Waste Management Is Zero Waste Possible? Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
New York City’s Zero WasteCampaign2 Wali Memon Big Question Is Zero Waste Possible?
Municipal Solid WastePaper comprises 35%Single largest item is newsprint3 Wali Memon
WASTEAccording to EPA, US produces 11 billion tons ofsolid waste annually. About half is agricultural waste. More than one-third is mining related. Industrial Waste - 400 million metric tons. Hazardous/Toxic - 60 million metric tons. Municipal (domestic & business) Waste – 230 million metric tons. • Municipal Waste Stream in the U.S. 4.6 lbs per person / per day or 1679 lbs/yr (0.8 ton/yr). 2/3 tons/person/yr 5-10X as much as developing countries per4 capita Wali Memon 2X as much as Europe or Japan per capita
The Waste Stream Waste stream - the steady flow of varied wastes we all produce In spite of recent progress in recycling, many recyclable materials end up in the trash. Problem: refuse mixing of recyclable and non-recyclable materials, hazardous and non-hazardous materials5 Wali Memon
Integrated Waste ManagementReduceReuseRecycle80-90% of US waste stream could berecovered by recyclingImportant to develop markets for recycledproducts6 Wali Memon
Incineration and Types Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major furniture and appliances loaded into furnace. Creates air pollution problems. Refuse-Derived Fuel - Refuse is sorted to remove recyclable and unburnable materials. Higher energy content than raw trash.Reduces disposal volume by 80-90%. 13 Residual ash sent to landfills and usually Wali Memon contains toxic material.
Exporting Waste ‘GarbageImperialism’ Although most industrialized nations in the world have agreed to stop shipping hazardous and toxic waste to less developed countries, the practice still continues. Within rich nations, poor neighborhoods and minority populations are more likely to be the recipients of LULUs (locally unwanted land uses). Toxic wastes are sometimes “recycled” as building materials, fertilizer or soil amendments. NIMBY – Memon In My Back Yard! 15 Wali Not BANANA – Build Absolutely Nothing Around Nobody Anytime! NOPE – Not On Planet Earth!
The “Three R’s” Reduce Reuse Recycle(in order of their desirability) Wali Memon 16 16
Resource Management Solving the Waste Problem?Conservation Waste Reduction(Input management) (Output management) Reuse and Recycle Removal ReduceEfficiencies Remediation Improved Used bySubstitutions Society Restoration sources sinks 17 Wali Memon 17
REDUCE - Producing Less Waste The best way to reduce our waste stream is to produce less waste Excess packaging of food and consumer products is one of our greatest sources of unnecessary waste. Photodegradable plastics break down when exposed to UV rays. Biodegradable plastics can be decomposed by microorganisms. There are problems with photodegradable and biodegradable plastics, eg, don’t degrade completely, 18 littering is considered ok with these degradable products ??? Wali Memon
Shrinking the Waste StreamComposting Biological degradation of organic material under aerobic conditions.Energy Combustion (fire, steam) Gasification (syngas, methanol) Anaerobic decomposition (methane, ethanol)Demanufacturing Disassembly and recycling of obsolete consumer products.Reuse Reusable glass container makes an average of 15 round-trips between factory and customer before it has to be recycled. 19 Wali Memon
Shrinking the Recycling –Waste the reprocessing of discarded materialsStream into new, useful products Reducing vs. Reusing vs. Recycling Recycling successes, eg New Jersey has 60% recycling rate 1/2 - 2/3 of all aluminum cans recycled Problems: fluctuating market prices, 20 Wali Memon contamination
Recycling Benefits,Incentives Recycling saves money, energy, raw materials, and land space, while also reducing pollution. Recycling encourages individual awareness and responsibility. Japan - probably the most successful recycling program in the world Creating incentives for recycling - public policies, consumer demand Some make a living by gathering up recyclables!!21 Wali Memon
Hazardous and ToxicWastesWhat is hazardous waste?- Discarded material containing substancesknown to be ignitable, corrosive, explosive orreactive, fatal, toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, orteratogenic to humans or other life forms.May contain either hazardous or toxic material.U.S. industries generate about 265 millionmetric tons of officially classified toxic wasteseach year.Most hazardous waste comes from chemicalproducts industries29 Wali MemonToxic “e-waste” from inadequate, or unsafedisposal of electronic devices
Workers processinge-waste are exposedto toxic materialHandling practicesunsustainable30 Wali Memon
Hazardous Waste DisposalResource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)– 1976 requires rigorous testing & mgmt of toxicwaste.(‘cradle to grave’ records)Comprehensive Environmental Response,Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA orSuperfund Act) 1980 (rapid containment, cleanup, etc & transfer cost to those at fault) & 1995 (lessens cost to those at fault or time to cleanup)Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act(SARA – communities right to know) - ToxicRelease Inventory – 1984 (companies report 32on toxic releases annually) Wali Memon
National Priority List (NPL)SUPERFUND SITES NPL sites - waste sites that are especially hazardous to human health or environmental quality (1,671 superfund sites) EPA estimate: 36,000 seriously contaminated sites in the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) estimate: 400,000 seriously contaminated sites 34 Wali Memon
Superfund SitesTotal costs for hazardous wastecleanup in the US are estimatedbetween $370 billion and $1.7 trillion. For years, most of the funding has gone to legal fees, but this situation has improved over past several years.Studies of Superfund sites revealminorities tend to be over-represented in these neighborhoods.LULU’s???35Wali Memon
How Clean is Clean?Brownfields - Contaminatedproperties that have beenabandoned or are not being used ‘upto its potential’ because of pollutionconcerns. Up to one-third of all commercial industrial sites in urban core of many big cities fall into this category. In many cases, property owners complain 36 that unreasonably high purity levels are Wali Memon demanded in remediation programs.
Hazardous WasteManagement Options Produce Less Waste Avoid creating wastes in the first place Reuse and Recycle Convert to Less Hazardous Substances Physical Treatment (Tie-up or Isolation) Incineration Chemical Processing (Transformation)37 Bioremediation (Microorganisms) Wali Memon
Hazardous WasteManagement Options Store Permanently Retrievable Storage Can be inspected and periodically retrieved. Secure Landfills Modern, complex landfills with multiple liners and other impervious layers and monitoring38 systems. Wali Memon
Hazardous WasteDisposal:Surface Impoundment or Problems???Deep-well disposal 39 Wali Memon