X ray

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X ray
Author:
Md. Waliullah Wali
Dept. of pharmacy
Southeast University


Outline

XRD
X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an analytical technique looking at X-ray scattering from crystalline materials. Each material produces a unique X-ray "fingerprint" of X-ray intensity versus scattering angle that is characteristic of it's crystalline atomic structure.

X-ray diffraction procedures
apply only to crystalline
Materials.
Principles of XRD
X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample.

The interaction of the incident rays with the sample produces constructive interference (and a diffracted ray) when conditions satisfy Bragg's Law (nλ=2d sin θ).

XRD Techniques
XRD Techniques



Applications of XRD
Limitations of XRD
XRF

X-Ray Fluorescence is defined as “The emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis.”

X-ray fluorescence procedures
applied to the material
in any physical state,
solid, liquid and gas.

Principles of XRF
The XRF method depends on fundamental principles that are common to several other instrumental methods involving interactions between electron beams and X-rays with samples, including, X-ray spectroscopy (e.g. SEM – EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (microprobe WDS).

XRF Techniques



Applications of XRF
Advantages of XRF
Limitation of XRF
0
References
1. Elements of physical chemistry by S Glasstone
2. Atkins physical chemistry
3. Pharmaceutical chemistry by LG Chattem
4. Brady, John B., and Boardman, Shelby J., 1995, Introducing Mineralogy Students to X-ray Diffraction Through Optical Diffraction Experiments Using Lasers. Jour. Geol. Education, v. 43 #5, 471-476.
5. Brady, John B., Newton, Robert M., and Boardman, Shelby J., 1995, New Uses for Powder X-ray Diffraction Experiments in the Undergraduate Curriculum. Jour. Geol. Education, v. 43 #5, 466-470.
6. Buhrke, V. E., Jenkins, R., Smith, D. K., A Practical Guide for the Preparation of Specimens for XRF and XRD Analysis, Wiley, 1998.

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X ray

  1. 1. X ray Author: Md. Waliullah Wali Dept. of pharmacy Southeast University
  2. 2. Outline LOGO X-ray diffraction Principles of XRD XRD Techniques Applications of XRD Limitations of XRD YOUR SITE HERE
  3. 3. LOGO X-Ray Fluorescence Principles of XRF XRF Techniques Applications of XRF Advantages & Limitations of XRF YOUR SITE HERE
  4. 4. XRD LOGO X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an analytical technique looking at X-ray scattering from crystalline materials. Each material produces a unique X-ray "fingerprint" of X-ray intensity versus scattering angle that is characteristic of it's crystalline atomic structure. X-ray diffraction procedures apply only to crystalline Materials. YOUR SITE HERE
  5. 5. Principles of XRD LOGO X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample. The interaction of the incident rays with the sample produces constructive interference (and a diffracted ray) when conditions satisfy Bragg's Law (nλ=2d sin θ). YOUR SITE HERE
  6. 6. LOGO YOUR SITE HERE
  7. 7. XRD Techniques LOGO YOUR SITE HERE
  8. 8. XRD Techniques LOGO YOUR SITE HERE
  9. 9. LOGO 2 YOUR SITE HERE
  10. 10. LOGO YOUR SITE HERE
  11. 11. LOGO YOUR SITE HERE
  12. 12. Applications of XRD Determine crystal structures -Characterization of crystalline materials -Identification of finegrained minerals -Determination of unit cell dimensions -Measurement of sample purity LOGO Determine of modal amounts of minerals Make textural measurements YOUR SITE HERE
  13. 13. Limitations of XRD LOGO Homogeneous and single phase material is best For mixed materials, detection limit is ~ 2% of Peak overlay may sample occur and worsens for high angle 'reflections' Requires tenths of a gram of material which must be ground into a powder YOUR SITE HERE
  14. 14. XRF LOGO X-Ray Fluorescence is defined as “The emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis.” X-ray fluorescence procedures applied to the material in any physical state, solid, liquid and gas. YOUR SITE HERE
  15. 15. Principles of XRF LOGO The XRF method depends on fundamental principles that are common to several other instrumental methods involving interactions between electron beams and X-rays with samples, including, X-ray spectroscopy (e.g. SEM – EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (microprobe WDS). YOUR SITE HERE
  16. 16. XRF Techniques LOGO YOUR SITE HERE
  17. 17. LOGO YOUR SITE HERE
  18. 18. LOGO YOUR SITE HERE
  19. 19. Applications of XRF LOGO -Research in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic petrology -Soil surveys -mining -Cement production -Ceramic and glass manufacturing -Environmental studies -Petroleum industry -Field analysis Bulk chemical analyses of major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P) in rock and sediment Bulk chemical analyses of trace elements (in abundances >1 ppm; Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Nb, Ni, Rb, Sc, Sr, Rh, U, V, Y, Zr, Zn) in rock and sediment YOUR SITE HERE
  20. 20. Advantages of XRF LOGO Minimal preparation Nondestructive Fast Easy to use Costeffective YOUR SITE HERE
  21. 21. Limitation of XRF LOGO 0 Relatively large samples, typically > 1 gram Materials that can be prepared in powder form and effectively homogenized Materials containing high abundances of elements for which absorption and fluorescence effects are reasonably well understood Materials for which compositionally similar, well-characterized standards are available YOUR SITE HERE
  22. 22. References LOGO 1. Elements of physical chemistry by S Glasstone 2. Atkins physical chemistry 3. Pharmaceutical chemistry by LG Chattem 4. Brady, John B., and Boardman, Shelby J., 1995, Introducing Mineralogy Students to X-ray Diffraction Through Optical Diffraction Experiments Using Lasers. Jour. Geol. Education, v. 43 #5, 471-476. 5. Brady, John B., Newton, Robert M., and Boardman, Shelby J., 1995, New Uses for Powder X-ray Diffraction Experiments in the Undergraduate Curriculum. Jour. Geol. Education, v. 43 #5, 466470. 6. Buhrke, V. E., Jenkins, R., Smith, D. K., A Practical Guide for the Preparation of Specimens for XRF and XRD Analysis, Wiley, 1998. YOUR SITE HERE
  23. 23. LOGO Any ? Thank All of you! YOUR SITE HERE

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