LOGICANDCRITICALTHINKING1   Wali Memon                 Wali Memon
RHETORICAL APPEALS:     USING LOGOS, ETHOS,     PATHOS    LOGOS = LOGIC and REASON=    Soundness of facts, evidence, stati...
LOGOS: Reason, Facts     ACMEs new dihydro-cesium detonation process      By combining cesium and dihydro-oxide in    labo...
ETHOS: Credibility of Source    Acme Gizmotronics, the company that youve trusted     for over 100 years, has recently ent...
PATHOS: Emotional Appeals               CESIUM-BASED REACTOR KILLS!     A baby turtle breaks free from the leathery shell ...
SUCCESSFUL ARGUMENTSpersuade the reader bymeans of:    Clear premises and conclusions    Evidence, not unsupported claims ...
Argument: The Toulmin Model    Claim: Main point or central message;           thesis statement    Support: Data, evidence...
EVALUATING EVIDENCE    IN AN ARGUMENT      Is the evidence:                 SUFFICIENT                 REPRESENTATIVE     ...
Impediments to Logic,Good Reasoning, and Critical ThinkingLOYALTY – loyalty to our own community or group; see its beliefs...
Inductive and Deductive     Reasoning       Inductive Reasoning:                  Reasons from specific to general        ...
INDUCTIVE REASONING       Reasoning from sensory observation of specific       facts/evidence to general conclusion       ...
Examples of inductivereasoning If I jump off the building, I will fall to the ground. (More specifically: Every time somet...
Faulty Inductive Reasoning       Today I saw an 80 year old lady driving       40 miles an hour on 285, a 95 year old     ...
Deductive Reasoning       Reasoning from general tenets and premises to       specific conclusions.       With deductive r...
Syllogism ExamplesCorrect Syllogism:  Major Premise: All mammals are warm-blooded animals.  Minor Premise: No lizards are ...
Syllogisms can be            Valid or Invalid (reasoning           in incorrect order)                  AND            Tru...
Examples of Faulty Syllogisms FALSE Syllogism (not TRUE -- false major   premise)       Major Premise: Blondes have more f...
Corrections     Syllogism One:             The first faulty syllogism proceeds from a FALSE major              premise and...
Valid or invalid? True or False?Example One:  Major Premise: When it snows the streets get wet.  Minor Premise: The street...
Corrections: Valid and True     Example One:        Major Premise: When it snows the streets get wet.        Minor Premise...
Some types of syllogisms                   Modus Ponens                   Modus Tollens                   Hypothetical Syl...
Modus Ponens                        1. If A then B                        2. A                        3. Therefore, BExamp...
Modus Tollens                        1.If A then B                        2.Not B                        3.Not A     Examp...
Hypothetical Syllogism                      1.If A then B                      2.If B then C                      3. If A ...
Disjunctive Syllogism           1.A or B                  2.Not A                  3.BExample:       1. Either Kerry won i...
LOGICAL FALLACIES TOAVOID  Circular Reasoning/Begging the Question: Promising support for your  claim but providing none  ...
Self Contradiction: using two premises that can’t be simultaneously true Ad Hominem: (attacking the man) attacking the qua...
Non Sequitur: (Latin: It does not follow): linking two or     more ideas that in fact have no logical connection; the     ...
What is logically wrong     with the following     statements? The Bible is true because it says so.  Boxing is dangerous ...
Circular Reasoning/Begging theQuestion A. Therefore, A. promising support/evidence/reasoning for your claim but providing ...
??       Billy Joe is honest; therefore, he will get a good job31   Wali Memon
Non Sequitur       (Latin for “It does not follow”): linking two or more       ideas that in fact have no logical connecti...
??       Bill Clinton smoked pot when he was in college;       therefore, he should not be president of the United       S...
Ad Hominem     “Attacking the Man”       attacking the personal qualities of the people holding an       opposing view rat...
?? John Kerry protested at the same anti-war rally as Hanoi Jane; therefore, he should not be elected president.     Bob o...
Guilt by Association       A kind of “ad hominem” attack implying that an       individual’s arguments, ideas, or opinions...
??Professor Perkins, if I don’t make an “A” in your classI won’t get my HOPE scholarship next semester.A plaintiff’s attor...
Appeal to Pity       substituting emotions for reasoning; an appeal to       emotion, in which the altruism and mercy of t...
??  “George Bush is the candidate that can stop another terrorist attack on the United States; if you vote for John Kerry,...
Appeal to Fear       Tries to scare the reader to your point of view40   Wali Memon
??       When Reagan’s attorney general was       under media attack, Howard Baker, then       White House Chief of Staff,...
Appeal to Force abandoning reason to convince someone of your point of view and instead using or threatening “strong arm” ...
?? Mom, I should be able to go to Underground Atlanta to see the free Weezer concert that lasts til 1 AM – all my friends’...
Bandwagon       Inviting readers to accept a claim because everyone else       does or because a prestigious group does44 ...
??       Television commercials that advertise their product using       famous stars, for example, Ray Charles advertisin...
False Authority       Citing the opinion of an expert who has no real claim to       expertise on the topic46   Wali Memon
??       You should go on the “Lose Weight Overnight” diet plan       because Mary Braddock and Tom Jones lost 100 pounds ...
Card Stacking     Special Pleading       Ignores evidence on the other side of the question       Only selecting those ite...
??       The new mayor took office last January and crime in the       streets has already increased 25 percent.       A n...
Post Hoc Fallacy     False Cause       (from Latin: post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning “after       this, therefore becau...
??       Since those book are about the same       length and cover the same material,       one is probably as good as an...
False Analogy       using a comparison in which two things are alike in one       way to justify that they will be alike i...
?? America: love it or leave it. We have only two choices: ban nuclear weapons or destroy the earth. Either we go to war a...
Either/Or Fallacy     and False Dilemma       Stating that only two alternatives exist when in fact       there are more t...
??     Teenagers are reckless drivers     America is the best place to live (stated by one who has rarely visited other co...
Hasty Generalization       Generalizing or making a claim on the basis of       inadequate evidence.56   Wali Memon
??       Why spend money on solving the problem of pandas       becoming extinct when we should be concerned about       t...
Red Herring       introducing an irrelevant issue intended to distract       readers from the relevant issues – going off ...
??       He got into Yale because he’s rich and his daddy went       there.       The events of September 9/11 are purely ...
Oversimplification     Reductive Fallacy Oversimplifying (reducing) the relation between causes and effects.60   Wali Memon
??       If we make handguns illegal, the state will       gain too much power and eventually put       us all in concentr...
Slippery Slope       forecasting a series of events (usually disastrous) that       will befall one if the first stated st...
?? Only when nuclear weapons have finally destroyed us will we be convinced of the need to control them.63   Wali Memon
Self Contradiction       using two premises that can’t be simultaneously true64   Wali Memon
??       The Bush campaign leaked faked       documents to CBS news about Bush’s       AWOL during his national guard     ...
Straw Man       Inserting a false or unrelated premise into an argument,       and then proving the false or unrelated pre...
??       “I am firm, you are stubborn, he is pigheaded.” –       Bertrand Russell       “Friendly fire” – military term fo...
Language Fallacies Emotional or biased language Equivocation Ambiguity or obfuscation Euphemism or PC language Doublespeak...
“The object of reasoning is to find out, from the        “Every dogma has it’s day.” – Abraham Rotsteinconsideration of wh...
Works Cited and Works Consulted  Copi, Irving M. and Carl Cohen. Introduction to Logic, 10th ed.   Upper Saddle River, NJ:...
71   Wali Memon
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Thinking Cirticaly

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  1. 1. LOGICANDCRITICALTHINKING1 Wali Memon Wali Memon
  2. 2. RHETORICAL APPEALS: USING LOGOS, ETHOS, PATHOS LOGOS = LOGIC and REASON= Soundness of facts, evidence, statistics, and reasoning; soundness of authority’s statements outside self; well-documented evidence ETHOS = Credibility and reliability of writer him/herself; character and reputation of the author PATHOS = EMOTION = Appeal to needs, values, and attitudes; uses the emotional power of language2 Wali Memon
  3. 3. LOGOS: Reason, Facts ACMEs new dihydro-cesium detonation process By combining cesium and dihydro-oxide in laboratory conditions, and capturing the released energy, ACME has promised to lead the way into the future. Our energy source is clean, safe, and powerful, according to laboratory tests. In 20 tests conducted over a period of 5 years, no pollutants were released into the atmosphere. The world will soon have an excellent source of clean energy. ACME is currently working toward a patent on our process. Our scientists are exploring ways to use the process in cars, houses, airplanes, and almost anything else that needs power. ACME batteries will be refitted with small dihydro-cesium reactors. Once the entire world is powered by ACME’s generators, we can3 all relax and enjoy a much easier life. Wali Memon
  4. 4. ETHOS: Credibility of Source Acme Gizmotronics, the company that youve trusted for over 100 years, has recently entered the World Wide Web! Now you can purchase our fine products through the Internet. Our quality gizmos, widgets, and thingamabobs can be shipped to you within minutes. All come with the famous lifetime guarantee that makes Acme the company that the world depends on for its gizmo needs.4 Wali Memon
  5. 5. PATHOS: Emotional Appeals CESIUM-BASED REACTOR KILLS! A baby turtle breaks free from the leathery shell of its egg, catching its first glimpse of its first sunrise. It pauses a moment to rest, unaware of the danger that lies so close to it. As the tide comes in, approaching the nest, it also approaches a small pile of metal: cesium. The water draws closer and closer, the turtle unsuspecting of the danger. Finally, the water touches the cesium. The nest is torn to bits in the resulting explosion, destroying even more of an endangered species. Why does this happen? One name: Acme.5 Wali Memon (Examples from: The Art of Rhetoric: Learning How to Use the Three Main Rhetorical Styles. Available at: (http://www.rpi.edu/dept/llc/webclass/web/project1/group4/ ))
  6. 6. SUCCESSFUL ARGUMENTSpersuade the reader bymeans of: Clear premises and conclusions Evidence, not unsupported claims and appeals to emotions Consideration of the other side Consideration of audience to whom argument is given Use appropriate tone and diction Avoidance of logical fallacies6 Wali Memon
  7. 7. Argument: The Toulmin Model Claim: Main point or central message; thesis statement Support: Data, evidence, reasons, details Warrant: Underlying assumptions implied but not stated. Reader infers assumptions. Warrants are based on: Authority: respect for credibility and trustworthiness of source Substance: reliability of facts and evidence7 Wali Memon Motivation: values and beliefs of audience and writer
  8. 8. EVALUATING EVIDENCE IN AN ARGUMENT Is the evidence: SUFFICIENT REPRESENTATIVE RELEVANT ACCURATE FAIR AND BALANCED8 Wali Memon
  9. 9. Impediments to Logic,Good Reasoning, and Critical ThinkingLOYALTY – loyalty to our own community or group; see its beliefs as more favorable than othersPROVINCIALISM – narrowing our view to identify with ideas and interests of only our own groupTHE HERD INSTINCT – keeping our beliefs and actions within society’s (or our community’s) boundariesBACKGROUND BELIEFSPREJUDICE AND STEREOTYPINGSCAPEGOATING – problems blamed on a person/groupPARTISAN MINDSET – “us” vs. “them”SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFSWISHFUL THINKING AND SELF-DECEPTIONRATIONALIZATION – ignore evidence to justify actionsSUPPRESSION – avoiding the anxiety of stressful thoughtsDENIAL – change our view of the facts of the situation to be more positive in spite of evidence9 Wali MemonLACK OF A SENSE OF BALANCE OR PRUDENCE
  10. 10. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning: Reasons from specific to general Notices many facts and comes to a general conclusion No certainty possible Deductive Reasoning: Reasons from general to specific Starts with a hypothesis and inserts a fact and comes to a conclusion based on hypothesis Certainty can be possible if valid and true syllogism (say some people)10 Wali Memon
  11. 11. INDUCTIVE REASONING Reasoning from sensory observation of specific facts/evidence to general conclusion With inductive reasoning, there can NEVER be certainty, because only ONE example can modify or refute the conclusion. (This example can come from any future event, or events in remote places and times we are not able to observe.) Based on an accumulation of many facts (one fact = “x”): Observation of: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Equals General Statement about X’s in future11 Wali Memon
  12. 12. Examples of inductivereasoning If I jump off the building, I will fall to the ground. (More specifically: Every time something with weight and mass is released from any height, it falls to the ground. Therefore, all things fall to the ground (law of gravity). Based on an evaluation and observation of multiple studies of adolescents who value peers more than parents, Judith Rich Harris concludes that peers matter more than parents in this age group. Whenever it snows or rains, it will eventually stop snowing or raining. George Bush, Sr. made promises during his 1988 campaign he didn’t keep. Bill Clinton made promises during his 1992 and 1996 campaigns that he didn’t keep. George Bush (Jr.) made promises in his 2000 and 2004 campaigns that he didn’t keep. Therefore, the next president in 2008 will make promises in his campaign that he very likely will not keep.12So Walipresident presidents have been male. Therefore, the next far all U.S. U.S. Memon will be male.
  13. 13. Faulty Inductive Reasoning Today I saw an 80 year old lady driving 40 miles an hour on 285, a 95 year old man going 50 mph on 400, and a 70 year old guy going 20 mph on Haynes Bridge Road. Conclusion: Old people drive slow. (This is a “stereotype,” or logical fallacy of inductive origin.) Jesse Helms said in the Mexican Foreign Affairs Subcommittee (to prevent immigration from Mexico): “All Latins are volatile.” (This is a “stereotype,” or logical fallacy of inductive origin.)13 Wali Memon
  14. 14. Deductive Reasoning Reasoning from general tenets and premises to specific conclusions. With deductive reasoning, there CAN be certainty. Syllogisms follow this format: Major Premise (general truth about life/humans) Minor Premise (specific fact that falls under the truth) Conclusion (a conclusion that can be drawn about the specific fact based on the first generalization)14 Wali Memon
  15. 15. Syllogism ExamplesCorrect Syllogism: Major Premise: All mammals are warm-blooded animals. Minor Premise: No lizards are warm-blooded animals. Conclusion: Therefore, no lizards are mammals.Correct Syllogism: Major Premise: All humans are mortal. Minor Premise: All Greeks are human. Conclusion: Therefore, all Greeks are mortal.Descartes’ Syllogism (correct) Major Premise: Existence has be true if one is thinking. Minor Premise: I am thinking. 15Conclusion: I think, therefore, I am. Wali Memon
  16. 16. Syllogisms can be Valid or Invalid (reasoning in incorrect order) AND True or False (reasoning from a faulty major premise)16 Wali Memon
  17. 17. Examples of Faulty Syllogisms FALSE Syllogism (not TRUE -- false major premise) Major Premise: Blondes have more fun Minor Premise: Mary is blonde, Jane is brunette Conclusion: Mary has more fun than Jane. INVALID Syllogism (not VALID – order of reasoning is incorrect): Major Premise: All dogs eat meat Minor Premise: Bob (a human) eats meat 17 Conclusion: Bob is a dog. Wali Memon
  18. 18. Corrections Syllogism One: The first faulty syllogism proceeds from a FALSE major premise and therefore can be thrown out entirely. Syllogism Two: Major Premise: All dogs eat meat Minor Premise: Rover is a dog. Conclusion: Therefore, Rover eats meat.18 Wali Memon
  19. 19. Valid or invalid? True or False?Example One: Major Premise: When it snows the streets get wet. Minor Premise: The streets are getting wet. Conclusion: Therefore, it is snowing.Example Two: Major Premise: If you buy a Ferrari, you will instantly be popular. Minor Premise: Ed just bought a Ferrari. Conclusion: Ed will achieve instant popularity.Example Three: Major Premise: When the batter is dead, the car will not start. Minor Premise: The car will not start. 19 Conclusion: Therefore, the battery is dead. Wali Memon
  20. 20. Corrections: Valid and True Example One: Major Premise: When it snows the streets get wet. Minor Premise: It is snowing. Conclusion: Therefore the streets are getting one. Example Two: Example Two proceeds from the beginning from a FALSE major premise (Ferraris give instant popularity) and therefore can be thrown out entirely. Example Three: Major Premise: When the batter is dead, the car will not start. Minor Premise: The battery is dead. Conclusion: Therefore, the car will not start.20 Wali Memon
  21. 21. Some types of syllogisms Modus Ponens Modus Tollens Hypothetical Syllogism Disjunctive Syllogism 21 Wali Memon
  22. 22. Modus Ponens 1. If A then B 2. A 3. Therefore, BExamples: If it’s spring, then the birds are chirping It’s spring. The birds are chirping. If a world government doesn’t evolve soon, then wars will continue to occur A world government isn’t going to evolve soon. Wars will continue to occur 22 Wali Memon
  23. 23. Modus Tollens 1.If A then B 2.Not B 3.Not A Example: 1. If it’s spring then the birds are chirping 2. The birds aren’t chirping 3. Therefore, it isn’t spring.23 Wali Memon
  24. 24. Hypothetical Syllogism 1.If A then B 2.If B then C 3. If A then C Example: 1. If we successfully develop nuclear fusion power, then power will become plentiful and cheap. 2. If power becomes cheap and plentiful, then the economy will flourish. 3. If we successfully develop nuclear fusion power, then the economy will flourish.24 Wali Memon
  25. 25. Disjunctive Syllogism 1.A or B 2.Not A 3.BExample: 1. Either Kerry won in 2004 or Bush did. 2. Kerry didn’t win. 3. Bush did win.25 Wali Memon
  26. 26. LOGICAL FALLACIES TOAVOID Circular Reasoning/Begging the Question: Promising support for your claim but providing none Bandwagon/: Inviting readers to accept a claim because everyone else does or because the prestigious group does Argument from authority: Inviting readers to accept a claim because because the claim is put forth by someone in a position of authority – though the authority is invalid. Slippery Slope: forecasting a series of events (usually disastrous) that will befall one if the first stated step is taken. Straw Man: Inserting a false or unrelated premise into an argument, and then proving the false or unrelated premise wrong as a claim that the initial argument is wrong. Appeal to Fear: scaring the reader to your point of view Appeal to Pity: substituting emotions for reasoning. Appeal to Force: abandoning reason and using or threatening strong arm methods by means of the political or physical power of the enforcer; “might makes right”26Redrelevant issues – going an irrelevant issue intended to distract readers from Herring: introducing the Wali Memon off on a tangent.
  27. 27. Self Contradiction: using two premises that can’t be simultaneously true Ad Hominem: (attacking the man) attacking the qualities of the people holding an opposing view rather than the substance of the view itself. Guilt by Association: kind of “ad hominem” attack implying that an individual’s arguments, ideas, or opinions lack merit because of that person’s activities, interests or associates False Cause or “Post Hoc” Fallacy: (from Latin: post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning “after this, therefore because of this”): assuming that because A preceded B, then A must have caused B. False Analogy: Assuming that because two things are alike in similar ways, they must be alike in other ways Either/Or Fallacy (False Dilemma): assuming that a complicated question has only two answers—one good, and one bad, both good, or both bad. Hasty Generalization: making a claim on the basis of inadequate evidence. Generalizing about something on the basis of too little evidence. Stereotyping is a type of Hasty Generalization applied to a group of people. Sweeping Generalization: making an insupportable statement, often using absolute statements such as all, always, never, and no one.27 Wali Memon
  28. 28. Non Sequitur: (Latin: It does not follow): linking two or more ideas that in fact have no logical connection; the statement does not follow logically from what has just been said Card Stacking/Special Pleading: Ignores evidence on the other side of the question; only selecting those items that will build the best (or worst) possible case. Oversimplification/Reductive Fallacy: Oversimplifying (reducing) the relation between causes and effects Quibbling: Nitpicking at insignificant or possible errors in someone else’s basically valid and sensible argument Language Fallacies: Emotional, biased, or slanted language Equivocation Ambiguity or obfuscation Euphemism or PC Doublespeak Pretentious language Bureaucratic language Jargon28 Wali Memon
  29. 29. What is logically wrong with the following statements? The Bible is true because it says so. Boxing is dangerous because it is an unsafe sport.29 Wali Memon
  30. 30. Circular Reasoning/Begging theQuestion A. Therefore, A. promising support/evidence/reasoning for your claim but providing none Promising: Claim Support Delivering: Claim (Support)30 Wali Memon
  31. 31. ?? Billy Joe is honest; therefore, he will get a good job31 Wali Memon
  32. 32. Non Sequitur (Latin for “It does not follow”): linking two or more ideas that in fact have no logical connection Missing is the unstated assumption that “honest people get good jobs” which is not always true.32 Wali Memon
  33. 33. ?? Bill Clinton smoked pot when he was in college; therefore, he should not be president of the United States. Bill Clinton is a womanizer; therefore, he should not be president of the United States.33 Wali Memon
  34. 34. Ad Hominem “Attacking the Man” attacking the personal qualities of the people holding an opposing view rather than the substance of the view itself In this case, Clinton may well be an excellent president and policy maker even though we may prefer not to have him as our husband.34 Wali Memon
  35. 35. ?? John Kerry protested at the same anti-war rally as Hanoi Jane; therefore, he should not be elected president. Bob once worked for Arthur Andersen which declared bankruptcy and went out of business due to the Worldcom scandal; therefore, we should not hire him as our accountant.35 Wali Memon
  36. 36. Guilt by Association A kind of “ad hominem” attack implying that an individual’s arguments, ideas, or opinions lack merit because of that person’s activities, interests or associates36 Wali Memon
  37. 37. ??Professor Perkins, if I don’t make an “A” in your classI won’t get my HOPE scholarship next semester.A plaintiff’s attorney brings his injured client, who isseeking compensatory damages, into the courtroomand plays up the injury in front of the jury (“A CivilAction”)Socrates at his death trial: My friend, I am a man and like other men, a creature of flesh and blood, and not of “wood and stone” as Homer says; and I have a family, yes, and sons, O Athenians, three in number, one almost a man, and two others who are still young; and yet I will not bring any of them here to petition you for acquittal.37 Wali Memon
  38. 38. Appeal to Pity substituting emotions for reasoning; an appeal to emotion, in which the altruism and mercy of the audience are appealed to38 Wali Memon
  39. 39. ?? “George Bush is the candidate that can stop another terrorist attack on the United States; if you vote for John Kerry, be prepared for another 9/11.” When Lyndon Johnson was running for president, his team ran a commercial of a little girl in a field holding a daisy, then an atomic bomb went off in the background. The Bush campaign ran a 2004 commercial showing images from 9/11. (It was immediately withdrawn due to the families of victims complaining).39 Wali Memon
  40. 40. Appeal to Fear Tries to scare the reader to your point of view40 Wali Memon
  41. 41. ?? When Reagan’s attorney general was under media attack, Howard Baker, then White House Chief of Staff, said to his staff: The President continues to have confidence in the Attorney General and I have confidence in the Attorney General and you ought to have confidence in the Attorney General, because we work for the President and because that’s the way things are. If anyone has a different view of that, or any different motive, ambition or intention, he can tell me about it because we’re going to have to discuss your status. (“White House Orders Silence on Meese,” Washington Post, 29 April 1988, qtd. in Copi and Cohen)41 Wali Memon
  42. 42. Appeal to Force abandoning reason to convince someone of your point of view and instead using or threatening “strong arm” methods by means of the political or physical power of the enforcer; “might makes right”42 Wali Memon
  43. 43. ?? Mom, I should be able to go to Underground Atlanta to see the free Weezer concert that lasts til 1 AM – all my friends’ moms are letting them go. Despite the cost, impending gas crisis, and the harm to the environment, it is desirable to own an SUV because successful people do. More people in America drink Budweiser than any other beer.43 Wali Memon
  44. 44. Bandwagon Inviting readers to accept a claim because everyone else does or because a prestigious group does44 Wali Memon
  45. 45. ?? Television commercials that advertise their product using famous stars, for example, Ray Charles advertising Coke. Brad Pitt should write a novel about the CIA since he was in The Bourne Identity and The Bourne Supremacy45 Wali Memon
  46. 46. False Authority Citing the opinion of an expert who has no real claim to expertise on the topic46 Wali Memon
  47. 47. ?? You should go on the “Lose Weight Overnight” diet plan because Mary Braddock and Tom Jones lost 100 pounds total in three months on it.47 Wali Memon
  48. 48. Card Stacking Special Pleading Ignores evidence on the other side of the question Only selecting those items that will build the best (or worst) possible case.48 Wali Memon
  49. 49. ?? The new mayor took office last January and crime in the streets has already increased 25 percent. A new weather satellite was launched last week and it has been raining ever since. After that black cat crossed my path this morning, I got into a car accident. That cat was bad luck.49 Wali Memon
  50. 50. Post Hoc Fallacy False Cause (from Latin: post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning “after this, therefore because of this”): assuming that because A preceded B, then A must have caused B.50 Wali Memon
  51. 51. ?? Since those book are about the same length and cover the same material, one is probably as good as another. Both of the candidates are extremely wealthy, born within the same decade, went to the same college, and were members of the same secret society, so both should probably do about the same in office.51 Wali Memon
  52. 52. False Analogy using a comparison in which two things are alike in one way to justify that they will be alike in another way. However, the similarities are irrelevant to the claim the analogy is intended to support.52 Wali Memon
  53. 53. ?? America: love it or leave it. We have only two choices: ban nuclear weapons or destroy the earth. Either we go to war against Iraq, or the United States will suffer another terrorist attack.53 Wali Memon
  54. 54. Either/Or Fallacy and False Dilemma Stating that only two alternatives exist when in fact there are more than two54 Wali Memon
  55. 55. ?? Teenagers are reckless drivers America is the best place to live (stated by one who has rarely visited other countries) “All Latins are volatile people” Jesse Helms to the Mexican Foreign Affairs Subcommittee (to prevent immigration from Mexico)55 Wali Memon
  56. 56. Hasty Generalization Generalizing or making a claim on the basis of inadequate evidence.56 Wali Memon
  57. 57. ?? Why spend money on solving the problem of pandas becoming extinct when we should be concerned about the plight of the homeless? How can we worry about a few terrorists when we ought to be doing something about acid rain?57 Wali Memon
  58. 58. Red Herring introducing an irrelevant issue intended to distract readers from the relevant issues – going off on a tangent58 Wali Memon
  59. 59. ?? He got into Yale because he’s rich and his daddy went there. The events of September 9/11 are purely the result of Al Qaeda’s and Osama bin Laden’s craziness.59 Wali Memon
  60. 60. Oversimplification Reductive Fallacy Oversimplifying (reducing) the relation between causes and effects.60 Wali Memon
  61. 61. ?? If we make handguns illegal, the state will gain too much power and eventually put us all in concentration camps for the slightest infraction. If we legalize marijuana, eventually everyone will start smoking it regularly (an after-dinner smoke) and then they’ll want to go on to more kinds of drugs – soon heroin will become legal and most of America will become heroine addicts.61 Wali Memon
  62. 62. Slippery Slope forecasting a series of events (usually disastrous) that will befall one if the first stated step is taken62 Wali Memon
  63. 63. ?? Only when nuclear weapons have finally destroyed us will we be convinced of the need to control them.63 Wali Memon
  64. 64. Self Contradiction using two premises that can’t be simultaneously true64 Wali Memon
  65. 65. ?? The Bush campaign leaked faked documents to CBS news about Bush’s AWOL during his national guard service. CBS accepted the documents without checking on them – but the documents were later shown to be faked. The White House attacked CBS (and its “liberal” agenda) for presenting the documents to the public – though it never denied Bush’s AWOL from service. The issue, however, was dropped.65 Wali Memon
  66. 66. Straw Man Inserting a false or unrelated premise into an argument, and then proving the false or unrelated premise wrong as a claim that the initial argument is wrong.66 Wali Memon
  67. 67. ?? “I am firm, you are stubborn, he is pigheaded.” – Bertrand Russell “Friendly fire” – military term for killing your own team by mistake “Collateral damage” – military term for people who are inadvertently killed or property inadvertently destroyed in warfare67 Wali Memon
  68. 68. Language Fallacies Emotional or biased language Equivocation Ambiguity or obfuscation Euphemism or PC language Doublespeak Pretentious language Bureaucratic language Jargon68 Wali Memon
  69. 69. “The object of reasoning is to find out, from the “Every dogma has it’s day.” – Abraham Rotsteinconsideration of what we already know, somethingelse which we do not know.” -- Charles Sanders “Nothing is so firmly believed as what we leastPeirce know.” – Montaigne“A simple person believes every word he hears; a “Populus vult decipi.” (The people want to beclever one understands the need for truth.” – deceived.) – Ancient Roman sayingProverbs 14:15 “Logic is only the beginning of wisdom.” -- Spock,“Those who do not remember the past are Star Trek V, The Undiscovered Countrycondemned to relive it.” --- George Santayana "If I release a hammer on a positive gravity planet, I(One government official to another): do not have to watch it to know that it will“Congratulations Dave! I don’t think I’ve read a fall." – Spock, Star Trek TV seriies, episode “Themore beautifully evasive and subtlely misleading Court Martial”statement in all my years in government.” – cartoon “When an idea is wanting a word can always bein the New Yorker by Stevenson found to take its place.” – Goethe“Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe “He who defines the terms wins the argument.” –and take for granted … but to weigh and consider.” – Chinese proverbFrancis Bacon“Ignorance of reality provides no protection from it.” “There is no expedient to which a man will not resort– Harold Gordon to avoid the real labor of thinking.” – Sir Joshua Reynolds“Every man is encompassed by a cloud of “There are no dull subjects. There only dull writers.”comforting convictions, which move with him like -- H. L. Menckenflies on a summer day.” – Bertrand Russell“Arguments, like men, are often pretenders.” – Plato “Advertising is legalized lying.” – H.G. Wells“There are lies, damn lies, and statistics.” –Benjamin Disraeli69 Wali Memon
  70. 70. Works Cited and Works Consulted Copi, Irving M. and Carl Cohen. Introduction to Logic, 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998. DeVry/Alpharetta Coll 147/149 Resource Notebook. General Education Department. Alpharetta, GA: DeVry University, 2004. Hodges, John C. & Mary Whitten. Harbrace College Handbook, 10th ed. New York: HBJ, 1986. Kahane, Howard and Nancy Cavender. Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric: The Use of Reason in Everyday Life. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2002. Troyka, Lynn Quitman. Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999. 70 Wali Memon
  71. 71. 71 Wali Memon

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