Helvetas Nepal Trail bridge experience
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Helvetas Nepal Trail bridge experience

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Helvetas Nepal Trail bridge experience Helvetas Nepal Trail bridge experience Presentation Transcript

  • S.C. Kantha Team Leader Trail Bridge Support Unit Tunis, 11 Oct. 2010 HELVETAS GREETINGS FROM NEPAL –LAND OF THE HIMALAYAS Trail Bridge Experience in Nepal
  • Nepal in Asia Nepal a Land locked country situated between 2 Giant Countries China and India.
    • Area 147,181 km2
    • Population 28 million
    • Within 170 km from almost sea level to 8,848 m
    • Per capita GDP US $ 450
    Country Background
    • 75 districts, 4000 VDCs and 50,000 settlements
    • World’s Steepest Slope
    • World’s youngest geology
    Country Background
    • Landslides and road blockage very common, particularly during monsoon
    • Most diverse climate
      • Terai : 48 o C
      • Himalayas : 35 o C (-ve)
    • 80 % of land : Hills and Mountains
    • Rain : as high as 1,350 mm per year
    Country Background
    • 6,000 rivers and rivulets and most of them turbulent
    • Drainage density 0.3 per square km
    • Annual discharge of water 2 billion Cum.
    • Road density 14 km per 100 km 2
    • One road bridge needed at every 5.5 km
    Country Background
    • 4,000 pedestrian bridges are built
    • Potential demand of 6,000 bridges
    • Average beneficiary per bridge is 2,500
    • Per capita bridge cost US $ 10
    • Design life of a bridge 50 years
    Country Background
    • A country of diversified ethnicity, castes, cultures, religions and languages
    • Road construction very challenging because of geology and a very costly affair
    Country Background
    • 70% of population does not have access to roads
    • The only reliable means of transport is pedestrian bridges
    Country Background
    • One to two weeks non-stop walk not an exception
    • Sometimes no access for months, particularly during monsoon
    Country Background
    • Access to basic services-health post, post office, market, school not guaranteed
    • Lives particularly of children and women endangered
    • Foot bridge totally change the lives of people
    Country Background
    • Pedestrian bridge is a must for crossing rivers and having uninterrupted movement
    • Pedestrian bridges are the safe and improved means of river crossings
    Country Background
    • It is a very low cost project, built in a comparatively short period and benefiting the poor and the rural communities
    Country Background
    • For centuries people traditional means of river crossings using local know-how
    • Early 20th century, Rana Rulers built modern bridges
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 1960s
    • Based on Swiss Geologist Advice
    • Unlock the interior
    • Govt. decided to promote pedestrian bridges
    • Suspension Bridge Division established in1964
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 1970s
    • Swiss support available for the program
    • Standardization of designs
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 1970s
    • Preparation of technical manuals – survey, design, standard drawings and construction
    • Workshops established for fabrication of steel parts for bridges
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 1980s
    • Withdrawal of Swiss experts
    • Huge bridge demand from people
    • Difficulties to select the most needy ones
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 1980s
    • Study of foot trails in the hill and mountainous districts
    • Preparation of main trail maps and service centre maps
    • Important trails identified
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 1990s
    • Steel decks instead of wooden planks
    • Turnkey modality applied for contracting construction works
    • Huge demands for bridges on local trail
    • SBD - construction of bridges on main trails
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 1990s
    • Helvetas initiated construction of bridges on local trails under community approach
    • Local bridge building technology upgraded with engineering input
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 1990s
    • SDC provided funds for Community Bridges
    • Bridge outputs increased tremendously
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 2000s
    • Demarcation Policy applied – SSTB & LSTB
    • Technical Manuals for SSTB bridges developed
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • 2000s
    • National Trail Bridge Policy effective
    • Prioritization criteria established
    • WB, ADB and DFID funds in addition to SDC available
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • Capacity building through EIs
    • Course Manuals for practitioners (Eng, Sub Eng, Asst Sub Eng) developed
    • Trail Bridge course incorporated in the curriculum for engineers
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • Trail Bridge sub-sector concept emerged
    • Sector-wide Approach introduced
    • Basket funds established
    • GoN, SDC, WB and DFID to provide funds in the Basket Fund
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • ADB to provide funds through DRILP and RRRSDP
    • TBSU/Helvetas to provide Technical Assistance on behalf of the SDC
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • TB SWAp implemented since July 2009
    • Five year Phase up to July 2014
    • Target – NC 2200, MM of 500, and RM of 4,000 bridges annually and access trail improvement of 750 km
    • Budget of US $ 72 million for 5 years
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • Technical assistance budget of US $ 8 million for 5 years
    • Technical Assistance to Bhutan, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Honduras,
    • SSTB bridge under community approach and LSTB under contracting modality
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • Bridge building know-how at community level - DMBT
    • Employment at local level of 2,500 person days
    Evolution of Pedestrian Bridges
    • Bridge Technology
    • In terms of span
    • Short Span Trail Bridge (SSTB) : for span up to 120m.
    • Long Span Trail Bridge (LSTB) : for span > 120m
    Technology
    • Bridge type
    SuspendeD type -D-type SuspensioN type - N-type
    • Technology
    • Standard Design
    • -16m
    • - 20m
    • - 24m
    • - 28m
    • - 32m
    Steel Truss for span up to 32m
    • The selection of the D-type or N-type depends mainly on the topography of the bridge site.
    Technology
    • suitable for hills and sloped topography.
    • this type of bridge is selected where the bridge foundations can be placed at sufficiently high position giving required free board from the highest flood level.
    • is more economic, simple to design and construct than other bridge types.
    • applicable in 85% cases.
    Applicability of D-type Bridge
    • suitable for plane and flat topography.
    • this type of bridge is selected only when the Suspended type bridge is no more feasible due to insufficient free board.
    • this bridge is more expensive and more complex in survey, design and construction than the Suspended type bridge.
    • only applicable in 15% cases.
    Applicability of N-type Bridge
    • SSTB D-type Bridge Technology
    • technology is based on
    • maximum use of local materials
    • maximum use of local skills
    • only use of simple hand tools
    • constructed by the community
    • engineering within the capacity of asst. sub-engineers
    Technology
    • LSTB D-type Bridge Technology
    • technology is more complex & expensive than SSTB
    • constructed at only socio-economically feasible sites.
    • engineering through Pvt. Consultants, construction through contractors.
    Technology
  • Cable Setting
  • Walkway Fitting Technology Walkway Fitting
  • Tower Erection Technology
  • Cable Pulling : A critical Milestone Technology
  • Cable Hoisting Technology
  • Suspender fitting Technology
  • Wind guy System Technology
  • Tools for Construction and Bridge Erection Technology
  • Technology
    • Short Span Trail Bridge Standard Technical Handbook for Suspended Type, Vol. I, II and III (2003) - SSTB D-type
    • Short Span Trail Bridge Standard Technical Handbook for Suspension Type, Vol. I, II and III (2003) -SSTB N-type
    • Long Span Trail Bridge Manual
      • Vol. A: Design (2004)
      • Vol. B: Survey (1983)
      • Vol. C: Standard Drawings (2004)
      • Vol. D: Construction (1990)
    • Steel Truss Bridge Manual
    • Quality Control Manual
    • Demonstration Model Bridge Training Manual (2004) DMBT
    Technical Manuals
  • Technology
    • Social Organizational Support Manual
    Social Manuals
    • Manual for Consulting Service (2004)
    • Manual for Contractors (2005)
    Managerial Manuals
  • Technology
    • Training Course Manual for on Trail Bridges for Practitioner Engineers (2003)
    • Training Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Practitioning Overseers (2003)
    • Training Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Practitioning Sub-Overseers (2003)
    • Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Bachelor of Civil Engineering (2003)
    • Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Diploma in Civil Engineering (2003)
    • Course Manual on Trail Bridges for Sub-Overseers (2003)
    • Training Course Manuals
  • Technology
    • Trail Bridge Strategy
    • Trail Bridge Directives
    • Guidelines on Public Hearing, Public Review and Public Audit
    • Guidelines on NGOs Mobilization
    • Guidelines on Budget and Procurement Plan
    • Guidelines on Physical Progress and Expenses Reporting
    Policies and Guidelines
    • Bridge building know-how at community level - DMBT
    • Employment at local level of 2,500 person days
    Technology
  • A community built bridge
  • Local communities working at construction site
  • Maintaining transparency through public hearing/review/audit