Helvetas Nepal Trail bridge experience

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Helvetas Nepal Trail bridge experience

  1. 1. S.C. Kantha Team Leader Trail Bridge Support Unit Tunis, 11 Oct. 2010 HELVETAS GREETINGS FROM NEPAL –LAND OF THE HIMALAYAS Trail Bridge Experience in Nepal
  2. 2. Nepal in Asia Nepal a Land locked country situated between 2 Giant Countries China and India.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Area 147,181 km2 </li></ul><ul><li>Population 28 million </li></ul><ul><li>Within 170 km from almost sea level to 8,848 m </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita GDP US $ 450 </li></ul>Country Background
  4. 4. <ul><li>75 districts, 4000 VDCs and 50,000 settlements </li></ul><ul><li>World’s Steepest Slope </li></ul><ul><li>World’s youngest geology </li></ul>Country Background
  5. 5. <ul><li>Landslides and road blockage very common, particularly during monsoon </li></ul><ul><li>Most diverse climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terai : 48 o C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Himalayas : 35 o C (-ve) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>80 % of land : Hills and Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Rain : as high as 1,350 mm per year </li></ul>Country Background
  6. 6. <ul><li>6,000 rivers and rivulets and most of them turbulent </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage density 0.3 per square km </li></ul><ul><li>Annual discharge of water 2 billion Cum. </li></ul><ul><li>Road density 14 km per 100 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>One road bridge needed at every 5.5 km </li></ul>Country Background
  7. 7. <ul><li>4,000 pedestrian bridges are built </li></ul><ul><li>Potential demand of 6,000 bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Average beneficiary per bridge is 2,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita bridge cost US $ 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Design life of a bridge 50 years </li></ul>Country Background
  8. 8. <ul><li>A country of diversified ethnicity, castes, cultures, religions and languages </li></ul><ul><li>Road construction very challenging because of geology and a very costly affair </li></ul>Country Background
  9. 9. <ul><li>70% of population does not have access to roads </li></ul><ul><li>The only reliable means of transport is pedestrian bridges </li></ul>Country Background
  10. 10. <ul><li>One to two weeks non-stop walk not an exception </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes no access for months, particularly during monsoon </li></ul>Country Background
  11. 11. <ul><li>Access to basic services-health post, post office, market, school not guaranteed </li></ul><ul><li>Lives particularly of children and women endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Foot bridge totally change the lives of people </li></ul>Country Background
  12. 12. <ul><li>Pedestrian bridge is a must for crossing rivers and having uninterrupted movement </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian bridges are the safe and improved means of river crossings </li></ul>Country Background
  13. 13. <ul><li>It is a very low cost project, built in a comparatively short period and benefiting the poor and the rural communities </li></ul>Country Background
  14. 14. <ul><li>For centuries people traditional means of river crossings using local know-how </li></ul><ul><li>Early 20th century, Rana Rulers built modern bridges </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  15. 15. <ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Swiss Geologist Advice </li></ul><ul><li>Unlock the interior </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. decided to promote pedestrian bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension Bridge Division established in1964 </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  16. 16. <ul><li>1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Swiss support available for the program </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization of designs </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  17. 17. <ul><li>1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of technical manuals – survey, design, standard drawings and construction </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops established for fabrication of steel parts for bridges </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  18. 18. <ul><li>1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of Swiss experts </li></ul><ul><li>Huge bridge demand from people </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties to select the most needy ones </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  19. 19. <ul><li>1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Study of foot trails in the hill and mountainous districts </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of main trail maps and service centre maps </li></ul><ul><li>Important trails identified </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  20. 20. <ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Steel decks instead of wooden planks </li></ul><ul><li>Turnkey modality applied for contracting construction works </li></ul><ul><li>Huge demands for bridges on local trail </li></ul><ul><li>SBD - construction of bridges on main trails </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  21. 21. <ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Helvetas initiated construction of bridges on local trails under community approach </li></ul><ul><li>Local bridge building technology upgraded with engineering input </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  22. 22. <ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><li>SDC provided funds for Community Bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge outputs increased tremendously </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  23. 23. <ul><li>2000s </li></ul><ul><li>Demarcation Policy applied – SSTB & LSTB </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Manuals for SSTB bridges developed </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  24. 24. <ul><li>2000s </li></ul><ul><li>National Trail Bridge Policy effective </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritization criteria established </li></ul><ul><li>WB, ADB and DFID funds in addition to SDC available </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  25. 25. <ul><li>Capacity building through EIs </li></ul><ul><li>Course Manuals for practitioners (Eng, Sub Eng, Asst Sub Eng) developed </li></ul><ul><li>Trail Bridge course incorporated in the curriculum for engineers </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  26. 26. <ul><li>Trail Bridge sub-sector concept emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Sector-wide Approach introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Basket funds established </li></ul><ul><li>GoN, SDC, WB and DFID to provide funds in the Basket Fund </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  27. 27. <ul><li>ADB to provide funds through DRILP and RRRSDP </li></ul><ul><li>TBSU/Helvetas to provide Technical Assistance on behalf of the SDC </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  28. 28. <ul><li>TB SWAp implemented since July 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Five year Phase up to July 2014 </li></ul><ul><li>Target – NC 2200, MM of 500, and RM of 4,000 bridges annually and access trail improvement of 750 km </li></ul><ul><li>Budget of US $ 72 million for 5 years </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  29. 29. <ul><li>Technical assistance budget of US $ 8 million for 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Assistance to Bhutan, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Honduras, </li></ul><ul><li>SSTB bridge under community approach and LSTB under contracting modality </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  30. 30. <ul><li>Bridge building know-how at community level - DMBT </li></ul><ul><li>Employment at local level of 2,500 person days </li></ul>Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
  31. 31. <ul><li>Bridge Technology </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of span </li></ul><ul><li>Short Span Trail Bridge (SSTB) : for span up to 120m. </li></ul><ul><li>Long Span Trail Bridge (LSTB) : for span > 120m </li></ul>Technology
  32. 32. <ul><li>Bridge type </li></ul>SuspendeD type -D-type SuspensioN type - N-type
  33. 33. <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Design </li></ul><ul><li>-16m </li></ul><ul><li>- 20m </li></ul><ul><li>- 24m </li></ul><ul><li>- 28m </li></ul><ul><li>- 32m </li></ul>Steel Truss for span up to 32m
  34. 34. <ul><li>The selection of the D-type or N-type depends mainly on the topography of the bridge site. </li></ul>Technology
  35. 35. <ul><li>suitable for hills and sloped topography. </li></ul><ul><li>this type of bridge is selected where the bridge foundations can be placed at sufficiently high position giving required free board from the highest flood level. </li></ul><ul><li>is more economic, simple to design and construct than other bridge types. </li></ul><ul><li>applicable in 85% cases. </li></ul>Applicability of D-type Bridge
  36. 36. <ul><li>suitable for plane and flat topography. </li></ul><ul><li>this type of bridge is selected only when the Suspended type bridge is no more feasible due to insufficient free board. </li></ul><ul><li>this bridge is more expensive and more complex in survey, design and construction than the Suspended type bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>only applicable in 15% cases. </li></ul>Applicability of N-type Bridge
  37. 37. <ul><li>SSTB D-type Bridge Technology </li></ul><ul><li>technology is based on </li></ul><ul><li>maximum use of local materials </li></ul><ul><li>maximum use of local skills </li></ul><ul><li>only use of simple hand tools </li></ul><ul><li>constructed by the community </li></ul><ul><li>engineering within the capacity of asst. sub-engineers </li></ul>Technology
  38. 38. <ul><li>LSTB D-type Bridge Technology </li></ul><ul><li>technology is more complex & expensive than SSTB </li></ul><ul><li>constructed at only socio-economically feasible sites. </li></ul><ul><li>engineering through Pvt. Consultants, construction through contractors. </li></ul>Technology
  39. 39. Cable Setting
  40. 40. Walkway Fitting Technology Walkway Fitting
  41. 41. Tower Erection Technology
  42. 42. Cable Pulling : A critical Milestone Technology
  43. 43. Cable Hoisting Technology
  44. 44. Suspender fitting Technology
  45. 45. Wind guy System Technology
  46. 46. Tools for Construction and Bridge Erection Technology
  47. 47. Technology <ul><li>Short Span Trail Bridge Standard Technical Handbook for Suspended Type, Vol. I, II and III (2003) - SSTB D-type </li></ul><ul><li>Short Span Trail Bridge Standard Technical Handbook for Suspension Type, Vol. I, II and III (2003) -SSTB N-type </li></ul><ul><li>Long Span Trail Bridge Manual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vol. A: Design (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vol. B: Survey (1983) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vol. C: Standard Drawings (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vol. D: Construction (1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steel Truss Bridge Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration Model Bridge Training Manual (2004) DMBT </li></ul>Technical Manuals
  48. 48. Technology <ul><li>Social Organizational Support Manual </li></ul>Social Manuals <ul><li>Manual for Consulting Service (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Manual for Contractors (2005) </li></ul>Managerial Manuals
  49. 49. Technology <ul><li>Training Course Manual for on Trail Bridges for Practitioner Engineers (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Training Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Practitioning Overseers (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Training Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Practitioning Sub-Overseers (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Bachelor of Civil Engineering (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Diploma in Civil Engineering (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Sub-Overseers (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Training Course Manuals </li></ul>
  50. 50. Technology <ul><li>Trail Bridge Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Trail Bridge Directives </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines on Public Hearing, Public Review and Public Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines on NGOs Mobilization </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines on Budget and Procurement Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines on Physical Progress and Expenses Reporting </li></ul>Policies and Guidelines
  51. 51. <ul><li>Bridge building know-how at community level - DMBT </li></ul><ul><li>Employment at local level of 2,500 person days </li></ul>Technology
  52. 52. A community built bridge
  53. 53. Local communities working at construction site
  54. 54. Maintaining transparency through public hearing/review/audit

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