaii determined the multipliereffect in the economy of this country and at the same time, noted that the impact of themultiplier effect depends on how much the visitors spends. It is therefore evident thatthe role of government in tourism involves being responsible for creating a propitious
  11. 11. 11environment for visitors, in order to boost tourism and generate more revenue for theeconomy of the country.Similarly The United Kingdom’s House of Commons (1988, cited in Elliot, 1997,p.29) notes,“The government fully recognizes the great economic andemployment contribution and potential of tourism and seeks toencourage the development, growth and international competitivenessof the UK tourism industry”.Certain authors (Lea, 1998; Pearce, 1989; Ritcher, 1989; cited in Hall, 1994, p.1)express the view that in many modern governments tourism occupies an important rolein the economy, as it occurs in both developed and undeveloped countries.For instance, The Kenyan government through President Mwai Kibaki (2010, cited inAfrican Review, 2010, p.1) recognizes the importance of tourism and notes the value ofsupporting this industry, because it is helping to alleviate poverty and to createemployment and other opportunities for people in the country. Similarly, the PrimeMinister of the UK, David Cameron (2011, cited in Penrose, 2011, p.4) notes theimportance of tourism and saying,“Our aim is clear, we want to take tourism in Britain to a whole newlevel and harness the huge potential this area holds to grow oureconomy”.The United Kingdom government recognizes that it is necessary to focus on policy-making in the tourism sector, because it considers tourism as a huge potential sector forthe growth of the economy in the country. Government strategy consists of improvingand creating infrastructure, promoting the country and eliminating barriers to the growthof this sector, (Penrose, 2011).According to Apostolopoulos, et al., (2001, p.34) tourism policies are established bygovernments in three levels which are “central governments, autonomous governmentand the municipal government”, in order to develop the tourism sector. For instance,
  12. 12. 12“The UK government in the local government Act of 1948 gave localgovernments the power to provide information and publicity fortourism”, (Elliot, 1997, p.138).Similarly, the federal government of Mexico, through an agreement with the State ofOaxaca launched a plan (1997-2000) to secure substantial public and private sectorinvestment through a promotion program in infrastructure, conservation and culture. Allof these sought to develop that area of the country (Jeffries, 2001).It is immediately evident therefore that “governments are the legitimate holders ofpower in political systems”, (Elliot, 2001, p.38). In addition, Jeffries, (2001) notes thatgovernments are responsible for making policy and establishing policy guidelines,within the constitutional, legal and political environment established by them.On the other hand, Mill and Morrison (1985, cited in Hall, 1994, p.32) identifies fiveroles of government vital for the success of the tourism industry: “coordination,planning, legislation and regulation, entrepreneurship, and stimulation”. Further twomore roles were added by Hall (1994), one is related to social tourism and the other is inthe interest of protection.According to Jeffries (2001, p.108)“The great complexity of tourism, of the industry and of its productscalls for coordination and cooperation which arguably onlygovernments have the authority and apparatus to organize”.Governments thus have the responsibility of ensuring synergy between different roles,in order to aid the effective development of the tourism sector.2.4 Evaluating policies and decision making by GovernmentsPolicy making is a political activity that is embedded within the economic and socialcharacteristics of society. As such it reflects society’s values, ideologies, distribution ofpower, institutions and decision-making (Hall and Jenkins, 2004 cited in Buhalis andCosta, 2006, p.155).Similarly, Elder and Etta (2005) suggest that policy-making is a political act and, as apolitical act it requires extensive consultation, time and resources.
  13. 13. 13Edgel, (1987) and Richter (1983 cited in Zang et al., 1998, p.2) however examine theevolution of Chinese tourism policy, and found that it is not only important tounderstand the design of the policy, but that it is necessary to take into consideration thesociety and its administrative social environment.Following this, Easton (1965) and Hall (1994 cited in Zang, et al., 1998, p.3) note thatthe government’s role in tourism is an outcome of its tourism policy formulation andimplementations.Mitchell (1989, cited in Hall, 2008) suggests that in policy-making two types of modelscan be adopted, prescriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive models based on pre-established standards seek to demonstrate how policy making should occur anddescriptive models descriptive models give an explanation of events occurred during thedecision making process. At the same time, descriptive models “document the way inwhich the policy process actually occurs" (Hall, 2008, p.71). This represents a refutationof the rational policy-administration dichotomy that characterises prescriptiveapproaches to policy analysis, thus;“Policy making typically involves a pattern of action over time andinvolving many decisions”, (Anderson, 1975 cited in Hall, 1994,p.48).In accordance with Easton (1965 cited in Hall, 1994, p.49) in policy-making it isimportant to consider the policy-process within a political system that it is operating inpolitical environment (see figure 2).Figure 2- Easton’s simplified model of the political systemSource: Easton (1965 cited in Hall 1994, p.50).
  14. 14. 14Following this, the model describes the four components in the policy-making process(See table 1)Table 1 – Four components of the policy-making process.Source: adapted from Hall (1994, p.49)Dahl (1970 cited in Elliot 1997) defines a political system as any persistent pattern ofhuman relationships that involves, to a significant extent, power, rule or authority.Elliot (1997, p.40) adds,“A political system can be liberal, democratic or totalitarian, but inpractice all types of governments have supported or sponsoredtourism”.Elliot (1997) nevertheless notes that the ideology, beliefs and values of the politicalsystem will determine how far governments will get involved in the economic system.At the same time what will be the role of the private sector, and how much economicsupport will be given to tourism needs to determined.It is immediately evident that policy-making is established in a political arena, whereparticipants (interest groups, institutions, community and the institutional leadership)can interact in determining tourism policy choices (Hall, 1994, p. 51). (See figure 3)
  15. 15. 15Figure 3 - Elements in the tourism policy-making processSource: Hall (1994, p.50)Following this, Elder and Etta (2005) note that Policy-making is a long expensiveprocess requiring leadership, and it is commonly expected that government andinstitutions will provide this leadership.In addition, The Word Travel Organization (2011, p.5) notes that those responsible forpolicy making are national legislators and government administrative officials, whoadopt policies and focus on aiding the growth of national economies, whilst at the sametime aiding and increasing the number of jobs available.For instance, Zhang (1995 cited in Zhang et al. 1999, p.473) identifies that the nature oftourism in China from 1978 to 1985 was a mix of politics and economics; as aconsequence tourism was viewed as an economic activity by the supreme leaders of thegovernment of China, "The Communist Party of China". This was evident in theeconomic reform policy in 1978 (Zhang et al., 1999). (See table 2.)
  16. 16. 16Table 2 – Summary of the components of Chinese government policiesSource: Zhang et al., (1999, p.474).
  17. 17. 17The policies adopted by governments will determine the area and sector of the impact. Itcould be economic, social or environmental. Simultaneously, it allows identifying thepower structures and actors behind the policy making (Dahll, 1961 cited in Thomas, andThomas, 2010, p.123).Hall and Jenkins, (2004, cited in Anastasiadou, 2008, p.26), note,“Policies are formulated and implemented in dynamic environmentswhere there is a complex pattern of decisions, actions, interactions,reaction and feedback”For instance, the introduction of the euro in January 2002 was anticipated as a greatopportunity for tourism. Conversion to the new currency however increased costs fortourism enterprises and resulted in a loss of price competitiveness over non-EUdestinations, (Anastasiadou, 2008). Following this,"The World Tourism Organization (WTO) reported that in 2004 themore mature destinations in the euro-zone experienced a decline intheir market share and increased competition from non-eurodestinations in Europe such as North Africa (Morocco and Tunisia)and the Middle East (Egypt)" (Anastasiadou, 2008, p.30)The researcher notes that it is evident that policy- making in tourism has a widespreadeffect on economic, social, environmental and political actions, in countries where thesehave been applied. The development of policies for tourism, both short-term and long-term, will however depend on the actors that are immersed in decision-making policies.2.5 Political instabilityPolitical instability refers to a situation in which conditions and mechanism ofgovernance and rule are challenged as to their political legitimacy by elements operatingfrom outside the normal operations of the political system (Hall, 2005, p.301).Following this, Hall (2005) suggests that governments are stable when they are able toadapt and satisfy the demands of the external elements within a political system. Incontrast when the governments are unable to satisfy the demands and to adapt to thechallenges of the external forces then political instability occurs. It is because external
  18. 18. 18elements seek to satisfy their demands, outside of the political system in a nonlegitimate manner. As a consequence, it gives rise to protests, violence and civil war.In addition, Hall (2005) considers that political stability has been provided by differenttypes of governments such as socialist and communist. For instance, the Republic ofChina is a communist system and it has been more stable than other communist regimesin Eastern Europe (ibid.)Although the duration of political violence may be short lived, the long termimplications for tourism can last for many years affecting the confidence not only of thetourists, but also of potential investors in tourism. In contrast political stability is one ofthe essential prerequisites for attracting tourists to a destination (Hall, 1994).Hall (1994) adds that political stability is not only important to develop infrastructure,but important to project an image of stability, and for this to be possible is necessaryfor governments to invest in marketing campaigns and promotion in order to project thecountry as a safe environment for tourists.For instance, Mattila (1997, cited in Henderson, 2003, p.107) notes that due toperceptions of “political risk and lack of investment security” in Myanmar it provoked astrong aversion to this country by Asian leaders and investors.Lea and Small (1988 cited in Hall, 1994, p.95) suggests however that political violencecan to be presented in different forms such as “wars, coups, terrorism, riots and strikes”.According to Hall (1994) political violence can have an affect both directly andindirectly on other economic sectors and on employment.It is immediately evident that “tourists are highly sensitive to political instability whichcould threaten their personal safety and security” (Sharpley et al., 1996 cited in Okech,2010, p. 2). An insecure environment provokes a decrease in tourism; at the same timeit represents a hurdle to attract investments.On the other hand, Governments have the responsibility to guarantee the continuedexistence of the nation. To make this possible it is necessary for governments to developpolicy and control systems to support the tourism industry, in order to avoid a reductionin tourist arrivals (Elliott, 1997).
  19. 19. 19For instance in Fiji (1987) after the political turmoil, there was a decline in the numberof tourist arrivals. This continued until 1992 when the government accepted peace andorder, this was essential to attract and keep tourist and at the same time this broughtdemocracy and stability to the country (Elliott, 1997).Alsarayreh et al., (2010) recognize that tourism is highly impacted on by politicalinstability such as civil wars, riots, coups and strikes. In addition, Ritcher, (1982; 1989);Ritcher and Waugh, (1991 cited in Burns and Novelli, 2007, p.13) note that politicalinstability is one of the elements that destroys tourism in any country.2.6 ConclusionTourism has gained more attention with the passage of time. The factors are multiplebut the most important one is its economic impact. Through politics people havebecome more aware of this sector in both developed and undeveloped countries.Although politics include factors of tourism linked with economic factors, theenvironment and local communities are also taken into consideration in order to developthe quality of life for people and to develop the economies of the countries.On the other hand, tourism is viewed by governments as a facilitator of internationalrelations between countries.It is evident that political influences on tourism occur through the government. becauseit is government which has the power and responsibility of policy making whilst at thesame time establishing policy guidelines in order to create a correct environment toattract tourists and investments, two essential elements in tourism.On the other hand, tourism although it is a strong contributor in certain economies, is asector sensitive to internal and external hazards such as political instability, violence,war, turmoil, and terrorism.Following this, political instability destroys tourism, affecting directly or indirectlyother productive sectors linked with tourism, hence governments have a responsibilityto create a safe and healthy environment to attract tourism.
  20. 20. 20CHAPTER III3. MethodologyMethodology is a perspective for viewing "the empirical world", where the perspectivesare established by data and methods predicting a framework for understanding thefindings of the research (Blumer, 1969 cited in Baugh, 2006, p.1). On the other hand,Baugh (2006, p.1) states that the term “methodology” has no uniform meaning and as aconsequence has infinite boundaries.Based on all expressed before, the researcher in this chapter explains systematically themethods used in the research, at the same time, this is justified in a theoretical analysis,looking to clarify this research in a rational way.3.1 Choice of research designGhauri and GrФnhaug, (2010), note that research is a process of planning, executingand investigating in order to find answers to specific research questions. SimilarlySaunders et al., (2007, p.5) define research as something that people undertake in orderto find out things in a systematic way, thereby increasing knowledge. In addition, theresearch has a number of characteristics (see figure 4).Figure 4 - Research Characteristics.Source: Adapted from Saunders (2008, p.5)3.2 JustificationThe type of approach used by the researcher in this dissertation has been determined bythe origin of the data. This can come in two forms, primary and secondary data. Thistype of data helps the researcher to evaluate and analyze the data based on a logicalrelation and not only in beliefs (Saunders, 2007).
  21. 21. 21In addition, the researcher uses the data triangulation method in order to improve theaccuracy of judgments and thereby the results of this research. This is because in manycases, one method alone cannot be enough to explain or describe an event, and a multi-method approach is needed to get the whole truth (Ghauri and GrФnhaug, 2010).Finally, to develop the triangulation method the researcher used both primary andsecondary data.3.3 Primary and Secondary data3.3.1 Primary DataPrimary sources refer to data that have been observed, experienced or recorded close tothe event to obtain the truth (Walliman, 2011). Following this, Walliman (2011) addsthat according to the method by which the data are collected, there are four types ofprimary data (see table 3)Table 3 - Types of Primary dataSource: adapted from Walliman (2011, p.70)The choice of data collection will depend upon an overall judgement on which type ofdata is needed for a particular research (Ghauri and GrФnhaug, 2010). ConsequentlyGhauri and GrФnhaug add that these are multiple methods of data collection such asobservation, experiment, interview, and surveys. This also includes documentarysources such as reports, statistics, published and unpublished documents. The researcherdecides on the kind of data collection method to use (Ghauri and GrФnhaug, 2010).Following this, the primary data method to collect information used by the researcher isbased on interviews, interviews can be formal, structured or informal and unstructured(Saunders et al., 2007).
  22. 22. 22On the other hand Healey, 1991; Healey and Rawilson, (1993; cited in Saunders et al.,2007, p.312) suggest other types of interview, differentiating between the standardisedinterview and the non standardised interview, but both help to gather valid and reliabledata relevant for the research.The researcher decided to use unstructured interviews because they are moreexploratory. According to Saunders et al., (2007) this type of interview is informal andit is generally used to explore in depth general areas in which the researcher isinterested (see figure 5).Figure 5 - Forms of interviewSource: adapted from Saunders (2007, p.313)Interviews are used to gather data, which are normally analysed qualitatively; theresearcher uses qualitative analysis.3.3.2 Secondary DataSecondary sources are written sources that interpret or record primary data, thusprimary data collected by someone may turn into secondary data for another (Walliman,2011).Secondary data help the researcher to find information, to solve, to explain andunderstand the research, however the quality of the secondary data used in the researchwill depend on the source, and the methods of presentation and qualification of thewriter of the research (Walliman, 2011, p.71).
  23. 23. 23The type of secondary data sources are multiple such as books, professional journals,magazines articles, online data sources, websites of firms, governments, semi-governmental organizations, catalogues and information on the internet (Ghauri andGrФnhaug, 2010, p.91)This type of data has advantages and limitations; hence the researcher should be awareof both (Kumar, 2008).The researcher based on Ghauri and GrФnhaug, (2010) identified the most importantadvantages of utilising secondary data and these are; To facilitate cross-cultural international research it is easier to obtaininformation about countries through the international surveys carried out byserious organisations such as World Bank and Euro Monitor. The majority of the data collected by international organisations andgovernments are of high quality and are reliable. It is because the data arecollected by experts using rigorous methods. The secondary data helps in the verification of the process and providesexcellent historical data. Secondary research reduces cost and time for the researcher The secondary data also provides a comparison of instruments with which theprimary data are easily interpreted and understood.As a result the secondary data help the researcher to evaluate the questions and helps toproportionate answers to the aim of this study, (Ghauri and GrФnhaug, 2010).3.4 Data Analysis3.4.1 Qualitative MethodThe methodology used by the researcher to achieve the aims for this study will bequalitative methods, because this study is based on meanings expressed through words,compilation of results in non-standardised data requiring classification into categoriesand analysis conducted through the use of conceptualisation (Saunders et al,. 2007, p.472).
  24. 24. 24Qualitative data are attractive for many reasons: they are rich, full, earthly, holistic, andreal; they preserve chronological flow where that is important, and suffer minimallyfrom retrospective distortion; and they in principle, offer a far more precise way toassess causality in organizational affairs than arcane efforts like cross-laggedcorrelations (Miles, 1979, cited in Ghauri and GrФnhaug, 2010, p.106)According to Walliman, (2011, p.73) qualitative data cannot be accurately measuredand are generally expressed in words. They consist essentially of human activities andattributes such as ideas, customs, and beliefs. In addition, Walliman (2011) adds that thedata can be descriptive in character, this does not mean that they are less valuable thanquantitative data; in fact their richness and subtlety has led to great insights into humansociety.Similarly, Saunders et al., (2007) note that qualitative data have not been quantified.Saunders adds that they are a product of a series of research strategies. It might be anonline questionnaire, an in depth interview or interview based on policy documents, allof which serve to achieve the aim of the research.This method analyses and focuses on the content of the collected primary and secondarydata. It makes a descriptive research of the current documents and more relevant issues.Added analysis is concerned with the explanation of status of some events at aparticular time or its development over a period of time (Catane, 2002, p.37)Qualitative data rely on human interpretation and evaluation and cannot be objectivelymeasured in a standard way (Walliman, 2011). It is therefore important for theresearcher to evaluate the qualitative data collected.On the other hand, the researcher used the triangulation model, in order to check on thetrustworthiness and fullness of the qualitative data. This model was made possible byconsulting a variety of sources of data relating to the same event (Ghauri andGrФnhaug, 2010).3.4.2 Triangulation ModelTriangulation refers to the combination of methodologies in the study of the same event.Through the triangulation model it is possible to improve the accuracy of judgments andthereby results, because in many cases, one method alone cannot be enough to explain
  25. 25. 25or describe an event, and a multi-method approach is needed to get the full picture(Ghauri and GrФnhaug, 2010 p. 212). .Similarly, Veal (2006, p. 107) suggests that often “triangulation” is claimed in a studybecause there is more than one data source and / or analytical method is used to addressdifferent aspects of the research question, or even different research questions. It ishowever when the different data methods address the same question that truetriangulation can be said to have occurred.To develop the triangulation method the researcher used both primary and secondarydata.3.5 ProcedureThe researcher used secondary data because this type of data provides a variety ofsources of information to analyze.The researcher considers government plans as they are vital to the development of theeconomy of any country. Government plans foreshadow a new policy and they help tounderstand the role of the government. Sources used in this analysis are secondary dataconcerned with government plans, namely The Second East African CommunityDevelopment Strategy (2001-2005), (2006-2010). This helps to compare the theory,concepts and the importance of politics between nations. At the same time it enabledthe author to identify the role of tourism and how important it is for the economy. TheEconomic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation Plan helped theresearcher to identify the position of tourism in the economy. The Ministry of Forestryand Wildlife (2005 -2010) and (2008 – 2012), in both periods launched a Strategic Planin Kenya´s Wildlife Service; The Ministry of States for the development of northernKenya and other arid lands (2005); the National Vision and Plan Strategy (2005-2015),helped to identify how important tourism is for the Kenyan government. The Ministryof Tourism and Wildlife (2006) national tourism policy, Mid Term Plan (2008 – 2012)and the last more ambitious Plan Vision 2030 launched in 2008. This helped to identifythe position of politics and tourism in the economy of Kenya in both the short and longterm.Consequently, the researcher used information from Kenyas National Bureau ofStatistics (KNBS; 2001-2010). It enabled the author to obtain information on tourist
  26. 26. 26arrivals to the country and to measure the impact in a period of time. Data monitor(2012) country analysis identified the role of politics in Kenya. African EconomicOutlook (2007-2012) helped to analyse the political context in Kenya. Kenya countryreport (2006) helped to identify the importance of the tourism sector in Kenya.Finally, the researcher used web data documents, journals and online news provided bythe press room of Kenya Tourism Federation. It helped to analyze and contrast all theinformation.The primary data was gathered through non-standardised interviews. The first contactwas via telephone when an appointment was made with Mr. Githure Kamau(Commercial and Technical Services Officer of the Embassy in Madrid). The interviewwas carried out over several different sessions. The first session was face to face, ithelped to the author to understand the political environment in Kenya.The second session was made via video conference; both sessions of the interview werebased on open ended questions in order to have in depth information about the role ofpolitical factors in tourism in Kenya.The other two interviews were made by telephone and video conference. Theinterviewees were a former employee of the Embassy of Mexico and an employee of theEmbassy of Argentina: both embassies are located in Kenya. The objective of theinterviews was to gain the opinions of people who are in contact with the day to daypolitical reality of the country. This information has been contrasted with othersecondary data in order to clarify the aim of this research.These interviews were based on a series of open ended questions that helped theresearcher to achieve the aim. Subsequently the interviews were transcribed by theresearcher in order contrast them with the other data collected. In addition, it helped toelaborate the triangulation method in the next session (findings).Finally, the primary and secondary research has been discussed with the literaturereview theories (chapter 2) in order to provide sufficient knowledge for the researcher todraw a conclusion and give recommendations at the end of this paper.
  27. 27. 27CHAPTER IV4. Findings and analysis4.1 KenyaKenya is one of the leading tourist destinations in sub-Saharan Africa, (InternationalMonetary Fund, 2010, p.58), as a consequence of this, it is ranked 8th regionally. Inaddition, Kenya is ranked 28th for its natural resources, with its two World Heritagenatural sites and its rich diversity of fauna. Tourism is a recognized priority within thecountry (ranked 18th on this pillar), with high government spending on the sector andeffective destination marketing (World Economic Forum, 2011).According to Data monitor (2012, p.23) tourism in Kenya represents one of the mostimportant productive sectors in the economy of the country. For instance tourism is oneof the largest foreign exchange earnings in the economy of Kenya.In consequence of this economic importance, the tourism sector has gained moreattention and participation by the government (as discussed in the literature review).To understand the political influence of tourism in Kenya in the last 10 years, it isnecessary to understand the relationship between politics, government and tourism andto evaluate policy and decision making, and finally, how the political instabilityinfluenced the tourism sector in 2007-2008.4.2 Politics, Government and tourism in Kenya in the last 10 yearsof the 21stcenturyAccording to Richter (1990, cited in Aquino, 2010, p.110) the political dimensions oftourism are viewed by governments as a capitalist device. Similarly in the opinion ofone of the interviewees, in Kenya tourism was viewed by the government as animportant contributor in the economy of the country. Nowadays, as a consequence ofthis, tourism is given priority in the political agenda, (see annex 1).Kenya in 2004 saw an increase in its GDP (4.3%) compared with 2003 when there wasonly an increase of 2.8 %; therefore, tourism was one of the sectors that made asignificant contribution to the achievement of growth in the economy of 15.1%,
  28. 28. 28followed by; transport and communications with a 9.7 % (International Monetary Fund,2007b, p.6).Rase (1984 cited in Bañon and Carrillo, 1997, p.2) notes that governments areresponsible for combining resource - political, human, financial and technological-andtransforming them into policies, plans, and services to address the problems of citizens;meet their demands and ultimately achieve some social, political and economicobjectives (as seen previously in the literature review).For instance, the government of Kenya (1998 - 2004) implemented several strategies toboost, improve and diversify tourism products along its coastline. As a result of thisintervention by the government of Kenya, tourism along the coast experienced apositive impact. It contributed between 52% and 68% of the total tourist earnings inKenya, (Government of Kenya, 2005 cited in Government of Kenya 2009, p.44).Governments are viewed as political bridges between nations. This helps to improverelations and make agreements between countries in order to develop tourism andimprove economies between them (Richter, 1989).A Similar situation occurred in Kenya between 2001 and 2005 when the secondagreement called East African Community (EAC)1development strategy was signed.This strategy allowed for cooperation between the members of the public and theprivate sector. This served to coordinate and to develop a strategic focus on promotingthe marketing of quality tourism (East African Community, 2011).According to interview one, in Kenya it is easy to see the influence of the politicalenvironment in tourism and other economic sectors. It is only necessary to compare thegovernment of Arap Moi (1978 – 2002) and the government of Mwai Kibaki (2002-2012).The first government was authoritarian and the majority of its policiesimplemented were short-term. In addition this period was one of chaos, corruption andcontinued internal protest. These reasons slowed the development of tourism as in thegovernment of Mwai Kibaki (see annex 1).1The East African Community (EAC) is the regional intergovernmental organisation of theRepublics of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Republic of Rwanda andRepublic of Burundi with its headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania
  29. 29. 29According to Lacey (2002) the government led by Mwai Kibaki (2002-2012) hasfocused mainly on the fight against corruption; and socio-economic problems in orderto provide political stability and improve the economy of Kenya.For instance, the Plan launched by the government of Kenya in 2003, called “EconomicRecovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (2003-2007)” was one of themost important, where tourism was seen as a productive sector by the government. Thiswas due to its high economic multiplier effect on other sectors such as transport,entertainment, agriculture, trade and industry (Government of Kenya, 2003, p. 25)According to interview Three, the government of Kenya plays an important role intourism through the ministry of tourism, which promotes this sector. The KTB (KenyaTourism Board) regulates this, via the catering and tourist development levy trustees. Ittrains and educates service providers through the Kenya Uteri college and developstourism through the Kenya Tourism Development Corporation (see annex 3).On the whole, governments have the power in the political systems and at the same timegovernments are responsible for policy-making and establishing policy guide lines, (asnotes Jeffries (2001) in the literature review, p. 14).4.3 Evaluating policies and decision making4.3.1 Tourism Policies in KenyaAccording to interview two, policy-making in Kenya is important because it allows anevaluation of the reliable problems in the country. At the same time the process ofpolicy-making allows for room to learn of past errors in order to improve in the future.In addition, the interviewed states that the Ministry of Tourism needs to coordinate withother ministries in order to create policies that allow it to be seen as a competitivetourism destination in Africa (see annex 2).According to the Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife (2006, p.9) policy-making isnecessary to coordinate tourism, wild-life and land use policies. These factors arecrucial for consistency between tourism development and wildlife conservation, at thesame time it helps to minimise the human wildlife conflict. Additionally, the Ministry ofTourism and Wildlife (2006 p.12) notes:
  30. 30. 30“The overall aim of the national tourism policy is to ensure thattourism retains its position as a leading export, and that it becomes amajor vehicle for job creation, poverty reduction and wealth creationfor Kenyans in the future. Its practices are closely harmonised withkey national policies and laws pertaining to wildlife conservation, landownership and physical planning”.As a result, the researcher notes that in Kenya there is a strong political influence inpolicy-making for tourism. For this reason it is necessary to evaluate the policy-makingprocess. To do so, the researcher used the Hall model (see literature review p.18). Theanalysis in this research was done in two different periods, 2002-2007 and 2008- 2012.4.3.2 Policy Demands (Period 2002 -2007)Policy demands are actions that are arising from inside and outside the political system(as was stated in the literature review - table 1).For this reason, the researcher identifies and summarizes the policy demands fortourism in Kenya, based on the National Plan, economic recovery strategy for wealthand employment creation 2003 to 2007, (Government of Kenya, 2003); Impact oftourism on the environment in Kenya, Status and Policy (Ikiara and Okech, 2002); thesecond East African Community (EAC) development strategy 2001 to 2005.Following this, the coast of Kenya is the region most popular for tourism products, as aconsequence of this; there is an imbalance of investment compared with other regions,signifying that the majority of tourism is concentrated along the coast and islands. Thisprovoked environmental problems due an uncoordinated development and tourismactivity on coastlines; trail degradation and deforestation in the highlands and disruptionof the normal behaviour of wildlife (Ikiara and Okech, 2002, p.20).Subsequently, because of the concentration of tourism in certain areas and traditionaltourism products it has been necessary to diversify the tourism sector; hence it isnecessary to create new tourism niches such as sports, cultural tourism and events(Government of Kenya, 2003, p.42).
  31. 31. 31The centralization of power linked with the authoritarianism of the last regime createdan environment of political instability, projecting an image of an unsafe place (Otieno,2008, p.7). A similar opinion is given in interview one (see annex 1).Simultaneously, the lack of promotion and marketing in both national and internationalmarket has been a negative factor in boosting the growth of the tourism sector,(Government of Kenya, 2003). In addition, because of conflicts involving thecommunity, wildlife and tourism, it has been necessary for the government to create aplan, which involves all of them (Government of Kenya, 2003).The population and housing census (1999), states that the population of Kenya in thecoast has grown by 54% since 1989. It represented 8 % of the national population in1999. Its uncontrolled and unplanned population growth, linked with lack training inthemes of tourism, especially in the conservation of fauna and wildlife has provoked adistortion in the natural environment and disrupted local communities and wildlife(Government of Kenya, 2009).The construction of structures of inappropriate design and size, linked with anuncoordinated developed planning has affected the local landscape, (Ikiara and Okech,2002).The researcher notes that policy demands in this period were based on the weakness ofthe country. The major weaknesses related with tourism in this period were social,environmental, educational, insecurity, lack of coordination, planning and a poor imageof the country.4.3.3 Policy decisionsThe researcher identified the policy-decisions made by the government, based on theNational Plan for the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and EmploymentCreation 2003 to 2007 (Government of Kenya, 2003). Following this, the governmentre-launched Kenya as a global tourism destination building a new image of Kenya, torestore the image caused by political instability and terrorist attack2whilst the lastgovernment was in power.2On August 7, 1998, Kenya’s tourism sector suffered a terrorist attack against the U.S.embassy in Nairobi, when 213 people where killed, 12 of who were U.S. citizens. (Dagne. 2002)
  32. 32. 32Subsequently, as tourism was focused on traditional markets, the Ministry of Planningand National Development (2003) decided to diversify and improve tourism products,with this it sought to boost and improve tourism and create more employees in allregions.The government of Kenya to satisfy the demand for security updated the Tourist PoliceUnit (TPU). The TPU was upgraded and widely spread to other regions in the country.With this action the government wanted to project Kenya as a secure environment(Government of Kenya, 2003).At the same time the government of Kenya decided to ensure that the standards oftourism products were maintained through regular inspections; improving the regulationin this sector; licensing; the regulation of Hotels or other accommodation andproportionate refurbishment of facilities.Local Communities were involved in the plan launched by the government in order tosatisfy the demands. At the same time the government coordinated private and publiceducation programmes, all of which were oriented towards developing sustainabletourism.4.3.4 Policy OutputsPolicy outputs are what the system does (see table 1). Following this the researchernoted that policy-outputs proving the action of the government, agree with policy-decisions of the past. The government during the period 2002-2007, reinforced securityin the main tourist resorts through the operation of a TPU; it strengthened airportsecurity and created an Anti-Terrorist Police Unit (International Monetary Fund, 2007a,p.39)Subsequently, the government launched a major aggressive marketing and promotionalcampaigns to rebuild tourism. The programmes included participation in international,regional travel fairs and exhibitions, in order to project a new image of Kenya(International Monetary Fund, 2007a).At the same time, the government of Kenya launched the Emergency Market RecoveryProgramme and Marketing campaigns in the Far East (China, Japan and Thailand). Thisallowed for the opening of a marketing office in Hong-Kong, in order to boost tourism.
  33. 33. 33In addition, the Ministry of Tourism of Kenya and China signed an agreement called"Approved Destination Status"(International Monetary Fund, 2007a, p.39). It allowedfor an open skies policy between China and Kenya.During the financial year 2004- 2005, the tourism sector continued to implement someof the activities commenced in 2003-2004 and identified more activities in pursuit of the“Investment Program for Economic Recovery Strategy (IP-ERS)” Republic of Kenya(International Monetary Fund, 2007b, p.36).In 2005-2006, an advanced scheme Plan for Conservation Policy and Wildlife wasunder review, in order to have sufficient time to prepare a document that will help withconservation of the environment and wildlife.Finally, although tourism has been able to implement most of the activities identified inthe IP-ERS, some are yet to be planned for.The researcher identified the policy-outputs based on: Kenya: Poverty ReductionStrategy, Annual Progress Report 2003 - 2004 (International monetary Fund, 2007a)and Kenya and Poverty Reduction Strategy Annual Progress Report 2004 - 2005(International monetary Fund, 2007b).4.3.5 Policy OutcomesThe researcher notes that the policy-outputs are positives and negatives for tourism,such as:The tourism Recovery Programme which started in 2003 had positive results, asinternational arrivals rose by an average of 12.5 % annually, from about 1 million in2002 to about 1.8 million in 2007. Domestic tourism registered a remarkable growthfrom 656,100 bed nights in 2002, to 1,869,800 bed nights in 2007 (see figure 6).
  34. 34. 34Figure 6 - Tourism arrivals and earnings (2002 – 2007)Tourism arrivals and earnings, 2002 -2007YEARHoliday/BusinessVisitors (000)Visitorson transit(000)Othervisitors(000)Total internationaltourist arrivals(000)Bed nights byresidents ofKenya (000)Earnings(KshsBillion)2002 819,0 163,3 189,9 1001,3 656,1 21,72003 866,1 219,0 61,0 1146,1 738,7 25,82004 1132,0 162,2 66,5 1360,7 1190,3 39,22005 1269,2 79,8 130,0 1479,0 1129,6 48,92006 1313,6 137,2 149,8 1600,5 1374,8 56,22007 1520,7 130,9 165,2 1816,8 1869,8 65,4Source: International Monetary Fund (2010, p. 59)According to the International Monetary Fund (2010, p.58) the sector was a leadingforeign exchange earner, generating about Kshs 65.4 billion in 2007, up from Kshs 21.7billion in 2002. In addition, Tourism and Travel in 2006 represented 11.4 % of the totalGDP, creating 556 thousand employees (World Economic Forum, 2007, p.238)The diversification, marketing and promotion of tourism in Kenya had positive impacts.Local conferences increased from 805 in 2003 to 912 in 2004 and internationalconference tourism increased from 126 conferences in 2003 to 145 in 2004(International Monetary Fund, 2007b, p.36). In addition, during 2003 to 2007 there wasan increase in the number of visitors to game parks and reserves (see figure 7)Figure 7 – Total number of visitors to game parks and reserves (2003-2007)Source: Adapted from Kenya Open Data, (2011)
  35. 35. 35The relationship between China and Kenya allowed for the signing of the mostimportant agreement for Kenya. It involved developing the road infrastructure to helptourism in terms of accessibility. In addition in May 2004, China designated Kenya as“an approved tourist destination,” thereby opening new markets (Chege, 2008, p.34).In contrast in 2004, the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) was accused of mismanagementand failure to respect and respond to the interests of local communities in the face ofwildlife hazards (Kabiri, 2010, p.426). In addition, the growth of tourism is connectedwith the establishment of protected natural areas. It has created conflicts in localcommunities3and disconformities with the government (Stavenhagen, 2006, cited inKabiri, 2010, p.427).According to Obwocha (2007, p.5) the implementation of policies of theNational Plan (2003 – 2007), has been successful in the tourism sector.4.4 Tourism policy in Kenya 2008-2012The government in this period has been characterized by a long term-vision; it hasbecome the reference point for all government policy activities. The long-term visionincludes the more ambitious plan of Kenya - Vision 2030. It comprises three key pillars:Economic, Social, and Political (Ministry of Tourism, 2008, p.1).Vision 2030 contains various medium term “five-year” plans, the first Strategic plan2008-2012, another five-year plan will be produced to cover the period 2012 to 2017,and so on until 2030 (Ministry of Tourism, 2008). The researcher will be analyzing thefirst period (2008-2012).4.4.1 Policy demandsAccording to interview two, tourism policy in Kenya is dynamic, but it still haspotential for improvement, provided the government identifies the weakness of tourism.At the same time, the Ministry of Tourism suggests that both local and foreign touristsare catered for in the policy drawn up by the government, (see annex 2).3In Maasai Mara, the construction of a private tourist resort reportedly associated with topgovernment officials has involved fencing off an area traditionally belonging to the Sekenanivillage, leading to the” loss of access to one of the only three sources of water for everydayhuman and cattle consumption” (Stavenhagen, 2006 cited in Kabiri, 2010, p.427)
  36. 36. 36The policy demands are based on the weaknesses of the last period (2002 – 2007),following which the government of Kenya identified that there was an inadequate hotel-bed capacity. As a consequence of an increase in tourist arrivals registered, it was notaccompanied by a corresponding investment in tourist accommodation (InternationalMonetary Fund, 2010).Although advances were made in security, political instability and insecurity, werepresent at the end of the period 2002 to 2007, (see more in the next section - politicalinstability).According to interview one, tourism is a sensitive service sector in Kenya, where themain attractions are based on natural resources, land, water, wildlife, fauna, and airresources, (see annex 1). It was therefore necessary to diversify, in order to continue todevelop new tourism niches. This diversification is essential to develop tourism and toavoid the effect of seasonality (International Monetary Fund, 2010).Following this, Thaxton (2007) states that Kenya is home to 35,000 unknown species offlora and fauna, and only thirteen percent of Kenya’ surface is currently in protectedareas.Finally, the government needs to create policies in order to solve the conflict betweenwildlife and humans. It is a consequence of human encroachment into migration routesand the use of protected areas such as grazing areas by pastoralists.The researcher formulated the policy-demands based on the Strategic National Plan2008-2012, Poverty Reduction Strategy 2010 and KWS Strategic Plan 2008-2012.4.4.2 Policy decisionThe researcher determined the policy decisions that will be based on the Strategic Plan2008-2012, launched by the government of Kenya in 2008.The government of Kenya recognizes that security and political stability are importantfor attracting tourists. It became more aware of this after the political instabilityexperienced in 2007 (see more in political instability, p.52). The government thusconsidered it of some importance to train TPU and KWS rangers, while at the sametime, enhancing the capacity of crisis management centres and coordinating themanagement of beach activities.
  37. 37. 37The government of Kenya formulated a recovery strategy based on marketing andpromotion, in order to remedy the damage caused to the tourism sector by the violenceof post election. For instance, the premier parks initiative will involve branding of themost popular parks with the aim of offering a high quality experience at premium rates.Subsequently, due to the importance of tourism in Kenya, the government decided tomaintain internationally accepted standards of tourist service; to develop new productsand diversify source markets. At the same time, it decided to develop three Resort cities– Isiolo, Diani and Kilifi to be constructed between 2011-2012, in order to alleviate thehotel occupancy, (International Monetary Fund, 2010).Finally, the government established the maintenance of wildlife and biodiversity, inorder to ensure continuity of viable ecosystems and capacity building for naturalresource management.4.4.3 Policy OutputsThe researcher formulated the policy outputs based on the First Medium Term Plan,2008 – 2012 (International Monetary Fund, 2010) and the First Medium Term Plan wasupdated, Vision 2030 (Ministry of State for Planning and National Development, 2011).Although the government’s term in office has is not finished, the researcher identifiedand summarized what the government did in terms of tourism.As the growth in tourist arrivals in the last few years (2005 to 2007 – see in figure 9)has been important for the economy, the government implemented the First NationalSpatial Plan of Integrated Transport Master Plan (2009-2010). It was implemented todevelop the infrastructure.For instance, the national road safety programme is being implemented; the integratednational transport policy was presented to Cabinet and approved.In addition, the government of Kenya is developing of a new transport corridor tosouthern Sudan and Ethiopia, fast tracking the implementation of the national roadsafety action plan. It helps to boost the domestic and regional tourism; at the same timethe government looks to improve the quality of life of the people.
  38. 38. 38The government started the modernization of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, atthe same time. Improvement of Kisumu International Airport, Wilson Airports and therehabilitation of 10 air strips across the country is in progress. In addition, conceptpapers for the three resort cities at Diani/Ukunda, Kilifi and Isiolo were finalized.In terms of security it has to improve: from 2010 to 2011 in the MTP 20,000 police staffhousing units4were constructed.Finally, an aggressive advertising of Kenyan products and Media Campaigns werelaunched both locally and internationally. All of this was to promote Kenya as a safetourism destination (International Monetary Fund, 2010, p.60).4.4.4 Policy OutcomesThe researcher notes that it is possible to do an analysis of the impact of the policies onthe government 2008 - 2011 because the government has everything planned and workswith objectives.The formulation of the policies is based on the same secondary data mentioned in thepolicy-output and it consists of:International arrivals peaked at 1.8 million in 2007; however, the sector was severelyimpacted on by the post election violence resulting in a steep decline in internationalarrivals to 1.2 million in 2008. Since then, the sector has been on a steady recovery(Ministry of State for Planning and National Development, 2011, p. 7).Strategic intervention was made in tourism, internal security and policy covering theentire nation, enhancing regional integration and social equity.The number of visitors increased after the violence of 2007. The research suggests thatit was as consequence of the policies adopted by the government. For instance, thepolicies implemented by the government which relate to game parks have allowedgrowth in this sector of tourism (see figure 8).4In terms of security 1,615 units for the Kenya Police and 1,478 units for the AdministrationPolice were created.
  39. 39. 39Figure 8 – Total number of visitors to game parks and reserves (2007-2010)Source: Adapted from Kenya open data 2012.During the financial year 2009 to 2010 the sector continued to intensify environmentalconservation and management, to ensure a clean and secure environment for sustainableeconomic growth.This meant there was a negative impact on the population of most wildlife species. Theydeclined due to severe drought conditions during the period under review; forestplantation stocks also decreased from 114.0 thousand hectares in 2008 to 107.0thousand hectares in 2009, mainly as a result of high planting failures and fire damage.4.5 To evaluate how influential political instability is on the tourismindustry in Kenya.In December, 2007 Kenya was involved in political instability, as a consequence of thedissatisfaction with the result of the elections, which meant a second term for MwaiKibaki, who belongs to the Party of National Unity (PNU). (Africa Report, 2008)The opposition party Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), supported by its leaderRaila Odinga was dissatisfied with the results and made accusation of fraud in theprocess of the election. As a consequence of this, violence occurred between the parties(ODM and PNU). People on the streets were involved in protests, theft andconfrontations with the police, projecting a bad image of Kenya around the world.(Africa Report, 2008)“Political instability and political violence can impact on tourism, theeffects of political violence can be both direct and incidental, and may
  40. 40. 40have repercussions far beyond the immediate location in which theviolence occurs. By driving tourists away political instability can havemajor effects on the economy and on employment” (Hall, 1994, p.60)According to interview two the post election violence in 2007 was harmful to Kenya.After the episodes of violence erupted in Kenya, various countries offered travel adviceto their citizens. This meant that tourists cancelled their travel bookings to Kenya. Thisprovoked losses in the tourism sector, especially in the hotel industry. Now that thepolitical situation has improved and the new policies are implemented, the governmenthas created confidence in international tourism and the number of tourist has increased.Similarly, Mkhabela (2011, p.5) stated that the political violence experienced during theelections of 2007 forced many countries to advise their citizens not to have theirvacations in Kenya. It was due to gross insecurity.Data from the Ministry of Tourism of Kenya (2008) show that tourist arrivalsexperienced a decrease of 34% compared with 2007. This was a consequence of theviolence experienced in December, 2007. (see figure 9)Figure 9 – Tourist visitor arrivals in Kenya (2005 - 2010)Source: Adapted from: Kenya National Bureau of Statistics data (2012)The researcher based on data from the Ministry of tourism in Kenya (2012) suggeststhat the airline companies were affected more than other types of transport. In 2008 Air-
  41. 41. 41transport suffered a decrease of 32 % compared with 2007, the date when politicalinstability occurred. (see figure 10)Figure 10 – Tourist arrivals by mode of transport (2005 – 2010)Source: Adapted from data of Ministry of Tourism Kenya (2012)In 2008 repercussions from the political instability was reflected from an economicaspect. Tourism earnings decreased by 19% in 2008 in comparison with 2007. (See infigure 11)Figure 11 – Tourism earnings (Ksh. in Billions; 2005 – 2010)Source: Adapted from Ministry of Tourism (2012)According to Interview one, political instability greatly affects tourism in Kenya. It iswidely accepted that it is the key impediment to the realization of its full potential.
  42. 42. 42Following the post-electoral violence in the disputed 2007 elections, tourism revenuesdropped significantly. It is widely accepted that elections have created a cyclical effecton tourism revenues.Similarly, the Embassy of Kenya in Germany (2011, p.1) states,“The security and safety of tourists is a priority responsibility of thegovernment. Security is a key consideration while selecting a holidayor travel destination. The Government of Kenya is thus committed toensuring the security and safety of all visitors, citizens and residents”On the other hand, in order to understand the influence of politics on tourism, it isimportant to give a short comparison between the Arap Moi government and the Mwaikibaki government. The Arap Moi government was characterised by a lack of theformulation of policies, corruption, political instability, an authoritarian government,and the lowest growth of tourism as mentioned in the analysis before. The Mwai kibakigovernment was characterized by formulation of policies in order to recover theeconomy and the image of the country in order to attract more visitors (see figure 12).Figure 12 – Number of visitor arrivals in Kenya - ‘000 - (2001-2010)Source: East African Community Statistic Database (2012)In conclusion in both periods (2002-2007) and (2008 -2012) of the new governmentlead by Mwai Kibaki, tourism acquired more importance. It was taken intoconsideration as a productive sector, in order to recover the economy of the country,fight against socio economic problems and create a safer political environment.
  43. 43. 43CHAPTER V5. ConclusionThe researcher notes that the relationship between Politics and tourism has acquiredmore importance in the 21stcentury in Kenya; one of the main reasons was that MwaiKibaki made the economic importance of tourism mandatory in order to develop thecountry. For instance, in 2010 tourism and travel represented 9 % of the GDP, thisrepresented $ 3,541million to the economy of Kenya at the same time it created 438,000jobs (World Economic Forum, 2011, p.236).It was then evident that politics in Kenya were interested in tourism because it is acapitalist device (as discussed in the literature review). On the other hand, the researcheragreeing with Hall (1994) notes that politics are important because they are aboutcontrol, at local regional and national level, the same as in Kenya. The intervention ofthe government has been important, because the government is integrated with a groupof different organizations and ministries. The government combines its resources:human, financial and physics, in order to formulate policies to satisfy demands that itconsider important to improve.Similarly, in interview three it was said that the government of Kenya plays a role intourism through the Ministry of Tourism which promotes tourism through the KenyaTourism Board. At the same time, It is the organization responsible for regulatingtourism industry, trains and educates service providers through its institutions (seeannex 3).According to the researcher there was clearly influences of politics in the period 2002 -2007, although this period was characterized by an economic recovery, (as wasmentioned before). Involvement of the government is evident within tourism and it usedthis sector as a medium to reduce poverty, create new jobs, to improve the quality of lifeof the people and the economy of Kenya.On the other hand, the formulation of policies in the tourism sector was made within theNational Plan (2003-2007); consequently the body responsible for achieving this goalwas the Ministry of Tourism. The national tourism policy had as a priority economic,social, environment and wildlife, security and education factors.
  44. 44. 44The policy implemented by the government was effective, the impact was in theincrease of tourist arrivals (see figure 9), at the same time in the increase of earnings too(see figure 11). Although the plans implemented by the government were successful,they had some negative impact especially in local communities and on wildlife.The period 2007-2008 was identified by political instability after the post election of2007, as a result of disconformities with the results of the elections of the newgovernment (2008-2012).In Kenya tourism is a market susceptible to external and internal hazards. For instance,internationals tourists were a sensitive sector in Kenya as a consequences of theunfortunate events experienced in 2007. The image of the country projected by the massmedia was one of insecurity and an unhealthy touristic place; it caused as a result thecancellation of travel bookings by tourist, affecting industries related to tourism such asairlines, companies’, tour operators and hotels.In addition, the decline in numbers of visitors in 2008, (see figure. 12) meant animportant economic loss for the economy of Kenya. This was because this industry isdirectly or indirectly linked with other sectors.At the same time, the unfortunate events experienced in Kenya show that a poor imagewas projected as a consequence of this. It is difficult to recover from this, thusgovernments should be more aware in order to create a propitious environment andavoid such types of events from occurring. The government in order to re-establishpolitical stability signed an agreement with the opposition. It made evident the politicalinfluence of tourism in themes concerning stability.On the other hand, as the National Plan of the last period was successful, in the period2008 – 2012, the government was more ambitious and decided to implement the newNational Plan Vision 2030. In this Plan, the political aspect is viewed as a pillar todevelop Kenya and tourism was viewed as an important productive sector to boost theeconomy of the country.The Plan Vision 2030 is integrated for various five term National Plans; in this paperthe researcher has analyzed the first National Plan (2008-2012). This Plan was made by
  45. 45. 45the government after knowing the weakness of the last plan in order to improve anddevelop this sector.The policy-making was similar to the last period. It was focused on economic, social,environmental, wildlife, security and political aspects. The intervention of thegovernment through policy making in order to reactivate the tourism in Kenya waseffective. Consequently with the implementation of this new plan and new policies,tourism in 2009 started to recover after its decline in 2008 (see figure 12) and continuedto grow until 2010.It is evident from all mentioned that there is great political influence in tourism, it is dueall political environments affect this sector directly or indirectly. The Kenyanexperience can be to extrapolate to other settings or countries, focusing on two essentialingredients such as: the political will among political actors through arrangements thatsafeguard this sector, and policy-making through a National Plan to short , medium andlong term. This will help improve and resolve latent weaknesses in the sector.It is thus necessary to coordinate correct planning to execute an accurate policy in orderto solve the weakness of this sector.CHAPTER VI6. RecommendationThis research shows situation regarding political influence on tourism in Kenya, andhow politics and governments are immersed in the policy process. At the same time itshows how political instability has direct and indirect effects. Politics however is acomplex and extensive study: this research served as a preliminary study to futureresearch.The suggestions for future researches are: In future studies it would be important to analyze, how the political ideologiesaffect decision making in the tourism sector. It is a consideration that in Kenyathere are 42 ethnics groups, with different values and interests
  46. 46. 46 As the tourism sector in Kenya is an important earner of foreign exchange, and itis one of the most important sectors in the economy, it is important to conductan analysis focused only on the multiplier effect of this sector in the economy ofKenya. For this the researcher recommends using the model of Input- Output. Analyze the effect of international tourism on local communities. It is importantto answer questions such as what is the impact of the policies on localcommunities and who benefits from the tourism sector. It would be interesting to analyze the influence of the mass media oninternational tourists in the principal markets of Kenya, especially in periods ofpolitical instability.
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