Outline
Introduction
Types
Isotopes
Radioactive Isotopes
Radioactive Decay
Fine Particles Technology
Methods
References
04...
04/12/16Fine Particle Technology 3
Symbol of Radioactive compounds
 Fine Particles Science and Technology deals with the preparation,
characterization and technological applications of mon...
Fine Particles Technology
04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
5
 Nanoparticles (NP) are solid colloidal particles ranging in size from 1 to
1000 nm that are utilized as drug delivery ag...
Methods for Determining Particle Size
04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
7
Laser Light ...
04/12/16Fine Particle Technology 8
Capabilities in fine particle technology include:Capabilities in fine particle technolo...
 Nuclei of some atoms are unstable
and emit particles/radiation , the
branch of chemistry which is
concerned with the dec...
 Radiochemical methods are characterized by good accuracy and
their ability to be adapted to a wide number of application...
Types
Isotope dilutionIsotope dilutionActivation Analysis ManagementManagementTracer method
There are three types of radio...
Types
Isotope dilutionIsotope dilutionActivation Analysis ManagementManagementTracer method
There are three types of radio...
Types
Isotope dilutionIsotope dilutionActivation Analysis ManagementManagementTracer method
There are three types of radio...
Types
Isotope dilutionIsotope dilutionActivation Analysis ManagementManagementTracer method
There are three types of radio...
IsotopesIsotopes
 All isotopes of an element have the same atomic number, and their
chemical behavior is very similar.
 ...
Radioactive Isotopes…Radioactive Isotopes…
 Radioactive isotopes have unstable nuclei that spontaneously change to
form m...
Radioactive Decay…Radioactive Decay…
17Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
Radioactive Decay…Radioactive Decay…
18Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
Alpha (α) decay is a ...
19Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
 Beta (β) decay is a radioactive process in
which, the at...
20Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
Radioactive Decay…Radioactive Decay…
Gamma (γ) rays are pr...
21Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
 X-Ray emission are formed from
electronic transitions in...
Rutherford’s Experiment: the Effect of an
Electric Field on α-, β-, and γ-radiation
Rutherford’s Experiment: the Effect of...
 Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been used for the
determination of eight rare earth elements (La, C...
Neutron Activation AnalysisNeutron Activation Analysis
24
Diagram illustrating the process of neutron capture by a target ...
 ;
04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
25
Uses of Radiochemical Method…Uses of Radiochemical Method…
04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of An...
Uses of Radiochemical Method…Uses of Radiochemical Method…
04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of An...
 Bone imaging is an extremely important use of radioactive properties.
 This technique is also good for arthritic patien...
ReferencesReferences
 http://www.hanford.gov/techmgmt/factsheets/deploys/icp-ms.htm
 http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/vdgco...
Thank you
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  • Particles pass through a laser beam and the light scattered by them is collected over a range of angles in the forward direction.
    The angles of diffraction are, in the simplest case inversely related to the particle size.
    The particles pass through an expanded and collimated laser beam
    in front of a lens in whose focal plane is positioned a photosensitive
    detector consisting of a series of concentric rings.
    • Distribution of scattered intensity is analysed by computer to yield
    the particle size distribution.
  • Furthermore, detection limits tend to be high for long-lived isotopes using radiochemical methods .
  • Furthermore, detection limits tend to be high for long-lived isotopes using radiochemical methods .
  • http://www.missouri.edu/~glascock/nna_over.htm
  • . The doctor decides to check to see if either tibia has a stress fracture. The runner is given an injection containing 99Tcm. This radioisotope is a gamma ray producer with a half-life of 6 hours.
  • Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis

    1. 1. Outline Introduction Types Isotopes Radioactive Isotopes Radioactive Decay Fine Particles Technology Methods References 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology 2 Uses
    2. 2. 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology 3 Symbol of Radioactive compounds
    3. 3.  Fine Particles Science and Technology deals with the preparation, characterization and technological applications of monodisperse particles in the micro to Nano size range.  Today, finely divided particulate materials and objects that incorporate or are produced from these fine particles are everywhere about us.  Particle size is an important characteristic for many dosage forms. Stability, flowability, dissolution rate, and bioavailability are among the parameters affected by the size distribution of particles. Fine Particles Technology 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 4
    4. 4. Fine Particles Technology 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 5
    5. 5.  Nanoparticles (NP) are solid colloidal particles ranging in size from 1 to 1000 nm that are utilized as drug delivery agents. The use of NPs to deliver drugs to the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may provide a significant advantage to current strategies.  Furthermore, this system may slow drug release in the brain, decreasing peripheral toxicity.  Currently, reports evaluating NPs for brain delivery have studied anesthetic and chemotherapeutic agents. Nanoparticles… 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 6
    6. 6. Methods for Determining Particle Size 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 7 Laser Light Scattering Techniques The angles of diffraction are inversely related to the particle size, and this method is particularly good for measuring sizes between 0.1 and 3,000 μm.
    7. 7. 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology 8 Capabilities in fine particle technology include:Capabilities in fine particle technology include: Fine Particle Technology
    8. 8.  Nuclei of some atoms are unstable and emit particles/radiation , the branch of chemistry which is concerned with the decay of unstable nuclei and the products of decay is Radiochemistry.  Analysis of stable nuclei using the radio chemicals/radioisotopes is called radiochemical methods.  Radiochemical methods tend to be work intensive and generate liquid waste due to the chemical separations are involved. Radiochemical Method… 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 9
    9. 9.  Radiochemical methods are characterized by good accuracy and their ability to be adapted to a wide number of applications. Another advantage to this method is that they minimize or even eliminate the need for separations that are required in other analytical methods. Radiochemical Method… 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 10
    10. 10. Types Isotope dilutionIsotope dilutionActivation Analysis ManagementManagementTracer method There are three types of radiochemical methods...There are three types of radiochemical methods... 11Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    11. 11. Types Isotope dilutionIsotope dilutionActivation Analysis ManagementManagementTracer method There are three types of radiochemical methods...There are three types of radiochemical methods... It is a most sensitive and specific technique for determination of trace quantities of wide range of elements The activity is induced in one or more elements of the sample by irradiation with suitable radiation or particles. Most commonly thermal neutrons from a nuclear reactor source is used. 12Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    12. 12. Types Isotope dilutionIsotope dilutionActivation Analysis ManagementManagementTracer method There are three types of radiochemical methods...There are three types of radiochemical methods... Radioactivity is introduced into the sample by adding a measured amount of a radioactive species. 13Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    13. 13. Types Isotope dilutionIsotope dilutionActivation Analysis ManagementManagementTracer method There are three types of radiochemical methods...There are three types of radiochemical methods... This method is the most important class of radiochemical quantitative method. In this method, a weighed quantity of radioactively tagged analyte having a known activity is added to a measured amount of sample. The mixture is then mixed to homogeneity and then a fraction of the compound of interest is isolated and purified. The analysis is based upon the activity of the isolated fraction. 14Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    14. 14. IsotopesIsotopes  All isotopes of an element have the same atomic number, and their chemical behavior is very similar.  For example, tritium can substitute for hydrogen. Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    15. 15. Radioactive Isotopes…Radioactive Isotopes…  Radioactive isotopes have unstable nuclei that spontaneously change to form more stable nuclei  As a result, either new isotopes or new elements are produced isotopes have unstable nuclei that spontaneously change to form more stable nuclei 16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    16. 16. Radioactive Decay…Radioactive Decay… 17Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    17. 17. Radioactive Decay…Radioactive Decay… 18Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis Alpha (α) decay is a common radioactive process encountered with heavier isotopes. The alpha particle is a helium nucleus having a mass of 4 and a charge of +2.
    18. 18. 19Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis  Beta (β) decay is a radioactive process in which, the atomic number changes but the mass number stays the same.  The high-energy electrons have greater range of penetration than alpha particles, but still much less than gamma rays. Radioactive Decay…Radioactive Decay…
    19. 19. 20Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis Radioactive Decay…Radioactive Decay… Gamma (γ) rays are produced by nuclear relaxations. Gamma rays are more dangerous than radio waves
    20. 20. 21Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis  X-Ray emission are formed from electronic transitions in which outer electrons fill the vacancies created by the nuclear process. Radioactive Decay…Radioactive Decay…
    21. 21. Rutherford’s Experiment: the Effect of an Electric Field on α-, β-, and γ-radiation Rutherford’s Experiment: the Effect of an Electric Field on α-, β-, and γ-radiation 22Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis
    22. 22.  Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been used for the determination of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu).  RNAA was proven to be a reliable technique for ultra-trace analysis, especially in the certification of some ultra-trace elements. 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 23 Neutron Activation AnalysisNeutron Activation Analysis
    23. 23. Neutron Activation AnalysisNeutron Activation Analysis 24 Diagram illustrating the process of neutron capture by a target nucleus followed by the release of gamma rays.
    24. 24.  ; 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 25
    25. 25. Uses of Radiochemical Method…Uses of Radiochemical Method… 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 26 1. preservation of food grains and seeds  2. some of the isotopes are used in the treatment of cancer.  3. some of the isotopes are used to study the proper functioning of internal organs.  4. Gamma radiations are used to sterilize the surgical instruments.  5. radio phosphorous is used for studying the rate of phosphorous assimilation by the plant.  The Radiochemical methods are used to chemically assay a NON-RADIOACTIVE sample. It is used both for qualitative & quantitative measurements
    26. 26. Uses of Radiochemical Method…Uses of Radiochemical Method… 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 27 6.it is used for finding out the faults in metal structures.  7.it is used for preparing synthetic elements (artificial transmutation)  8. isotopes are used in elucidation of reaction mechanism by using isotopic effects.  9.in breeder reactors radiations are used to prepare the fuel / fissile material.  10.trace concentrations of metals can be estimated by isotopic dilution analysis or neutron activation analysis.
    27. 27.  Bone imaging is an extremely important use of radioactive properties.  This technique is also good for arthritic patients, bone abnormalities and various other diagnostics. Medical Uses 04/12/16Fine Particle Technology of Radio Chemical Method of Analysis 28
    28. 28. ReferencesReferences  http://www.hanford.gov/techmgmt/factsheets/deploys/icp-ms.htm  http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/vdgconcepts/student/olc/h-reading7.html  http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Treatments/Radiotherapy/Radiotherapy/Radioactivei sotopes  http://education.jlab.org/glossary/alphadecay.html  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/beta.html  http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/DDC-120001481%20  http://Radiochemical%20Analysis%20definition%20of%20Radiochemical%20Analysis%20in %20the%20Free%20Online%20Encyclopedia..htm  http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/DDC-120001481%20
    29. 29. Thank you

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