Ecological relationships
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  • 1. Ecological Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 2. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 3. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment❊ Population Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 4. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment❊ Population ❊ A group of individuals, all of the same species Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 5. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment❊ Population ❊ A group of individuals, all of the same species Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 6. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment❊ Population ❊ A group of individuals, all of the same species ❊ Community Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 7. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment❊ Population ❊ A group of individuals, all of the same species ❊ Community ❊ A group of different populations Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 8. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment❊ Population ❊ A group of individuals, all of the same species ❊ Community ❊ A group of different populations Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 9. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment❊ Population ❊ A group of individuals, all of the same species ❊ Community ❊ A group of different populations ❊ Abiotic factors Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 10. ❊ Ecology ❊ The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment❊ Population ❊ A group of individuals, all of the same species ❊ Community ❊ A group of different populations ❊ Abiotic factors ❊ Oxygen concentration, salinity, temperature, rainfall, etc. Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 11. Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 12. ❊Symbiosis ❊A relationship between two species ❊Usually involves close physical contact Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 13. ❊ The major types are , , , and relationships ❊Symbiosis ❊A relationship between two species ❊Usually involves close physical contact Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 14. ❊ The major types are , , , and relationships ❊Symbiosis ❊A relationship between two species ❊Usually involves close physical contact mutualism Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 15. ❊ The major types are , , , and relationships ❊Symbiosis ❊A relationship between two species ❊Usually involves close physical contact mutualism commensalism Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 16. ❊ The major types are , , , and relationships ❊Symbiosis ❊A relationship between two species ❊Usually involves close physical contact mutualism commensalism parasitism Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 17. ❊ The major types are , , , and relationships ❊Symbiosis ❊A relationship between two species ❊Usually involves close physical contact mutualism commensalism parasitism predator-prey Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 18. Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 19. ❊ Mutualism ❊A symbiotic relationship between two species in which both species benefit Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 20. ❊ Mutualism ❊A symbiotic relationship between two species in which both species benefit EXAMPLE: ❊ Microbes in the stomach of cattle are responsible for the digestion of cellulose (fiber in grass & hay) ❊The cattle benefit because they use the glucose from the cellulose digestion ❊ The microbes benefit because they get a warm, moist, protected place to live and all they food they need Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 21. Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 22. ❊ Commensalism ❊A symbiotic relationship between two species ❊In which one species benefits, and the other species is neither helped nor harmed Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 23. ❊ Commensalism ❊A symbiotic relationship between two species ❊In which one species benefits, and the other species is neither helped nor harmed EXAMPLE: ❊ The worms benefit because they get to travel through nutrient-rich waters as the sea turtle swims around (worms attached to the docks are stuck there) ❊ There is no direct benefit to the turtle having worms stuck on its back, nor does there seem to be any harm done Loggerhead turtle & sea worms Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 24. Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 25. ❊ Parasitism ❊A symbiotic relationship between two species ❊In which one species benefits, and the other species is harmed ❊The species that benefits is called a parasite, and is typically much smaller than the other species (the host) Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 26. ❊ Parasitism ❊A symbiotic relationship between two species ❊In which one species benefits, and the other species is harmed ❊The species that benefits is called a parasite, and is typically much smaller than the other species (the host) ❊ Example: ❊ microorganisms that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 27. Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 28. ❊ Predator-prey ❊A symbiotic relationship between two species ❊In which one species captures & kills the other species for food ❊The species are generally about equal in size ❊The term is usually applied to animal species (or certain types of protozoan species) Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 29. ❊ Predator-prey ❊A symbiotic relationship between two species ❊In which one species captures & kills the other species for food ❊The species are generally about equal in size ❊The term is usually applied to animal species (or certain types of protozoan species)❊ Example: ❊ Lions and wildebeests, Owl and mouse Symbiotic Relationships Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 30. Cattle with cattle egrets Cattle stir up insects as they eat grass Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 31. Cattle with cattle egrets Cattle stir up insects as they eat grass What do the cattle get? What do the egrets get? Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 32. Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected Cattle with cattle egrets Cattle stir up insects as they eat grass What do the cattle get? What do the egrets get? Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 33. Moray Eel with Cleaner Fish Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 34. Moray Eel with Cleaner Fish What does the Moray Eel get? What does the Cleaner Fish get? Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 35. Mutualism: both benefit Moray Eel with Cleaner Fish What does the Moray Eel get? What does the Cleaner Fish get? Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 36. Taenia worm in human eye Worm infects human blood stream Human may go blind Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 37. What does the human get? What does the worm get? Taenia worm in human eye Worm infects human blood stream Human may go blind Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 38. What does the human get? What does the worm get? Taenia worm in human eye Worm infects human blood stream Human may go blind Parasitism: one benefits and the other is harmed Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 39. Clown fish with anemone Clown fish gets protection Anemone is unaffected Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 40. Clown fish with anemone Clown fish gets protection Anemone is unaffected Commensalism Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 41. Antelope with Oxbird Antelope gets rid of parasites Oxbird gets a meal Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 42. Antelope with Oxbird Antelope gets rid of parasites Oxbird gets a meal Mutualism Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 43. A True Story... Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 44. A baby hippopotamus that survived the tsunami waves on the Kenyan coast has formed a strong bond with a giant male tortoise. The hippopotamus, nicknamed Owen and weighing about 300 kilograms (650 pounds), was swept down Sabaki River into the Indian Ocean, then forced back to shore when tsunami waves struck the Kenyan coast on December 26, 2005 before wildlife rangers rescued him. Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 45. A-less-than-a-year-old hippo has adopted a male tortoise, about a century old, and the tortoise seems to be very happy with being a 'mother'," ecologist Paula Kahumbu “It is incredible… Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 46. "After it was swept and lost its mother, the hippo was traumatized. It had to look for something to be a surrogate mother. Fortunately, it landed on the tortoise and established a strong bond. They swim, eat and sleep together," the ecologist added. Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 47. The hippo follows the tortoise exactly the way it follows its mother. If somebody approaches the tortoise, the hippo becomes aggressive, as if protecting its biological mother," Kahumbu added. Saturday, September 7, 13
  • 48. What type of relationship do the hippo and the tortoise have? Explain your answer. Saturday, September 7, 13