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Zero Waste

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Is Zero Waste Possible?

Is Zero Waste Possible?

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  • hello can i ask a full copies of all the slides... i am debah wayco an ecological and environmental engineer in the Philippines and at the same time an employee of provincial government of zamboanga del sur under the environment office my email add is debah78@yahoo.com...if you may sir it will be of great help as i will conduct latest lecture and information awareness regarding environmental management programs including all these slides you've posted...thank you so much sir in advance
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  • 1. Waste Management Is Zero Waste Possible? Wali Memon1 Wali Memon
  • 2. New York City’s Zero WasteCampaign2 Wali Memon Big Question Is Zero Waste Possible?
  • 3. Municipal Solid WastePaper comprises 35%Single largest item is newsprint3 Wali Memon
  • 4. WASTEAccording to EPA, US produces 11 billion tons ofsolid waste annually. About half is agricultural waste. More than one-third is mining related. Industrial Waste - 400 million metric tons. Hazardous/Toxic - 60 million metric tons. Municipal (domestic & business) Waste – 230 million metric tons. • Municipal Waste Stream in the U.S. 4.6 lbs per person / per day or 1679 lbs/yr (0.8 ton/yr). 2/3 tons/person/yr 5-10X as much as developing countries per4 capita Wali Memon 2X as much as Europe or Japan per capita
  • 5. The Waste Stream Waste stream - the steady flow of varied wastes we all produce In spite of recent progress in recycling, many recyclable materials end up in the trash. Problem: refuse mixing of recyclable and non-recyclable materials, hazardous and non-hazardous materials5 Wali Memon
  • 6. Integrated Waste ManagementReduceReuseRecycle80-90% of US waste stream could berecovered by recyclingImportant to develop markets for recycledproducts6 Wali Memon
  • 7. 7 Wali Memon
  • 8. Waste Disposal Methods 8 Wali Memon
  • 9. Open DumpsPredominant method of waste disposal indeveloping countriesIllegal dumping problemsGroundwater contamination, air pollution,pest and health hazards9 Wali Memon
  • 10. Ocean Dumping 10 Wali Memon Source: The Independent
  • 11. Waste Disposal Methods (cont’d) Sanitary Landfills • More than 1,200 of the 1,500 existing landfills in the U.S. have closed. • Many major citiesMemon export their trash. Wali must 11 11
  • 12. SanitaryLandfills Wali Memon 12 12
  • 13. Incineration and Types Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major furniture and appliances loaded into furnace. Creates air pollution problems. Refuse-Derived Fuel - Refuse is sorted to remove recyclable and unburnable materials. Higher energy content than raw trash.Reduces disposal volume by 80-90%. 13 Residual ash sent to landfills and usually Wali Memon contains toxic material.
  • 14. Mass-Burn Garbage Mass-Burn GarbageIncinerator Incinerator14 Wali Memon
  • 15. Exporting Waste ‘GarbageImperialism’ Although most industrialized nations in the world have agreed to stop shipping hazardous and toxic waste to less developed countries, the practice still continues. Within rich nations, poor neighborhoods and minority populations are more likely to be the recipients of LULUs (locally unwanted land uses). Toxic wastes are sometimes “recycled” as building materials, fertilizer or soil amendments. NIMBY – Memon In My Back Yard! 15 Wali Not BANANA – Build Absolutely Nothing Around Nobody Anytime! NOPE – Not On Planet Earth!
  • 16. The “Three R’s” Reduce Reuse Recycle(in order of their desirability) Wali Memon 16 16
  • 17. Resource Management Solving the Waste Problem?Conservation Waste Reduction(Input management) (Output management) Reuse and Recycle Removal ReduceEfficiencies Remediation Improved Used bySubstitutions Society Restoration sources sinks 17 Wali Memon 17
  • 18. REDUCE - Producing Less Waste The best way to reduce our waste stream is to produce less waste Excess packaging of food and consumer products is one of our greatest sources of unnecessary waste. Photodegradable plastics break down when exposed to UV rays. Biodegradable plastics can be decomposed by microorganisms. There are problems with photodegradable and biodegradable plastics, eg, don’t degrade completely, 18 littering is considered ok with these degradable products ??? Wali Memon
  • 19. Shrinking the Waste StreamComposting Biological degradation of organic material under aerobic conditions.Energy Combustion (fire, steam) Gasification (syngas, methanol) Anaerobic decomposition (methane, ethanol)Demanufacturing Disassembly and recycling of obsolete consumer products.Reuse Reusable glass container makes an average of 15 round-trips between factory and customer before it has to be recycled. 19 Wali Memon
  • 20. Shrinking the Recycling –Waste the reprocessing of discarded materialsStream into new, useful products Reducing vs. Reusing vs. Recycling Recycling successes, eg New Jersey has 60% recycling rate 1/2 - 2/3 of all aluminum cans recycled Problems: fluctuating market prices, 20 Wali Memon contamination
  • 21. Recycling Benefits,Incentives Recycling saves money, energy, raw materials, and land space, while also reducing pollution. Recycling encourages individual awareness and responsibility. Japan - probably the most successful recycling program in the world Creating incentives for recycling - public policies, consumer demand Some make a living by gathering up recyclables!!21 Wali Memon
  • 22. 22 Wali Memon
  • 23. U.S. Recycling Rates23 Wali Memon
  • 24. Rabanco Recycling UW Paper Recycling 24 Wali Memon
  • 25. Composting25 Wali Memon Seattle Tilth
  • 26. Recycling Human Waste Traditional agricultural fertilizer Problem of contamination of produce by diseases and pollutants Requires separation or pretreatment of industrial sewage26 Wali Memon
  • 27. West Point Wastewater Treatment Plant Renton Wastewater Treatment Plant 27 Wali Memon 27
  • 28. 28 Wali Memon 28
  • 29. Hazardous and ToxicWastesWhat is hazardous waste?- Discarded material containing substancesknown to be ignitable, corrosive, explosive orreactive, fatal, toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, orteratogenic to humans or other life forms.May contain either hazardous or toxic material.U.S. industries generate about 265 millionmetric tons of officially classified toxic wasteseach year.Most hazardous waste comes from chemicalproducts industries29 Wali MemonToxic “e-waste” from inadequate, or unsafedisposal of electronic devices
  • 30. Workers processinge-waste are exposedto toxic materialHandling practicesunsustainable30 Wali Memon
  • 31. 31 Wali Memon 31
  • 32. Hazardous Waste DisposalResource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)– 1976 requires rigorous testing & mgmt of toxicwaste.(‘cradle to grave’ records)Comprehensive Environmental Response,Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA orSuperfund Act) 1980 (rapid containment, cleanup, etc & transfer cost to those at fault) & 1995 (lessens cost to those at fault or time to cleanup)Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act(SARA – communities right to know) - ToxicRelease Inventory – 1984 (companies report 32on toxic releases annually) Wali Memon
  • 33. Tracking Hazardous Wastes Toxic Release Inventory33 Wali Memon Cradle to Grave
  • 34. National Priority List (NPL)SUPERFUND SITES NPL sites - waste sites that are especially hazardous to human health or environmental quality (1,671 superfund sites) EPA estimate: 36,000 seriously contaminated sites in the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) estimate: 400,000 seriously contaminated sites 34 Wali Memon
  • 35. Superfund SitesTotal costs for hazardous wastecleanup in the US are estimatedbetween $370 billion and $1.7 trillion. For years, most of the funding has gone to legal fees, but this situation has improved over past several years.Studies of Superfund sites revealminorities tend to be over-represented in these neighborhoods.LULU’s???35Wali Memon
  • 36. How Clean is Clean?Brownfields - Contaminatedproperties that have beenabandoned or are not being used ‘upto its potential’ because of pollutionconcerns. Up to one-third of all commercial industrial sites in urban core of many big cities fall into this category. In many cases, property owners complain 36 that unreasonably high purity levels are Wali Memon demanded in remediation programs.
  • 37. Hazardous WasteManagement Options Produce Less Waste Avoid creating wastes in the first place Reuse and Recycle Convert to Less Hazardous Substances Physical Treatment (Tie-up or Isolation) Incineration Chemical Processing (Transformation)37 Bioremediation (Microorganisms) Wali Memon
  • 38. Hazardous WasteManagement Options Store Permanently Retrievable Storage Can be inspected and periodically retrieved. Secure Landfills Modern, complex landfills with multiple liners and other impervious layers and monitoring38 systems. Wali Memon
  • 39. Hazardous WasteDisposal:Surface Impoundment or Problems???Deep-well disposal 39 Wali Memon
  • 40. Secure Landfills Wali Memon 40 (Cunningham & Cunningham 2006) 40
  • 41. Bioremediationuse of biological organisms toremove pollution or restoreenvironmental quality41 Wali Memon (Cunningham & Cunningham 2006)
  • 42. 42 Wali Memon
  • 43. Industrial Ecology – seeks to use resources efficiently and regards ‘wastes’ as potential productsOil refinery Cement Coal-fired manufacturer power plant Steam Fly ash Natural gas from emissions High nutrient sludge from Local Farms fermentation vats Sulfur CaSO4 HeatSludge Sulfuric acid from as fertilizer Heat SO2 Steam producer Heat Natural gas 3 2 7 © 1 9 9 4 D e n e b a S y s te m s , I nc. homes Horticulture Fish farm Memon Pharmaceutical Wali Sheetrock plant 43 greenhouses plant(Kalundborg, Denmark) 43
  • 44. Residential homes Drug testing Lab Office buildings Barracks Industrial Manholes buildings Wali Memon 44 Sewer pipes 44
  • 45. Summary:Solid WasteWaste Disposal MethodsShrinking the Waste Stream Reducing, Reusing, RecyclingHazardous and Toxic Wastes Federal Legislation RCRA CERCLA Management Options45 Wali Memon