The Knowing – Doing Gap


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The Knowing – Doing Gap

  1. 1. The Knowing – Doing Gap Wali Memon Wali Memon 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives After completing this session, you will…• Understand the current knowledge management issues facing the federal contracting workforce.• Understand the concepts of explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge, and how it applies to contract management organizations. Wali Memon 2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives After completing this session, you will…• Understand the contracting knowledge paradox facing federal contracting organizations and the importance of filling this contracting knowing-doing gap.• Gain an appreciation for the various methods for increasing an organizations’ tacit contracting knowledge. Wali Memon 3
  4. 4. DoD Contract Management Environment • Increasingly complex weapon systems critical to the global war on terrorism • Constrained defense budgets • Emerging technologies • Accelerated schedules Wali Memon 4
  5. 5. DoD Contract Management Environment • Increasing reliance on defense contractors to perform DoD mission critical services and to provide program management/systems engineering functions Wali Memon 5
  6. 6. DoD Contract Management Environment• Consistent acquisition and contract management problems • Cost overruns • Schedule delays • Performance problems Wali Memon 6
  7. 7. DoD Contract Management Environment• Consistent problems in managing service contracts • Lack of strategic approach • Not employing sound business practices • Inadequate oversight Wali Memon 7
  8. 8. DoD Contract Management Environment • Increased number of contracting programs • Procurement spending increased by 90% from 1999 to 2005 • DoD awarded $278B in contracts in FY05 • No increase in size of acquisition workforce • Contracting workforce remained stable at 60,000 from 1999 to 2005 • 32% of contacting workforce eligible for retirement in 2010 • 54% will be eligible for retirement in 2015 Wali Memon 8
  9. 9. DoD Contract Management Environment • Loss of experienced contract management workforce due to downsizing and retirement • Results: A decrease in workforce experience and expertise Wali Memon 9
  10. 10. DoD Contract Management Environment • Organizations are responding by investing in knowledge management technology such as on-line tutorials, on-line courses, procurement guides, regulations, lessons learned databases • Results: Increased access to information, data; knowledge Wali Memon 10
  11. 11. The Knowing-Doing Gap in the DoD• Organizations are high in explicit knowledge • Knowledge as a tangible resource • Knowledge is something to be acquired and codified • Emphasis is to build a stock of knowledge • Assumption is that possessed knowledge will be used appropriately and efficiently • Explicit knowledge is the “know-what” The Knowing-Doing Gap Wali Memon 11 Pfeffer and Sutton, 2000
  12. 12. The Knowing-Doing Gap in the DoD• Organizations are low in tacit knowledge • Essential for performing the work • Based on experience, trial and error • Transferred through story-telling • Results from coaching, mentoring • The focus of on-the-job training • Tacit knowledge is the “know-how” The Knowing-Doing Gap Wali Memon 12 Pfeffer and Sutton, 2000
  13. 13. What is DoD’s Knowing-Doing Gap?• Organizations are high in explicit knowledge “know-what”• Organizations are low in tacit knowledge “know-how” What are the symptoms of the Knowing-Doing Gap? The Knowing-Doing Gap Wali Memon 13 Pfeffer and Sutton, 2000
  14. 14. Symptoms of the Knowing-Doing Gap • More emphasis on • Generating new knowledge management (KM) systems • Accessing knowledge from other KM systems • Less emphasis on • Social interaction processes • Organizational improvement processes The Knowing-Doing Gap Wali Memon 14 Pfeffer and Sutton, 2000
  15. 15. Self-Assessment of How Well Organizations are Doing in Their KM Activities Measuring the Value of Knowledge Assets or Knowledge Management Transferring Existing Knowledge Within the Organization Facilitating Knowledge Growth ThroughKnowledge Management Activity Culture Representing Knowledge in Databases, Documents, etc. Embedding Knowledge in Processes, Products, and Services Using Knowledge in Decision-Making Accessing Knowledge From Other Sources Generating New Knowledge 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Percentage Rating Performance as “Good” or “Excellent” Source: Data from Rudy Ruggles Wali Memon The State of the Notion: Knowledge Management in 15 Practice California Management Review, 40:82 (1998)
  16. 16. Filling the Knowing-Doing Gap In DoD • Some approaches • Increasing the tacit knowledge level of organizations (college educated, inexperienced, entry-level employees) through • On-the-job-training • Mentoring programs • Knowledge measuring • Knowledge transferringHow does your organization increase tacit knowledge? Wali Memon 16
  17. 17. Current Challenges• Increasing the tacit knowledge level of organizations through • On-the-job-training Social interaction • Mentoring programs process • Knowledge measuring Organizational • Knowledge transferring process Wali Memon 17
  18. 18. Current Challenges• Social interaction process is a more difficult method of transferring knowledge • Requires more time to develop • Requires social/people skills • Requires leadership at all levels• “Knowing-by-doing” is a less cost-efficient method of increasing knowledge Wali Memon 18
  19. 19. • Philosophy is important.• Knowing comes from doing and teaching.• Actions count more than plans.• There is no doing without mistakes.• Drive fear out.• Fight the competition, not each other.• Measure what turns knowledge into action.• What leaders do matters. Wali Memon 19
  20. 20. • Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) – Responsible for the research, development, testing, procurement, and deployment of DoD’s space and missile systems – Manages over 606 active contracts – Contracts valued in excess of $49.6B – Organized by System Program Offices Wali Memon 20
  21. 21. • Filling the Knowing-Doing Gap at SMC • On-the-job-training • PK Acquisition University • PCO Prep Academy • Buyer’s Institute • College of Pricing • CCO Boot camp How does your organization conduct on-the-job training? Wali Memon 21
  22. 22. • Filling the Knowing-Doing Gap at SMC • Mentoring programs • SMC Mentoring Program • Knowledge measuring • Process Measurement (CMMM) • Knowledge transferring • Acquisition Center of Excellence (ACE) Wali Memon 22
  23. 23. CONTRACT MANAGEMENT MATURITY MODEL© CONTRACT MANAGEMENT KEY PROCESS AREAS BMATURITY u y Procurement Solicitation Source e Planning Planning Solicitation Selection Contract Contract r LEVELS S Admin Closeout e l Presales Bid/No -Bid Bid/Proposal Negotiation/ l Activity Decision Preparation Formation e r 5 OPTIMIZED 4INTEGRATED 3STRUCTURED 2 BASIC 1 AD HOCReference Text: Contract Management Organizational Assessment Tools, by Gregory A. Garrett and Dr. Rene G. Rendon, NCMA, 2004. Wali Memon 23
  24. 24. • DoD Contract Management Environment• The Knowing-Doing Gap in the DoD• Symptoms of the Knowing-Doing Gap• Filling the Knowing-Doing Gap• Current Challenges• Turning Knowledge Into Action• Closing Thoughts Wali Memon 24
  25. 25. • What are the symptoms of the Knowing-Doing Gap in your organization?• How does your organization increase and transfer tacit knowledge?• How does your organization measure tacit knowledge? Wali Memon 25