Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Introduction to Transportation   Infrastructure Systems    Planning and Design              Wali Memon Wali Memon         ...
Transportation System• A transportation system may be defined as a  planned network of elements or physical  components th...
Fixed Facilities• The fixed facilities are the physical components of  the system that are fixed in space and constitutes ...
Flow Entities• Flow entities are the units that traverse the  fixed facilities. These include people,  vehicles, container...
Control System• The control system consists of vehicular control and flow  control. Vehicular control refers to the techno...
Mobility & Accessibility• Mobility refers to the ability to move  between different activity sites   o If a facility could...
Major Transportation                Systems•    Highways•    Railways•    Airways•    Waterways•    Pipeline•    Conveyor ...
Planning• “… an activity or process that examines the  potential of future actions to guide a  situation or system toward ...
Scope of transportation              planning•      All man-made projects should start with a plan•      The more signific...
Planning Process                         Situation Definition     Establishing the     Problem Definition     Purpose & Ne...
Functional Classification of            Highway Systems• Primary System   o Expressways   o National Highways (Multilane h...
Expressway• Expressway: is a divided highway facility having two  or more lanes in each direction for the exclusive use  o...
Mumbai – Pune Expressway              • First Expressway in                India              • Total length 93.75 km     ...
Mumbai – Pune Expressway     o 26 Underpasses             21 Minor bridges     o 21 Overpasses              81 Box/slab cu...
Multilane Highways• A highway with at least two lanes for the exclusive  use of traffic in each direction, with no control...
5846 km             4076 km             3640 km                       National Highways                       Development ...
Multilane Highway in a Rural             EnvironmentWali Memon                          2010   17
Multilane Highway in a Suburban             EnvironmentWali Memon                            2010   18
Mobility & Accessibility                        Expressways                               Multilane Highways              ...
Classification of Urban                 Streets•    Urban Expressways•    Arterial streets•    Sub Arterial streets•    Co...
Arterials and Sub-arterials• Arterial       A major surface street with  relatively long trips between major points,  and ...
Collectors and Locals• Collector       A surface street providing land  access and traffic circulation within  residential...
Mobility & Accessibility                        Urban Expressways                                 Arterials             Mo...
Level of Service•   A qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a    traffic stream, based on service m...
Typical Cross section of a HighwayWali Memon                      2010   25
Highway Design•    Geometric Design•    Design of Fill/Cut Section•    Pavement Design•    Drainage Design    Wali Memon  ...
Geometric Design• Geometric Design   o Design of vertical and horizontal alignment of the     highway   o Preparation of P...
Wali Memon   2010   28
Cross SectionsWali Memon                    2010   29
Pavement DesignWali Memon                     2010   30
Layers in Flexible                Pavement                 Asphalt Surface Course                                         ...
Assume Pavement Configuration                                                   Input               Compute Pavement Respo...
Characterisation of Layers    Wheel Load, p               E1, µ1, h1               E2, µ2, h2                             ...
Axle ConfigurationsSingle Axle With Single Wheel        Tandem Axle    (Legal Axle Load = 6t)      (Legal Axle Load = 18t)...
Truck Configuration             2 Axle Truck – 16t             3 Axle Truck – 24tWali Memon                        2010   35
Truck Configuration             4 Axle Semi Articulated – 34t                   4 Axle ArticulatedWali Memon              ...
Truck Configuration              5 Axle Truck – 40t                     LCVWali Memon                         2010   37
Standard AxleSingle axle with dual wheels carrying a load of 80 kN(8 tonnes) is defined as standard axle                  ...
Vehicle Damage Factor               (VDF)• Instead of converting each axle pass into equivalent  standard axle passes, It ...
Steps in Highway Planning• Situation Definition    o Inventory of existing facilities    o Current conditions and issues  ...
Steps in Highway Planning• Problem Definition    o After understanding the present problems the problem could be defined  ...
Steps in Highway Planning• Search for Solutions    o Develop alternative concepts and solutions to reasonably satisfy the ...
Steps in Highway Planning• Analysis of Performance   o Demand forecasting        • Demand forecasting includes determinati...
Steps in Highway Planning• Evaluation of Alternatives – Economic Feasibility    o Conduct economic evaluation for the shor...
Steps in Highway Planning• Evaluation of Alternatives – Financial Feasibility    o Financial feasibility analysis is condu...
Steps in Highway Planning• Environmental Impact Assessment   o The environmental impact of alternative     concepts and re...
Steps in Highway Planning• Choice of project and Implementation   o Prepare a Detailed Project Report (DPR) for the select...
Thanks!Wali Memon             2010   48
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Transportation

652

Published on

Transportation – Planning , Design and Construction

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
652
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Transportation "

  1. 1. Introduction to Transportation Infrastructure Systems Planning and Design Wali Memon Wali Memon 2010 1
  2. 2. Transportation System• A transportation system may be defined as a planned network of elements or physical components that play different roles in the transportation of goods and persons from one place to another.• The elements or physical components of a transport system are referred to as the facilities.• A transport system can therefore be considered as consisting of fixed facilities, the flow entities, and control system that permit people and goods to overcome the friction of geographical space efficiently in order to participate in a timely manner in some desired activity. Wali Memon 2010 2
  3. 3. Fixed Facilities• The fixed facilities are the physical components of the system that are fixed in space and constitutes the network of links and nodes of the transportation system.• For example, the links could be roadway segment and railway track and the nodes could be intersections, interchanges, transit terminals, harbours, and airports• The design of these fixed facilities has traditionally been within the realm of civil engineering.• The design includes soil and foundation engineering design, structural engineering design, the design of drainage systems, and geometric design, which is concerned with the physical proportioning of the elements of fixed facilities. Wali Memon 2010 3
  4. 4. Flow Entities• Flow entities are the units that traverse the fixed facilities. These include people, vehicles, container units, railroad cars, and so on.• In the case of a road system, the fixed facilities are expected to accommodate a wide variety of vehicle types, ranging from bicycles to large tractor-trailer combinations.Wali Memon 2010 4
  5. 5. Control System• The control system consists of vehicular control and flow control. Vehicular control refers to the technological way in which individual vehicles are guided on fixed facilities. Such controls can be manual or automated.• The proper geometric design of fixed facilities must consider the characteristics of the vehicle and the characteristics of the vehicular control system.• In the case of highway facilities, where the vehicles are manually controlled, these include drivers characteristics, such as time a driver takes to perceive and react to various stimuli. In the case of automated systems, similar, but more precisely definable response times exist as well.• The flow control system consists of the means that permit the efficient and smooth operation of streams of vehicles and the reduction of conflicts between vehicles. This system includes various types of signing, marking, and signal systems and the underlying rules of operation. Wali Memon 2010 5
  6. 6. Mobility & Accessibility• Mobility refers to the ability to move between different activity sites o If a facility could move people and goods very fast then that facility provides very high mobility• Accessibility refers to the number of activity sites connected by the facility o If a facility provides connection to large number of residences, commercial places and industrial places then it provides very high accessibility• Mobility and accessibility are inversely related.Wali Memon 2010 6
  7. 7. Major Transportation Systems• Highways• Railways• Airways• Waterways• Pipeline• Conveyor Wali Memon 2010 7
  8. 8. Planning• “… an activity or process that examines the potential of future actions to guide a situation or system toward a desired direction” (Papacostas & Prevedouros, 2001)• Occurs in present but is oriented towards the future• Purpose o Achieve positive goals o Avoid negative consequences o Or bothWali Memon 2010 8
  9. 9. Scope of transportation planning• All man-made projects should start with a plan• The more significant the project, the more intensive and long term the planning• For large transportation projects, planning starts 20 years before construction Wali Memon 2010 9
  10. 10. Planning Process Situation Definition Establishing the Problem Definition Purpose & Need Feedback Search for Solutions Analysis of Performance Evaluation of Alternatives Choice of Projects Design & ConstructWali Memon 2010 10
  11. 11. Functional Classification of Highway Systems• Primary System o Expressways o National Highways (Multilane highways)• Secondary System o State Highways o Major District Roads• Tertiary System o Other district Roads o Village RoadsWali Memon 2010 11
  12. 12. Expressway• Expressway: is a divided highway facility having two or more lanes in each direction for the exclusive use of traffic, with full control of access and egress In the highway hierarchy, Expressway is the only facility that provides complete uninterrupted flow. An Expressway is composed of three subcomponents: Basic freeway segment, weaving areas, and ramp junctions. Wali Memon 2010 12
  13. 13. Mumbai – Pune Expressway • First Expressway in India • Total length 93.75 km • A dual, 12.45-m wide carriageway, Central median verge 7.6 m • 2.5-m black-topped shoulders • Five twin-tunnels, and one single-tube tunnel, total length - 6,000 m Wali Memon 2010 13
  14. 14. Mumbai – Pune Expressway o 26 Underpasses 21 Minor bridges o 21 Overpasses 81 Box/slab culverts o 6 Major bridges/viaducts 2 Railway over bridges 4 Interchanges Wali Memon 2010 14
  15. 15. Multilane Highways• A highway with at least two lanes for the exclusive use of traffic in each direction, with no control or partial control of access, but that may have periodic interruptions to flow at signalized intersections no closer than 3.0 km. Wali Memon 2010 15
  16. 16. 5846 km 4076 km 3640 km National Highways Development Project is aimed at converting the national highways connecting the four metros and the North-South and the East-West corridors into a multilane highway networkWali Memon 2010 16
  17. 17. Multilane Highway in a Rural EnvironmentWali Memon 2010 17
  18. 18. Multilane Highway in a Suburban EnvironmentWali Memon 2010 18
  19. 19. Mobility & Accessibility Expressways Multilane Highways State Highways Mobility Major District Roads Other District Roads Village Roads AccessWali Memon 2010 19
  20. 20. Classification of Urban Streets• Urban Expressways• Arterial streets• Sub Arterial streets• Collector streets• Local streets Wali Memon 2010 20
  21. 21. Arterials and Sub-arterials• Arterial A major surface street with relatively long trips between major points, and with through-trips entering, leaving, and passing through the urban area.• Sub-arterial A signalized street that primarily serves through-traffic and that secondarily provides access to abutting properties, with signal spacing of 3.0 km or less.Wali Memon 2010 21
  22. 22. Collectors and Locals• Collector A surface street providing land access and traffic circulation within residential, commercial, and industrial areas. The function of collector street is to collect traffic from local streets and feed it to the arterial and sub-arterial streets or vice-versa• Local Streets These streets provide access to the abutting properties. Unrestricted parking and pedestrian movement is allowed on these streetsWali Memon 2010 22
  23. 23. Mobility & Accessibility Urban Expressways Arterials Mobility Sub arterials Collectors Locals AccessWali Memon 2010 23
  24. 24. Level of Service• A qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream, based on service measures such as speed and travel time, freedom to maneuver, traffic interruptions, comfort, and convenience. Urban Street Level of Service (source: HCM- 2000) 2010 Wali Memon 24
  25. 25. Typical Cross section of a HighwayWali Memon 2010 25
  26. 26. Highway Design• Geometric Design• Design of Fill/Cut Section• Pavement Design• Drainage Design Wali Memon 2010 26
  27. 27. Geometric Design• Geometric Design o Design of vertical and horizontal alignment of the highway o Preparation of Plan • Shows the horizontal alignment – straight sections, horizontal curves, width of carriageway, shoulders, side drains, right of way, etc. o Preparation of Profile • Shows vertical alignment – grade line, vertical curves, high flood level, etc. o Cross sections • Show the camber, side slopes, area of fill/cut, etc.Wali Memon 2010 27
  28. 28. Wali Memon 2010 28
  29. 29. Cross SectionsWali Memon 2010 29
  30. 30. Pavement DesignWali Memon 2010 30
  31. 31. Layers in Flexible Pavement Asphalt Surface Course Interface Asphalt Binder Course Treatments Unbound base Granular Subbase Compacted Subgrade Natural SubgradeWali Memon 2010 31
  32. 32. Assume Pavement Configuration Input Compute Pavement Responses •Material Properties Using Structural Models •Axle Load Compute Allowable •Failure Criteria Number of Repetitions of •Reliability Standard Axle Using Distress Models Find Expected Number of Repetitions of Standard Axle on Design Lane from Traffic Analysis No Satisfactory? Yes Final Design Mechanistic Method of Pavement DesignWali Memon 2010 32
  33. 33. Characterisation of Layers Wheel Load, p E1, µ1, h1 E2, µ2, h2 Using Layer E3, µ3, h3 Theory the Stresses, Strains E4, µ4, h4 and Deflections at any Point in E5, µ5, h5 any Layer can be Computed E6, µ6, h6 = ∝Wali Memon 2010 33
  34. 34. Axle ConfigurationsSingle Axle With Single Wheel Tandem Axle (Legal Axle Load = 6t) (Legal Axle Load = 18t)Single Axle With Dual Wheel (Legal Axle Load = 10t) Tridem Axle (Legal Axle Load = 24t) Wali Memon 2010 34
  35. 35. Truck Configuration 2 Axle Truck – 16t 3 Axle Truck – 24tWali Memon 2010 35
  36. 36. Truck Configuration 4 Axle Semi Articulated – 34t 4 Axle ArticulatedWali Memon 2010 36
  37. 37. Truck Configuration 5 Axle Truck – 40t LCVWali Memon 2010 37
  38. 38. Standard AxleSingle axle with dual wheels carrying a load of 80 kN(8 tonnes) is defined as standard axle 80 kN Standard Axle Wali Memon 2010 38
  39. 39. Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF)• Instead of converting each axle pass into equivalent standard axle passes, It will be convenient to convert one truck pass into equivalent standard axle passes.• The factor that converts the number of trucks into equivalent standard axle repetitions is termed as vehicle damage factor or truck factor• Therefore, Vehicle damage factor is the number of standard axles per truck. Wali Memon 2010 39
  40. 40. Steps in Highway Planning• Situation Definition o Inventory of existing facilities o Current conditions and issues • Congestion, very high travel time, very high road user costs o Identification of other planning studies • Earlier plans at National, regional and local level to arrive at a solution Wali Memon 2010 40
  41. 41. Steps in Highway Planning• Problem Definition o After understanding the present problems the problem could be defined as o To achieve reasonable journey speeds, vehicle operation costs, comfort and convenience for travel between the four metros Wali Memon 2010 41
  42. 42. Steps in Highway Planning• Search for Solutions o Develop alternative concepts and solutions to reasonably satisfy the future needs considering their impact on environment, safety , economy and fiscal resources of the area o Examination of alternative alignments and development concepts is essential for the proper identification of viable alternatives Wali Memon 2010 42
  43. 43. Steps in Highway Planning• Analysis of Performance o Demand forecasting • Demand forecasting includes determination of daily volume of different classes of vehicles. • The forecast must also give the traffic volume during the busiest hour of the day • If the facility is tolled a relation between the volume levels and the toll levels should be established o Analysis of the interaction between demand and capacity of the facility o Use performance measures to shortlist the alternativesWali Memon 2010 43
  44. 44. Steps in Highway Planning• Evaluation of Alternatives – Economic Feasibility o Conduct economic evaluation for the short-listed alternatives o Each of the alternative may be compared with the do nothing alternative o The benefits and cost for all the alternatives need to be worked out o Benefits include savings in travel time, reduction in operating cost, reduction in accidents, etc. o Cost include capital cost of construction, maintenance cost, environmental costs, etc. o Economic Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is worked out for all the alternatives o The alternatives can be ranked based on this IRR o IRR is that interest rate at which the Net Present Value of the Project is zero. Wali Memon 2010 44
  45. 45. Steps in Highway Planning• Evaluation of Alternatives – Financial Feasibility o Financial feasibility analysis is conducted in the hands of the sponsor o If the project is completely funded by the government, the sponsor is The Government o If the project is being implemented under public private participation or purely by private agencies, then the sponsor is the concerned private agency o A Financial Internal Rate of Return is worked out for each alternative by computing the cash flows in the hands of the sponsor o This financial analysis is also used to arrive at the best financial strategy for the project Wali Memon 2010 45
  46. 46. Steps in Highway Planning• Environmental Impact Assessment o The environmental impact of alternative concepts and recommended solutions must be considered and incorporated into the cost effectiveness analysis o The following impacts should be studied and a proper environment management plan mitigating the impacts should be prepared • Traffic • Pollution • Noise • Ecological • SocialWali Memon 2010 46
  47. 47. Steps in Highway Planning• Choice of project and Implementation o Prepare a Detailed Project Report (DPR) for the selected alternative o DPR includes all the technical design details, schedules for implementation, sources of revenue for the implementation of various phases of the proposed project• Construction, Maintenance and OperationWali Memon 2010 47
  48. 48. Thanks!Wali Memon 2010 48

×