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  • 1. Sept. 9th 2011 Ecology: Communities Continued Ms. Walker’s Biology Class
  • 2. Review ✤ What is a population? All organisms of the same species living together in a particular area. ✤ What is a community? All of the populations of plants & animals that interact together living in a particular geographic area. ✤ Populations depend on one another for food and shelter (among many things) This is called interdependency.
  • 3. Review✤ Communities depend on their environment. ✤ Environments are made up of biotic & abiotic factors. ✤ These factors can be limiting factors, which limits population growth. ✤ Once resources have been used up (limiting factors), a population will hit it’s carrying capacity.
  • 4. Relationships between populations ✤ Most common is predator-prey ✤ Parasitism- when one organism benefits, while the other is harmed. ✤ Mutualism- Both organisms benefit from the relationship. ✤ Commensalism- One organism benefits, while the other neither benefits nor is harmed.
  • 5. Ecological Succession ✤ Do things always stay the same once an ecosystem is established? ✤ Not quite... ✤ "Ecological succession" is the observed change in the structure of an ecological community over time. ✤ Can occur due to population changes, or drastic disruptions such as forest fires, volcanic eruptions, extreme drought, etc.
  • 6. Primary & Secondary Succession ✤ Primary succession: the pioneer stage starts when organisms invade a previously unoccupied area. ✤ Secondary succession: the pioneer stage begins when organisms invade an area that's already been occupied.
  • 7. Secondary Succession
  • 8. Differences
  • 9. How does the story end? ✤ Climax Community: A forest that has reached maturity. Longer- living carnivores probably occupy the area, as well as large hardwoods.
  • 10. Homework ✤ Create a story about the life of an ecosystem. You should use the following words: ✤ Primary Succession, Secondary Succession, Climax Communities, Biotic Factors, Abiotic factors, herivores, omnivores, carnivores, community, population, biome. ✤ You need to pick a biome for your story to take place (i.e. tundra, temperate forest, desert, rain forest) & describe what is in that biome. ✤ Explain what happened- is it a new community? Or one that was disrupted? How long does the ecosystem take to recover and mature into a climax community? ✤ Include 6 hand-drawn or printed pictures- 1 for each slide on worksheet. ✤ Due Wednesday, Sept. 11th