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The lexical approach and lexical priming(1)
 

The lexical approach and lexical priming(1)

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    The lexical approach and lexical priming(1) The lexical approach and lexical priming(1) Presentation Transcript

    • The Lexical Approach and LexicalPriming – a comparison of Englishand ChineseMichael HoeyUniversity of LiverpoolLexical Approach conference, The University ofWestminster, May 11th 2013
    • The Lexical Approachhas been criticised for1. Ignoring how language is learnt2. Having no theoretical underpinningIt is open to criticism for3. Applying only to Indo-European languages
    • The Lexical Approachhas been criticised for1. Ignoring how language is learnt2. Having no theoretical underpinningIt is open to criticism for3. Applying only to Indo-European languages
    • The Lexical Approachhas been criticised for1. Ignoring how language is learnt2. Having no theoretical underpinningIt is open to criticism for3. Applying only to Indo-European languages
    • Three goalsIn this paper, however, I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Three goalsIn this paper, however, I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Three goalsIn this paper, however, I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • How do we learn language? Some keypsycholinguistic experimentsMost of the psycholinguistic literature used byapplied linguists is more linguistic thanpsychological.But there are two research developments fromthe psycholinguistic tradition that may be ofrelevance:semantic primingrepetition priming
    • How do we learn language? Some keypsycholinguistic experimentsMost of the psycholinguistic literature used byapplied linguists is more linguistic thanpsychological.But there are two research developments fromthe psycholinguistic tradition that may be ofrelevance:semantic primingrepetition priming(with thanks to Michael Pace-Sigge)
    • How do we learn language? Some keypsycholinguistic experimentsMost of the psycholinguistic literature used byapplied linguists is more linguistic thanpsychological.But there are two research developments fromthe psycholinguistic tradition that may be ofrelevance:semantic primingrepetition priming
    • Semantic primingIn semantic priming experiments, informants are shown aword or image (referred to as the prime) and then shown asecond word or image (known as the target word).The speed with which the target word is recognized ismeasured.Some primes appear to•slow up informants’ recognition of the targetand others appear to•accelerate informants’ recognition of the target
    • Semantic primingFor example,the prime word wingwill have no effect on the recognition of the worddirectorwill typically inhibit the recognition of the word pigand will typically speed up the recognition of the wordswan.
    • Semantic primingFor example,the prime word wingwill have no effect on the recognition of the worddirectorwill typically inhibit the recognition of the word pigand will typically speed up the recognition of the wordswan.
    • Semantic primingFor example,the prime word wingwill have no effect on the recognition of the worddirectorwill typically inhibit the recognition of the word pigand will typically speed up the recognition of the wordswan.
    • Semantic primingFor example,the prime word milkwill have no effect on the recognition of the wordavailable,will typically inhibit the recognition of the word horsebut will speed up the recognition of the word cow.
    • Semantic primingFor example,the prime word milkwill have no effect on the recognition of the wordavailable,will typically inhibit the recognition of the word horsebut will speed up the recognition of the word cow.
    • Semantic primingFor example,the prime word milkwill have no effect on the recognition of the wordavailable,will typically inhibit the recognition of the word horsebut will speed up the recognition of the word cow.
    • Semantic primingFor example,the prime word milkwill have no effect on the recognition of the wordavailable,will typically inhibit the recognition of the word horsebut will speed up the recognition of the word cow.At the moment, this is probably not true of beef, whichdraws attention that we are talking about linguisticexperience, not world knowledge.
    • Semantic primingFor example,the prime word milkwill have no effect on the recognition of the wordavailable,will typically inhibit the recognition of the word horsebut will speed up the recognition of the word cow.At the moment, this is probably not true of beef, whichdraws attention that we are talking about linguisticexperience, not world knowledge.
    • Semantic primingPioneering semantic priming work was conducted byMeyer and Schvaneveldt (1971), who demonstrated thatpriming was scientifically demonstrable.Their work was followed through by Shelton and Martin(1992) (among others), who appear to show thatsemantic priming only works when the priming word andthe target are associated in the informant’s mind.McRae and Boisvert (1998) argue however that if thewords in question have closely related meanings therewill be a priming effect even without association.
    • Semantic primingPioneering semantic priming work was conducted byMeyer and Schvaneveldt (1971), who demonstrated thatpriming was scientifically demonstrable.Their work was followed through by Shelton and Martin(1992) (among others), who appear to show thatsemantic priming only works when the priming word andthe target are associated in the informant’s mind.McRae and Boisvert (1998) argue however that if thewords in question have closely related meanings therewill be a priming effect even without association.
    • Semantic primingPioneering semantic priming work was conducted byMeyer and Schvaneveldt (1971), who demonstrated thatpriming was scientifically demonstrable.Their work was followed through by Shelton and Martin(1992) (among others), who appear to show thatsemantic priming only works when the priming word andthe target are associated in the informant’s mind.McRae and Boisvert (1998) argue however that if thewords in question have closely related meanings therewill be a priming effect even without association.
    • What is the significance of this to the languagelearner?We have proof that words are closely linked to eachother in the listener’s mind,and that words that are closely linked can berecognised more quickly (and presumably usedmore quickly).This doesn’t fit well with the idea that words areslotted into grammatical frames.
    • What is the significance of this to the languagelearner?We have proof that words are closely linked to eachother in the listener’s mind,and that words that are closely linked can berecognised more quickly (and presumably usedmore quickly).This doesn’t fit well with the idea that words areslotted into grammatical frames.
    • What is the significance of this to the languagelearner?We have proof that words are closely linked to eachother in the listener’s mind,and that words that are closely linked can berecognised more quickly (and presumably usedmore quickly).This does fit well with the lexical approach.
    • How do we learn language? Some keypsycholinguistic experimentsMost of the psycholinguistic literature used byapplied linguists is more linguistic thanpsychological. There are two researchdevelopments from the psycholinguistictradition that may be of relevance:semantic primingrepetition priming
    • How do we learn language? Some keypsycholinguistic experimentsMost of the psycholinguistic literature used byapplied linguists is more linguistic thanpsychological. There are two researchdevelopments from the psycholinguistictradition that may be of relevance:semantic primingrepetition priming
    • Repetition primingRepetition priming is rather different from semanticpriming, in that the prime and the target are identical.Experiments with repetition priming centre aroundexposing informants to word combinations andthen, sometimes after a considerable amount of time andafter they’ve seen or heard lots of othermaterial, measuring how quickly or accurately theinformants recognize the combination when they finallysee/hear it again.
    • Repetition primingFor example, a listener may be shown the word SCARLETfollowed by the word ONION.A day later, if s/he is shown the word SCARLET again, s/hewill recognise ONION more quickly than other words.The assumption must be that s/he remembers thecombination from the first time, since the words SCARLETONION will only rarely have occurred before (if ever).
    • Repetition primingFor example, a listener may be shown the word SCARLETfollowed by the word ONION.A day later, if s/he is shown the word SCARLET again, s/hewill recognise ONION more quickly than other words.The assumption must be that s/he remembers thecombination from the first time, since the words SCARLETONION will only rarely have occurred before (if ever).
    • Repetition primingFor example, a listener may be shown the word SCARLETfollowed by the word ONION.A day later, if s/he is shown the word SCARLET again, s/hewill recognise ONION more quickly than other words.The assumption must be that s/he remembers thecombination from the first time, since the words SCARLETONION will only rarely have occurred before (if ever).
    • Repetition primingKey papers on these facets of repetition priming arethose of Jacoby and Dallas (1981), who observed greateraccuracy in the identification of the target, andScarborough, Cortese, and Scarborough(1977), who noted a faster response time.Forster and Davis (1984) observed that theseeffects of repetition priming were more noticeable whenthe words in question were of low frequency in thelanguage.
    • Repetition primingKey papers on these facets of repetition priming arethose of Jacoby and Dallas (1981), who observed greateraccuracy in the identification of the target, andScarborough, Cortese, and Scarborough(1977), who noted a faster response time.Forster and Davis (1984) observed that theseeffects of repetition priming were more noticeable whenthe words in question were of low frequency in thelanguage.
    • Repetition primingRepetition priming potentially provides an explanationof both semantic priming and collocation.If a listener or reader encounters two words incombination, and stores them as a combination,then the ability of one of the words to acceleraterecognition of the other is explained.If the listener or reader then draws upon thiscombination in his or her own utterance, then thereproduction of collocation is also explained.
    • Repetition primingRepetition priming potentially provides an explanation ofboth semantic priming and collocation.If a listener or reader encounters two words incombination, and stores them as a combination,then the ability of one of the words to acceleraterecognition of the other is explained.If the listener or reader then draws upon thiscombination in his or her own utterance, then thereproduction of collocation is also explained.
    • Repetition primingRepetition priming potentially provides an explanation ofboth semantic priming and collocation.If a listener or reader encounters two words incombination, and stores them as a combination,then the ability of one of the words to acceleraterecognition of the other is explained.If the listener or reader then draws upon thiscombination in his or her own utterance, then thereproduction of collocation is also explained.
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence DEFINITELY2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Problems with many existing theories of language1. Fluency is harder to explain than creativity2. There is no single language but lots of varyinglanguages masquerading as a single language, butmost theories try to ignore this.3. When we hear or read a word with multiplemeanings (i.e. almost every word in commonusage), we know which meaning is meant – buthow?4. Collocations are universal, but grammars largelyoperate as if they don’t exist5. They don’t account for collocation (the partlyarbitrary tendency of words to co-occur, e.g.growing fears, developing conflict)
    • Problems with many existing theories of language1. Fluency is harder to explain than creativity2. There is no single language but lots of varyinglanguages masquerading as a single language, butmost theories try to ignore this.3. When we hear or read a word with multiplemeanings (i.e. almost every word in commonusage), we know which meaning is meant – buthow?4. Collocations are universal, but grammars largelyoperate as if they don’t exist5. They don’t account for collocation (the partlyarbitrary tendency of words to co-occur, e.g.growing fears, developing conflict)
    • Problems with many existing theories of language1. Fluency is harder to explain than creativity2. There is no single language but lots of varyinglanguages masquerading as a single language, butmost theories try to ignore this.3. When we hear or read a word with multiplemeanings (i.e. almost every word in commonusage), we know which meaning is meant – buthow?4. Collocations are universal, but grammars largelyoperate as if they don’t exist5. They don’t account for collocation (the partlyarbitrary tendency of words to co-occur, e.g.growing fears, developing conflict)
    • Problems with many existing theories of language1. Fluency is harder to explain than creativity2. There is no single language but lots of varyinglanguages masquerading as a single language, butmost theories try to ignore this.3. When we hear or read a word with multiplemeanings (i.e. almost every word in commonusage), we know which meaning is meant – buthow?4. Collocations are universal, but grammars largelyoperate as if they don’t exist5. They don’t account for collocation (the partlyarbitrary tendency of words to co-occur, e.g.growing fears, developing conflict)
    • Problems with many existing theories of language1. Fluency is harder to explain than creativity2. There is no single language but lots of varyinglanguages masquerading as a single language, butmost theories try to ignore this.3. When we hear or read a word with multiplemeanings (i.e. almost every word in commonusage), we know which meaning is meant – buthow?4. Collocations are universal, but grammars largelyoperate as if they are trivial5. They don’t account for collocation (the partlyarbitrary tendency of words to co-occur, e.g.growing fears, developing conflict)
    • Accounting for collocation has to be central toany account of fluency and therefore to anytheory of language with psychologicalplausibilityand must centre around how words are learnt
    • Accounting for collocation has to be central toany account of fluency and therefore to anytheory of language with psychologicalplausibilityand must centre around how words are learntd must centre around how words are learnt
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we notesubconsciously• the words it occurs with (its collocations),• the grammatical patterns it occurs in (itscolligations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we notesubconsciously• the words it occurs with (its collocations),• the grammatical patterns it occurs in (itscolligations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),
    • hardworked hardtried hardfought harddie hardfound it hardprayed hardraining hardsqueezed hard
    • hardworked hardtried hardfought harddie hardfound it hardprayed hardraining hardsqueezed hard
    • hardhard to believehard to understandhard to imaginehard to explainhard to followhard to hearhard to rememberhard to bear
    • hardhard luckhard linehard factshard evidencehard liveshard waterhard labourhard winterhard currency
    • wordcollocates with against and aa word against has a semantic association withsending & receiving communication(e.g. hear a word against)send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)
    • wordcollocates with against and a or your(s)a word againstyour word against minea word against)
    • wordcollocates with against and a or your(s)a word againstyour word against minea word against)
    • ears collocates with eyes 225 10%and alsoears and noseears, nose and throatears and eyesears and handsears and nostrilsetc
    • ears collocates with eyes 225 10%and alsoears and noseears, nose and throatears and eyesears and handsears and nostrilsetc
    • Crucially, once a priming has been created, it is itselfsubject to further priming,e.g. eyes and ears is primed for most of us tocollocate with act asthe Bank of China, which acts as Peking’s eyes and earsamong Hong Kong’s banking community14 out of 124 lines of eyes and ears in the Guardiancorpus (11%)
    • Crucially, once a priming has been created, it is itselfsubject to further priming,e.g. a word against is primed for most of us to co-occur with sending & receiving communication
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we notesubconsciously• the words it occurs with (its collocations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we notesubconsciously• the words it occurs with (its collocations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),
    • wordcollocates with against and aa word against has a semantic association withsending & receiving communication(e.g. hear a word against)send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)
    • ears collocates with2294eyes 225 10%and alsoears and noseears, nose and throatears and eyesears and handsears and nostrilsetc
    • ears co-occurs with2294eyes 225 10%and alsoears and noseears, nose and throatears and eyesears and handsears and nostrilsetc
    • ears 2294eyes 225 10%and alsosquashy fingers and crinkly earsswollen ankles and painful earsbuck teeth and cauliflower earsbulbous nose and big earslong tail and pointed earsetc
    • ears 2294eyes 225 10%and alsosquashy fingers and crinkly earsswollen ankles and painful earsbuck teethand cauliflower earsbulbous nose and big earslong tail and pointed earsetc
    • ears 2294eyes 225 10%and alsoclose the eyes and put the ears to workfollow my nose and keep my ears openshielding his eyes and covering his earszaps the eyes and blasts the earsbiting our nails and covering our earsetc
    • ears 2294has a semantic association withPARTS OF BODYat least 525 cases 23%
    • ears 2294has a semantic association withPARTS OF BODYat least 525 cases 23%
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we notesubconsciously• the words it occurs with (its collocations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),• the pragmatics it is associated with (itspragmatic associations),
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we notesubconsciously• the words it occurs with (its collocations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),• the pragmatics it is associated with (itspragmatic associations),
    • reason is often deniedThat’s not the reason why…For no particular reason…For some reason or other…Whatever the reason…
    • consequence tends to be negativee.g. the grim consequence, one direconsequence, a bleak consequenceresult tends to be positivee.g. a great result, the perfect result, a fineresult
    • send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against has apragmatic association with hypotheticality(e.g. wasn’t prepared to say a word against)
    • send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against has apragmatic association with hypotheticality(e.g. wasn’t prepared to say a word against)
    • send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against has apragmatic association with hypotheticality(e.g. wasn’t prepared to say a word against)
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we also notesubconsciously• the grammatical patterns it is associated with(its colligations),• the genre and/or style and/or social situationit is used in,• whether it is used in a context we are likely towant to emulate or not
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we also notesubconsciously• the grammatical patterns it is associated with(its colligations),• the genre and/or style and/or social situationit is used in,• whether it is used in a context we are likely towant to emulate or not
    • consequence tends to be indefinitee.g. another consequence, one consequence, aconsequenceresult tends to be definitee.g. this result, the result
    • reason and result tend not to be possessede.g. the reason was…, the result was…reasons and results can be possessede.g. my reasons were…, our results
    • denial + send/receive a word against colligateswith modal verbs(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against alsocolligates with human subjects and humanprepositional objects
    • denial + send/receive a word against colligateswith modal verbs(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against alsocolligates with human subjects and humanprepositional objects
    • denial + send/receive a word against colligateswith modal verbs(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against alsocolligates with human subjectsand humanprepositional objects
    • denial + send/receive a word against colligateswith modal verbs(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against alsocolligates with human subjects and humanprepositional objects
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we also notesubconsciously• the grammatical patterns it is associated with(its colligations),• the genre and/or style and/or social situationit is used in
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we also notesubconsciously• the grammatical patterns it is associated with(its colligations),• the genre and/or style and/or social situationit is used in
    • denial + send/receive a word against is used inreasonably colloquial English.
    • The Lexical Priming (textual) claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we also notesubconsciously• whether it is typically cohesive (its textualcollocations)• whether the word is associated with a particulartextual relation (its textual semantic associations)• the positions in a text that it occurs in, e.g. does itlike to begin sentences? Does it like to startparagraphs? (its textual colligations),
    • The Lexical Priming (textual) claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we also notesubconsciously• whether it is typically cohesive (its textualcollocations)• whether the word is associated with a particulartextual relation (its textual semantic associations)• the positions in a text that it occurs in, e.g. does itlike to begin sentences? Does it like to startparagraphs? (its textual colligations),
    • denial + send/receive a word against is not usedin cohesion, i.e. you don’t get successiverepetitions of word or verbs ofcommunication in a text.
    • denial + send/receive a word against is not usedin cohesion, i.e. you don’t get successiverepetitions of word or verbs ofcommunication in a text.
    • Lexical Priming and the Properties of Text:claim 1:Every lexical item (or combination of lexicalitems) may be typically be primed to occur aspart of a cohesive chain or avoid such a chain(its textual collocations)
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup of national policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup ofnational policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup of national policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • Lexical Priming and the Properties of Text:claim 1a:Every lexical item (or combination of lexicalitems) may be typically primed to occur withparticular types of cohesion
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup of national policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup of national policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup of national policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup of national policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup of national policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • Lee Yuan-tseh humbles ChenURGED TO RESIGN: Former Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh wrotethat the president should seriously consider stepping down for the sake ofthe nation’s stabilityPresident Chen Shui-bian has expressed his gratitude for former AcademiaSinica president Lee Yuan-tseh’s advice after the Nobel laureate wrote anopen letter to Chen asking him to consider resigning, the PresidentialOffice said yesterday.In a press release, the Department of Public Affairssaid Chen had said that the question of whether he stays in office or stepsdown is of little significance to him personally, but that he would still listento different voices on the matter.Lee issued the letter on Thursday from Paris, where he is attending aconference. In his letter, Lee called on Chen to seriously consider resigningfor the sake of the nation’s stability following the indictment of first ladyWu Shu-jen on corruption and forgery charges. Describing the indictmentas “a vital challenge for the long-term reform and establishment ofTaiwan’s democratic core values,” Lee, who previously served as head of agroup of national policy advisers to the president, said that Chen and theDemocratic Progressive Party (DPP) “must choose between their party andthe entire country.”Lee said Taiwan now faces one of its most serious challenges in its democratichistory, resulting from Wu’s indictment and Chen’s alleged misuse of apublic funds.
    • So as we read, and identify the cohesion, we areprimed both for the collocations, colligations andsemantic associationsAND ALSOfor the cohesive relationships between the occurrencesof the item or between the item and other items(or for the absence of such relationships).If there is no difference in principle between beingprimed by a single text and primed on many occasionsby many different texts,then maybe the same is true in reverse – perhaps thereis no difference in principle between cohesion WITHIN atext and cohesion BETWEEN texts.
    • There is no difference in principle betweenbeing primed by a single text and primed onmany occasions by many different texts.then maybe the same is true in reverse –perhaps there is no difference in principlebetween cohesion WITHIN a text and cohesionBETWEEN texts.
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we note subconsciously• whether it is typically cohesive (its textualcollocations)• whether the word is associated with a particulartextual relation (its textual semantic associations)• the positions in a text that it occurs in, e.g. does itlike to begin sentences? Does it like to startparagraphs? (its textual colligations),
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we note subconsciously• whether it is typically cohesive (its textualcollocations)• whether the word is associated with a particulartextual relation (its textual semantic associations)• the positions in a text that it occurs in, e.g. does itlike to begin sentences? Does it like to startparagraphs? (its textual colligations),
    • Lexical Priming and the Properties of Text:claim 2:Every lexical item (or combination of lexicalitems) may be typically primed for occurring aspart of a specific type of semantic relation (itstextual semantic associations)
    • The claim is that every lexical item (orcombination of lexical items) may bepositively or negatively primed for occurringas part of a specific type of semantic orpragmatic relation or in a specific textualpattern,e.g. contrast, comparison, timesequence, cause-effect, exemplification,Problem-Solution, Gap in Knowledge filling.
    • The semantic relations or discourse patterns aword may be primed to associate with may be• textual, i.e. the relations between clauses orparts of clauses or between larger chunks oftext• interactive, reflecting and incorporatingrelations between a speaker and a listener ofthe kind described in conversational analysis
    • denial + send/receive a word against is used incontexts where someone has been or is aboutto be criticised
    • McCarthy (1998) notes that got is associatedwith the Problem element of Problem-Solution patterns.
    • Hunston (2001) likewise notes that thecombination may not be is associated withcontrast between ideal and more achievable.
    • She also notes that fetedasis associated withcontrast.
    • Of 100 examples of sixty in my data,41 occurred in a contrast relation,37 occurred within the Problem component of aProblem-Solution pattern16 occurred in a non-contrastive comparison relation21 instances not accounted for.(They add up to more than 100 because of thepossibility of a clause being in more than one textualrelation).
    • Of 100 instances of agoat the beginning of aclause,55 occurred in a contrast relation16 occurred in some kind of comparisonrelation.(The proportions rise still further if instances ofnot long agoand as long ago as arediscounted.)
    • Of 100 cases of today ,35 occurred in contrast relations, though mostof the contrasts crossed sentence boundaries.23 occurred in time sequence relations.9 were associated with proposals of some kind9 were associated with a statement of purposeof some kind.
    • So texts prime our vocabulary for us, as we sawearlierANDour vocabulary is in turn primed to organise texts forus
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we note subconsciously• whether it is typically cohesive (its textualcollocations)• whether the word is associated with a particulartextual relation (its textual semantic associations)• the positions in a text that it occurs in, e.g. does itlike to begin sentences? Does it like to startparagraphs? (its textual colligations),
    • The Lexical Priming claimWhenever we encounter a word (or syllable orcombination of words), we note subconsciously• whether it is typically cohesive (its textualcollocations)• whether the word is associated with a particulartextual relation (its textual semantic associations)• the positions in a text that it occurs in, e.g. does itlike to begin sentences? Does it like to startparagraphs? (its textual colligations),
    • Lexical Priming and the Properties of Text:claim 3:Every lexical item (or combination of lexicalitems) may be typically primed to occurring in aspecial position in a text, e.g. at the beginningof sentences – or paragraphs! (its textualcolligations)
    • denial + send/receive a word against is typicallyused at the end of a sentence
    • According to a theory...We can use according to a to illustrate wherewe have arrived.
    • accordingcollocates with against and aa word against has a semantic association withsending & receiving communication(e.g. hear a word against)send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)
    • accordingcollocates with to and aa word against has a semantic association withsending & receiving communication(e.g. hear a word against)send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)
    • according to ahas a semantic association withsending & receiving communication(e.g. hear a word against)send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)
    • according to a has a semantic association, innewspapers, with research sources(e.g. according to a study)send/receive a word against has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)
    • according to a research source has, innewspapers, a pragmatic association withreporting something bad has a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against has apragmatic association with hypotheticality(e.g. wasn’t prepared to say a word against)
    • according to a research source has, innewspapers, a pragmatic association withreporting something badhas a pragmaticassociation with denial(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against has apragmatic association with hypotheticality(e.g. wasn’t prepared to say a word against)
    • according to a research study is often followedin newspapers by a which clause colligateswith modal verbs(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against alsocolligates with human subjects and humanprepositional objects
    • according to a research study has the colligationin newspapers of being often followed by awhich clause(e.g. wouldn’t hear a word against)denial + send/receive a word against alsocolligates with human subjects and humanprepositional objects
    • according to is not used in cohesion, i.e. youdon’t get successive repetitions of word orverbs of communication in a text.
    • according to has the textual collocation of rarelybeing repeated directly but of beingparaphrased in subsequent paragraphs assaid, told etcrepetitions of word or verbs ofcommunication in a text.
    • according to a research source
    • according to a research source has the textualsemantic association of being usually part of aclaim-evidence relation
    • according to a research studysecond half of thesentence, often the end of the sentence. usedat the end of a sentence
    • according to a research study has the textualcolligation of being very strongly associated innewspapers with(a) first sentence of the news story(b)second half of the sentence, often the end ofthe sentence.
    • according to a research study has the genrecharacteristic of being used in newspaperEnglish.
    • So...Lexical priming can take account of• Collocation• Semantic association• Pragmatic association• Colligation (i.e.grammar)• Textual collocation• Textual semantic association• Textual colligation• Genre
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory YES3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • English versus ChineseNOT SHARED• Fairly clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Intonation as a discoursefeature• Time and number markedgrammatically?NOT SHARED• No clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Tone as a feature of thelexicon• Time and number markedlexically
    • The Lexical Priming claimsAs we have more and more encounters with theword, syllable, or word combination, we come toidentify• the word or words that characteristically accompanyit (its collocations),• the grammatical patterns with which it is associated(its colligations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),• and the pragmatics with which it is associated (itspragmatic associations).
    • The Lexical Priming claimsHow about Chinese?
    • The Lexical Priming claimsHow about Chinese?Work of Xiao &McEnery
    • hăo appears to collocate withhăo rénhăo shūhěn hăohăo bù hăohăo fēngjĭng
    • hăohăo rénhăo shūhěn hăohăo bù hăohăo fēngjĭng
    • hăohăo rénhăo shūhěn hăohăo bù hăohăo fēngjĭng
    • hăohăo rénhăo shūhěn hăohăo bù hăohăo fēngjĭng
    • hăohăo rénhăo shūhěn hăohăo bù hăohăo fēngjĭng
    • hăohăo rénhăo shūhěn hăohăo bù hăohăo fēngjĭng
    • The Lexical Priming claimAs we have more and more encounters with theword, syllable, or word combination, we come toidentify• the word or words that characteristically accompanyit (its collocations),• the grammatical patterns with which it is associated(its colligations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),• and the pragmatics with which it is associated (itspragmatic associations).
    • The Lexical Priming claimsHow about Chinese?
    • bìngappears to associate with negationtājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqù(He doesn’t want to go out this evening actually)(from Collins Mandarin Chinese Dictionary, 2009)wŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhù(I really am not willing to live with him)(from Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar: a Practical Guide by Claudia Ross &Jing-hen Sheng Ma, 2006)wŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐ(I’m not actually criticising you)(from A Frequency Dictionary of Mandarin Chinese by Richard Xiao, Paul Rayson&Tony McEnery)
    • bìngappears to associate with negationtājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqù(He doesn’t want to go out this evening actually)(from Collins Mandarin Chinese Dictionary, 2009)wŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhù(I really am not willing to live with him)(from Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar: a Practical Guide by Claudia Ross &Jing-hen Sheng Ma, 2006)wŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐ(I’m not actually criticising you)(from A Frequency Dictionary of Mandarin Chinese by Richard Xiao, Paul Rayson&Tony McEnery
    • bìngappears to associate with negationtājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqù(He doesn’t want to go out this evening actually)(from Collins Mandarin Chinese Dictionary, 2009)wŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhù(I really am not willing to live with him)(from Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar: a Practical Guide by Claudia Ross &Jing-hen Sheng Ma, 2006)wŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐ(I’m not actually criticising you)(from A Frequency Dictionary of Mandarin Chinese by Richard Xiao, Paul Rayson&Tony McEnery
    • bìngappears to associate with negationtājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqù(He doesn’t want to go out this evening actually)(from Collins Mandarin Chinese Dictionary, 2009)wŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhù(I really am not willing to live with him)(from Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar: a Practical Guide by Claudia Ross &Jing-hen Sheng Ma, 2006)wŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐ(I’m not actually criticising you)(modified from A Frequency Dictionary of Mandarin Chinese by RichardXiao, Paul Rayson& Tony McEnery, 2009)
    • bìngappears to associate with pronounstājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuài(this is not too bad).
    • bìngappears to associate with pronounstājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuài(this is not too bad).’
    • bìngappears to associate with pronounstājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuài(this is not too bad).
    • bìngappears to associate with pronounstājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuài(this is not too bad).
    • The Lexical Priming claimsAs we have more and more encounters with theword, syllable, or word combination, we come toidentify• the word or words that characteristically accompanyit (its collocations),• the grammatical patterns with which it is associated(its colligations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),• and the pragmatics with which it is associated (itspragmatic associations).
    • semantic associationHow about Chinese?
    • hòuhuǐ2294has a semantic association withUNWANTED OUTCOMES OF ACTIONS TAKENhòuhuǐwŏcuòwù mistakehòuhuǐwŏcuò errorhòuhuǐwŏzuìguò sinhòuhuǐshāngwáng casualtieshòuhuǐshìgù (car) accident
    • hòuhuǐ2294has a semantic association withUNHAPPY ACTION TAKEN (OR HAPPY ACTION NOT TAKEN) BYSPEAKERhòuhuǐwŏcuòwù mistakehòuhuǐwŏcuò errorhòuhuǐwŏzuìguò sinhòuhuǐshāngwáng casualtieshòuhuǐshìgù (car) accident
    • hòuhuǐ2294has a semantic association withUNHAPPY ACTION TAKEN (OR HAPPY ACTION NOT TAKEN) BYSPEAKERwŏhòuhuǐfàncuòwùmaking a mistakehòuhuǐwŏcuò errorhòuhuǐwŏzuìguò sinhòuhuǐshāngwáng casualtieshòuhuǐshìgù (car) accident
    • hòuhuǐ2294has a semantic association withUNHAPPY ACTION TAKEN (OR HAPPY ACTION NOT TAKEN) BYSPEAKERwŏhòuhuǐfàncuòwùmaking a mistakewŏhòuhuǐchūcuòcommitting an errorhòuhuǐwŏzuìguò sinhòuhuǐshāngwáng casualtieshòuhuǐshìgù (car) accident
    • hòuhuǐ2294has a semantic association withUNHAPPY ACTION TAKEN (OR HAPPY ACTION NOT TAKEN) BYSPEAKERwŏhòuhuǐfàncuòwùmaking a mistakewŏhòuhuǐchūcuòcommitting an errorwŏhòuhuǐméiqù… not goingwŏhòuhuǐtīngtā de huà listening to his/her words
    • hòuhuǐ2294has a semantic association withUNHAPPY ACTION TAKEN (OR HAPPY ACTION NOT TAKEN) BYSPEAKERwŏhòuhuǐfàncuòwùmaking a mistakewŏhòuhuǐchūcuòcommitting an errorwŏhòuhuǐméiqù… not goingwŏhòuhuǐtīngtā de huàlistening to his/her words
    • diànelectricity, powerfrequency rankinghuàphone 338 yǐngmovie 658shì TV 696năo computer 1118tī lift, elevator 3938bīngziāng fridge 13089frequency rankings from Xiao et al (2009)
    • diànfrequency rankinghuà phone338yǐng movie 658shì TV 696năo computer 1118tī lift, elevator 3938bīngziāng fridge 13089frequency rankings from Xiao et al (2009)
    • diànfrequency rankinghuà phone338yǐng movie 658shì TV 696năo computer 1118tī lift, elevator 3938bīngziāng fridge 13089frequency rankings from Xiao et al (2009)
    • diànfrequency rankinghuà phone338yǐng movie 658shì TV 696năo computer 1118tī lift, elevator 3938bīngziāng fridge 13089frequency rankings from Xiao et al (2009)
    • diànfrequency rankinghuà phone338yǐng movie 658shì TV 696năo computer 1118tī lift, elevator 3938bīngziāng fridge 13089frequency rankings from Xiao et al (2009)
    • diànfrequency rankinghuà phone338yǐng movie 658shì TV 696năo computer 1118tī lift, elevator 3938bīngziāng fridge 13089frequency rankings from Xiao et al (2009)
    • diàn electricity, powerfrequency rankinghuà phone338yǐng movie 658shì TV 696năo computer 1118tī lift, elevator 3938bīngxiāngfridge 13089frequency rankings from Xiao et al (2009)
    • English versus ChineseNOT SHARED• Fairly clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Intonation as a discoursefeature• Time and number markedgrammatically?NOT SHARED• No clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Tone as a feature of thelexicon• Time and number markedlexically
    • English versus ChineseNOT SHARED• Fairly clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Intonation as a discoursefeature• Time and number markedgrammatically?NOT SHARED• No clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Tone as a feature of thelexicon• Time and number markedlexically
    • Morphemes/syllablesSub-components of the word do not have thefreedoms that words have and may not alwaysbe meaningful.Not all morphemes are syllablesNot all syllables are morphemesMorphemes are lexico-grammaticalSyllables are phonetic
    • So how about the priming of wordcomponents?(The closest analogy in English to the characterin Chinese?)
    • So how about the priming of wordcomponents?(The closest analogy in English to the characterin Chinese?)
    • The primings of -eriesIn the combined corpora of the Guardian andthe BNC, there were 118,932 tokens of wordsending –eries.There were 142 separate tokens.
    • snotteriessplatteriesmiseriessludgeriesslickeries dysenteriesgrotesqueries gaucheries camperiesflummeries flatterieseriesassociates with NASTY SUBSTANCE and occurswithin (arguable) UNPLEASANTNESS11 out of 142 = 8%
    • adulteriestrickeries treacheriesmockeriessnobberiesruderiesbitcheriesskulduggeriessavageriesdebaucheries robberiesquackeriespruderies lecheriesbutcheriesenslaveriesruderies chicaneriesCf. burglarieseriesassociates with CRIME/SIN/SOCIAL FAULT andalso occurs within CRIME/SIN/SOCIAL FAULT24 of 142 =17%
    • adulteriestrickeries treacheriesmockeriessnobberiesruderiesbitcheriesskulduggeriessavageriesdebaucheries robberiesquackeriespruderies lecheriesbutcheriesenslaveriesruderies chicaneriesCf. burglarieseriesassociates with CRIME/SIN/SOCIAL FAULT andalso occurs within CRIME/SIN/SOCIAL FAULT24 of 142 =17% . So 25% - CRIME/SIN/SOCIALFAULT/ UNPLEASANTNESS
    • wineries potteries tanneriessaddleries rotisseries creperiesrefineries perfumeries patisseriesouzeriesnoodleries bakeriesmeaderiessmokeries hatcherieshaberdasheries?fisheries distilleriescreameries collieries canneriesbreweries butteries fromageriesboulangeries piggeries orangeriesnurseries [in one sense]28 out of 142 = 20%WHICH MEANS THAT 45% OF TYPES OF eries AREASSOCIATED WITH THREE MEANINGS
    • English versus ChineseNOT SHARED• Fairly clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Intonation as a discoursefeature• Time and number markedgrammatically?NOT SHARED• No clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Tone as a feature of thelexicon• Time and number markedlexically
    • English versus ChineseNOT SHARED• Fairly clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes????• Intonation as a discoursefeature• Time and number markedgrammatically?NOT SHARED• No clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Tone as a feature of thelexicon• Time and number markedlexically
    • The Lexical Priming claimAs we have more and more encounters with theword, syllable, or word combination, we come toidentify• the word or words that characteristically accompanyit (its collocations),• the grammatical patterns with which it is associated(its colligations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),• and the pragmatics with which it is associated (itspragmatic associations).
    • The Lexical Priming claimAs we have more and more encounters with theword, syllable, or word combination, we come toidentify• the word or words that characteristically accompanyit (its collocations),• the grammatical patterns with which it is associated(its colligations),• the meanings with which it is associated (itssemantic associations),• and the pragmatics with which it is associated (itspragmatic associations).
    • bìngappears to associate with negationtājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqù(He doesn’t want to go out this evening actually)(from Collins Mandarin Chinese Dictionary, 2009)wŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhù(I really am not willing to live with him)(from Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar: a Practical Guide by Claudia Ross &Jing-hen Sheng Ma, 2006)wŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐ(I’m not actually criticising you)(modified from A Frequency Dictionary of Mandarin Chinese by RichardXiao, Paul Rayson& Tony McEnery, 2009)
    • bìngappears to associate with negation(also a pragmatic association)tājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqù(He doesn’t want to go out this evening actually)(from Collins Mandarin Chinese Dictionary, 2009)wŏbìngbùyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhù(I really am not willing to live with him)(from Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar: a Practical Guide by Claudia Ross &Jing-hen Sheng Ma, 2006)wŏbìngbù xiăngpīpíngnǐ(I’m not actually criticising you)(modified from A Frequency Dictionary of Mandarin Chinese by RichardXiao, Paul Rayson& Tony McEnery, 2009)
    • colligation PREMODIFICATION&winecombines withcollocation dry&wineandsemantic association FLAVOUR&wineandpragmatic association INSTRUCTION, ADVICE,REQUEST
    • colligation PREMODIFICATION&winecombines withcollocation dry&wineandsemantic association FLAVOUR&wineandpragmatic association INSTRUCTION, ADVICE,REQUEST
    • colligation PREMODIFICATION&winecombines withcollocation dry&wineandsemantic association FLAVOUR&wineandpragmatic association INSTRUCTION, ADVICE,REQUEST
    • colligation PREMODIFICATION&winecombines withcollocation dry&wineandsemantic association FLAVOUR&wineandpragmatic association INSTRUCTION, ADVICE,REQUEST
    • colligationcombines withcollocationandsemantic associationandpragmatic associationIS THIS TRUE OF CHINESE TOO?
    • colligationcombines withcollocationandsemantic associationandpragmatic associationIT SEEMS SO
    • colligation jīntiān : no subject or verbcombines withcollocation lěngandsemantic association TEMPERATUREandpragmatic association EVALUATION INCONVERSATION
    • colligation jīntiān : no subject or verbcombines withcollocation lěngandsemantic association TEMPERATUREandpragmatic association EVALUATION INCONVERSATION
    • colligation jīntiān : no subject or verbcombines withcollocation lěngandsemantic association TEMPERATUREandpragmatic association EVALUATION INCONVERSATION
    • colligation jīntiān : no subject or verbcombines withcollocation lěngandsemantic association TEMPERATUREandpragmatic association EVALUATION INCONVERSATION
    • English versus ChinesedifferenceNOT SHARED• Fairly clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Intonation as a discoursefeature• Time and number markedgrammatically in the verbs this another differenceNOT SHARED• No clear boundary betweenwords and morphemes• Tone as a feature of thelexicon• Time and number markedcontextually around theverb
    • tājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbùxiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbúyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuàiu’
    • tājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbùxiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbúyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuàiu’
    • tājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbùxiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbúyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuàiu’
    • tājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbùxiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbúyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuàiIn some dialectshăo = I agreeháo= I’m not sure I agree
    • tājīnwăn bìngbù xiăngchūqùwŏbìngbùxiăngpīpíngnǐwŏbìngbúyuànyigēntāyīqǐzhùzhèbìngbúsuàntàihuàiComparerèally= I agreeréally= I’m not sure I agreeu’
    • suggest that English and Chinese are learnt thesame way by children – as tunes, where the tunesare associated with collocations.In Chinese the tunes are eventually decomposedinto tones because of the tightnessof theassociation of lexis and tone – but there areresidual tunes.
    • suggest that English and Chinese are learnt thesame way by children – as tunes, where the tunesare associated with collocations.In English the tunes are eventually generalisedinto intonation because of the looseness of theassociation of lexis and tone – but there areresidual tones.
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English
    • Three goalsIn this paper I want to show that1. The Lexical Approach is entirely compatiblewith (and supported by) reliablepsycholinguistic evidence2. The Lexical Approach is supported by at leastone worked-out linguistic theory3. The features of language that the LexicalApproach makes use of are as present inChinese as they are in English PROBABLY
    • The Lexical Approachhas been criticised for1. Ignoring how language is learnt2. Having no theoretical underpinningIt is open to criticism for3. Applying only to Indo-European languages
    • The Lexical Approachhas been FALSELY criticised for1. Ignoring how language is learnt2. Having no theoretical underpinningIt is open to criticism for3. Applying only to Indo-European languages
    • The Lexical Approachhas been FALSELY criticised for1. Ignoring how language is learnt2. Having no theoretical underpinningIt is NOT open to criticism for3. Applying only to Indo-European languages
    • The Lexical Approachhas been FALSELY criticised for1. Ignoring how language is learnt2. Having no theoretical underpinningIt is NOTopen to criticism for3. Applying only to Indo-European languagesIT IS SAFE TO USE
    • The Lexical Approachhas been FALSELY criticised for1. Ignoring how language is learnt2. Having no theoretical underpinningIt is NOTopen to criticism for3. Applying only to Indo-European languagesIT IS SAFE TO USE – BUT WE ALWAYS KNEWTHAT, DIDN’T WE?
    • Thank you for listeninghoeymp@liv.ac.uk