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Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of  Analysis
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Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis

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Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis …

Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis

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  • Particles pass through a laser beam and the light scattered by them is collected over a range of angles in the forward direction.
    The angles of diffraction are, in the simplest case inversely related to the particle size.
    The particles pass through an expanded and collimated laser beam
    in front of a lens in whose focal plane is positioned a photosensitive
    detector consisting of a series of concentric rings.
    • Distribution of scattered intensity is analysed by computer to yield
    the particle size distribution.
  • Furthermore, detection limits tend to be high for long-lived isotopes using radiochemical methods .
  • Furthermore, detection limits tend to be high for long-lived isotopes using radiochemical methods .
  • http://www.missouri.edu/~glascock/nna_over.htm
  • . The doctor decides to check to see if either tibia has a stress fracture. The runner is given an injection containing 99Tcm. This radioisotope is a gamma ray producer with a half-life of 6 hours.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Presented to :: Presented to Irish Begum Irish Begum Lecturer Lecturer Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis- II Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis- II Department of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Southeast University Southeast University
    • 2. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 2
    • 3. Outline Introduction Types Isotopes Radioactive Isotopes Radioactive Decay Fine Particles Technology Methods Uses Fine Particle Technology References 01/15/14 3
    • 4. Symbol of Radioactive compounds Fine Particle Technology 01/15/14 4
    • 5. Fine Particles Technology  Fine Particles Science and Technology deals with the preparation, characterization and technological applications of monodisperse particles in the micro to Nano size range.  Today, finely divided particulate materials and objects that incorporate or are produced from these fine particles are everywhere about us.  Particle size is an important characteristic for many dosage forms. Stability, flowability, dissolution rate, and bioavailability are among the parameters affected by the size distribution of particles. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 5
    • 6. Fine Particles Technology Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 6
    • 7. Nanoparticles…  Nanoparticles (NP) are solid colloidal particles ranging in size from 1 to 1000 nm that are utilized as drug delivery agents. The use of NPs to deliver drugs to the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may provide a significant advantage to current strategies.  Furthermore, this system may slow drug release in the brain, decreasing peripheral toxicity.  Currently, reports evaluating NPs for brain delivery have studied anesthetic and chemotherapeutic agents. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 7
    • 8. Methods for Determining Particle Size Laser Light Scattering Techniques The angles of diffraction are inversely related to the particle size, and this method is particularly good for measuring sizes between 0.1 and 3,000 μm. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 8
    • 9. Capabilities in fine particle technology include: Capabilities in fine particle technology include: Fine Particle Technology 01/15/14 9 Fine Particle Technology
    • 10. Radiochemical Method…  Nuclei of some atoms are unstable and emit particles/radiation , the branch of chemistry which is concerned with the decay of unstable nuclei and the products of decay is Radiochemistry.  Analysis of stable nuclei using the radio chemicals/radioisotopes is called radiochemical methods.  Radiochemical methods tend to be work intensive and generate liquid waste due to the chemical separations are involved. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 10
    • 11. Radiochemical Method…  Radiochemical methods are characterized by good accuracy and their ability to be adapted to a wide number of applications. Another advantage to this method is that they minimize or even eliminate the need for separations that are required in other analytical methods. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 11
    • 12. There are three types of radiochemical methods... Types Activation Analysis Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis Management Tracer method Isotope dilution Isotope dilution 12
    • 13. There are three types of radiochemical methods... Types Activation Analysis Management Tracer method Isotope dilution Isotope dilution It is a most sensitive and specific technique for determination of trace quantities of wide range of elements The activity is induced in one or more elements of the sample by irradiation with suitable radiation or particles. Most commonly thermal neutrons from a nuclear reactor source is used. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 13
    • 14. There are three types of radiochemical methods... Types Activation Analysis Management Tracer method Isotope dilution Isotope dilution Radioactivity is introduced into the sample by adding a measured amount of a radioactive species. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 14
    • 15. There are three types of radiochemical methods... Types Activation Analysis Management Tracer method Isotope dilution Isotope dilution This method is the most important class of radiochemical quantitative method. In this method, a weighed quantity of radioactively tagged analyte having a known activity is added to a measured amount of sample. The mixture is then mixed to homogeneity and then a fraction of the compound of interest is isolated and purified. The analysis is based upon the activity of the isolated fraction. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 15
    • 16. Isotopes  All isotopes of an element have the same atomic number, and their chemical behavior is very similar.  For example, tritium can substitute for hydrogen. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    • 17. Radioactive Isotopes…  Radioactive isotopes have unstable nuclei that spontaneously change to form more stable nuclei  As a result, either new isotopes or new elements are produced isotopes have unstable nuclei that spontaneously change to form more stable nuclei Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 17
    • 18. Radioactive Decay… Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 18
    • 19. Radioactive Decay… Alpha (α) decay is a common radioactive process encountered with heavier isotopes. The alpha particle is a helium nucleus having a mass of 4 and a charge of +2. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 19
    • 20. Radioactive Decay…   Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis Beta (β) decay is a radioactive process in which, the atomic number changes but the mass number stays the same. The high-energy electrons have greater range of penetration than alpha particles, but still much less than gamma rays. 20
    • 21. Radioactive Decay… Gamma (γ) rays are produced by nuclear relaxations. Gamma rays are more dangerous than radio waves Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 21
    • 22. Radioactive Decay…  Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis X-Ray emission are formed from electronic transitions in which outer electrons fill the vacancies created by the nuclear process. 22
    • 23. Rutherford’s Experiment: Electric Field on α-, β-, Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis the and Effect of an γ-radiation 23
    • 24. Neutron Activation Analysis  Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been used for the determination of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu).  RNAA was proven to be a reliable technique for ultra-trace analysis, especially in the certification of some ultra-trace elements. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 24
    • 25. Neutron Activation Analysis Diagram illustrating the process of neutron capture by a target nucleus followed by the release of gamma rays. 25
    • 26.  ; Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 26
    • 27. Uses of Radiochemical Method… The Radiochemical methods are used to chemically assay a NON-RADIOACTIVE sample. It is used both for qualitative & quantitative measurements 1. preservation of food grains and seeds  2. some of the isotopes are used in the treatment of cancer.  3. some of the isotopes are used to study the proper functioning of internal organs.  4. Gamma radiations are used to sterilize the surgical instruments.  5. radio phosphorous is used for studying the rate of phosphorous assimilation by the plant.  Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 27
    • 28. Uses of Radiochemical Method… 6.it is used for finding out the faults in metal structures.  7.it is used for preparing synthetic elements (artificial transmutation)  8. isotopes are used in elucidation of reaction mechanism by using isotopic effects.  9.in breeder reactors radiations are used to prepare the fuel / fissile material.  10.trace concentrations of metals can be estimated by isotopic dilution analysis or neutron activation analysis. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 28
    • 29. Medical Uses  Bone imaging is an extremely important use of radioactive properties.  This technique is also good for arthritic patients, bone abnormalities and various other diagnostics. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 01/15/14 29
    • 30. References  http://www.hanford.gov/techmgmt/factsheets/deploys/icp-ms.htm  http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/vdgconcepts/student/olc/h-reading7.html  http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Treatments/Radiotherapy/Radiotherapy/Radioactivei sotopes  http://education.jlab.org/glossary/alphadecay.html  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/beta.html  http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/DDC-120001481%20  http://Radiochemical%20Analysis%20definition%20of%20Radiochemical%20Analysis%20in %20the%20Free%20Online%20Encyclopedia..htm  http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/DDC-120001481%20
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